Abstract:
The transmission risk was assessed analysing: 1) climate diagrams including the minimum temperature for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax development; 2) monthly evolution of the Gradient Model Risk (GMR) index, specifying transmission risk period and number of potential Plasmodium generations; 3) ecological characteristics using remote sensing images with the Eurasia Land Cover characteristics database and the monthly evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); 4) evaluation of A. atroparvus population dynamics.Climatological analyses and GMR index show that a transmission risk presently exists, lasting from May until September for P. falciparum, and from May until October for P. vivax. The GMR index shows that the temperature increase does not actually mean a transmission risk increase if accompanied by a precipitation decrease reducing the number of parasite generations and transmission period. Nevertheless, this limitation is offset by the artificial flooding of the rice fields. Maximum NDVI values and A. atroparvus maximum abundance correspond to months with maximum growth of the rice fields.The Ebro Delta presents the ecological characteristics that favour transmission. The temperature increase has favoured a widening of the monthly potential transmission window with respect to when malaria was endemic. The combined application of modified climate diagrams and GMR index, together with spatial characterization conforms a useful tool for assessing potential areas at risk of malaria resurgence. NDVI is a good marker when dealing with a rice field area.Change of climate factors and other variables related to environmental modifications included within the broad term of global change have a proven impact on the transmission of infectious diseases [1,2], caused by different types of infectious organisms including microparasites (viruses, bacteria, rickettsia and protozoans) and also, as very recently proved, metazoan macroparasites (helm

Abstract:
dignity should not be confused with the unbecoming conditions that a person can find himself in due to external situations or disease. the person/patient in a terminal situation has human dignity, which must be respected not because he/she is a terminal patient but simply because he/she is a person. but it is true that in terminal situations dignity can be particularly threatened. nonetheless, one must not deduce from the criterion of respecting dignity the conclusion of prolonging biological life at all costs, but instead that of guaranteeing the best quality of living during the process of dying and of worthily accompanying the person who is approaching death by helping him to accept this.

Abstract:
No hay que confundir la dignidad con las condiciones indignas en que puede encontrarse una persona por circunstancias exteriores o por la enfermedad. La persona paciente en situación terminal tiene dignidad humana, que exige ser respetada, no por ser paciente terminal, sino simplemente por ser persona. Pero es cierto que en situaciones terminales puede verse particularmente amenazada la dignidad. Sin embargo, no se debe deducir del criterio de respetar la dignidad la conclusión de prolongar la vida biológica a toda costa, sino la de garantizar la mejor calidad del vivir durante el proceso de morir y de acompa ar dignamente a la persona que se aproxima a la muerte ayudándole a asumirla. Dignity should not be confused with the unbecoming conditions that a person can find himself in due to external situations or disease. The person/patient in a terminal situation has human dignity, which must be respected not because he/she is a terminal patient but simply because he/she is a person. But it is true that in terminal situations dignity can be particularly threatened. Nonetheless, one must not deduce from the criterion of respecting dignity the conclusion of prolonging biological life at all costs, but instead that of guaranteeing the best quality of living during the process of dying and of worthily accompanying the person who is approaching death by helping him to accept this.

Abstract:
We show how Fisher's information already known particular character as the fundamental information geometric object which plays the role of a metric tensor for a statistical differential manifold, can be derived in a relatively easy manner through the direct application of a generalized logarithm and exponential formalism to generalized information-entropy measures. We shall first shortly describe how the generalization of information-entropy measures naturally comes into being if this formalism is employed and recall how the relation between all the information measures is best understood when described in terms of a particular logarithmic Kolmogorov-Nagumo average. Subsequently, extending Kullback-Leibler's relative entropy to all these measures defined on a manifold of parametrized probability density functions, we obtain the metric which turns out to be the Fisher information matrix elements times a real multiplicative deformation parameter. The metrics independence from the non-extensive character of the system, and its proportionality to the rate of change of the multiplicity under a variation of the statistical probability parameter space, emerges naturally in the frame of this representation.

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to investigate the q -> 1/q duality in an information-entropy theory of all q-generalized entropy functionals (Tsallis, Renyi and Sharma-Mittal measures) in the light of a representation based on generalized exponential and logarithm functions subjected to Kolmogorov's and Nagumo's averaging. We show that it is precisely in this representation that the form invariance of all entropy functionals is maintained under the action of this duality. The generalized partition function also results to be a scalar invariant under the q -> 1/q transformation which can be interpreted as a non-extensive two dimensional Ising model duality between systems governed by two different power law long-range interactions and temperatures. This does not hold only for Tsallis statistics, but is a characteristic feature of all stationary distributions described by q-exponential Boltzmann factors.

Abstract:
In this article we want to demonstrate that the time-scale constraints for a thermodynamic system imply the new concept of {\it equipartition of energy bound} (EEB) or, more generally, a thermodynamical bound for the {\it partition} of energy. We theorized and discussed the possibility to put an upper limit to the equipartition factor for a fluid of particles. This could be interpreted as a sort of transcription of the entropy bounds from quantum-holographic sector: the EEB number $\pi^{2}/2 = 4.93$, obtained from a comparison between the Margolus-Levitin quantum theorem and the TTT bound for relaxation times by Hod, seems like a special value for the thermodynamics of particle systems. This bound has been related to the idea of an extremal statistics and independently traced in a statistical mechanics framework, analyzing the mathematical behavior of the distributions which obey to a thermodynamical statistics with a power law greater than the planckian one.

Abstract:
Tsallis and R\'{e}nyi entropy measures are two possible different generalizations of the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy (or Shannon's information) but are not generalizations of each others. It is however the Sharma-Mittal measure, which was already defined in 1975 (B.D. Sharma, D.P. Mittal, J.Math.Sci \textbf{10}, 28) and which received attention only recently as an application in statistical mechanics (T.D. Frank & A. Daffertshofer, Physica A \textbf{285}, 351 & T.D. Frank, A.R. Plastino, Eur. Phys. J., B \textbf{30}, 543-549) that provides one possible unification. We will show how this generalization that unifies R\'{e}nyi and Tsallis entropy in a coherent picture naturally comes into being if the q-formalism of generalized logarithm and exponential functions is used, how together with Sharma-Mittal's measure another possible extension emerges which however does not obey a pseudo-additive law and lacks of other properties relevant for a generalized thermostatistics, and how the relation between all these information measures is best understood when described in terms of a particular logarithmic Kolmogorov-Nagumo average.

Abstract:
The aim of the present dissertation is to analyze the meaning of the entropy bounds of the holographic sector once tested for statistical ensembles of particles, in order to deeper investigate the nature of these constraints and their mutual links. From the Universal Energy Bound (UEB) simple time constraints can be argued, which are manifestations of the discrete nature of the space-time and of the presence of ultimate space-time scales. From the combined effort of the UEB and of the Holographic bound by 't Hooft and Susskind, an entropy density bound as a function of temperature is achieved.

Abstract:
After studying some properties of the generalized exponential and logarithmic function, in particular investigating the domain where the first maintains itself real and positive, and outlining how the known dualities $q \leftrightarrow \frac{1}{q}$ and $q \leftrightarrow 2-q$ play an important role, we shall examine the set of q-deforming parameters that allow generalized canonical maximum entropy probability distributions (MEPDs) to maintain itself positive and real without cut-off prescriptions. We determine the set of q-deforming parameters for which a generalized statistics with discrete but unbound energy states is possible.