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The article provides experimental data applied to the determination of
carbonate alkalinity (CAM) according to modified Gran II functions. CAM is
related to the mixtures NaHCO3 + Na2CO3 and Na2CO3 + NaOH. In addition to the determination of equivalence volumes, one of the
main novelties of the proposed method is the possibility of determining the
activity coefficient of hydrogen ions (γ).
Moreover, CAM can be used to calculate the dissociation constants (K1,
K2) for carbonic acid and the ionic product of water (KW)
from a single pH titration curve. The parameters of the related functions are
calculated according to the least squares method.
A variable step-size parameter is usually used to accelerate the convergence speed of a blind adaptive equalizer with N1 + N2 －1 coefficients where N1 and N2 are odd values. In this paper we show that improved equalization performance is achieved when using two blind adaptive equalizers connected in series where the first and second blind adaptive equalizer have N1 and N2 coefficients respectively compared with the case where a single blind adaptive equalizer is applied with N1 + N2 －1 coefficients. It should be pointed out that the same algorithm (cost function) is used for updating the filter taps for the different equalizers and that a fixed step-size parameter is used. Simulation results show that for the low signal to noise ratio (SNR) environment and for the case where the convergence speed is slow due to the channel characteristics, the new method has a faster convergence speed with a factor of approximately two while leaving the system with approximately the same or lower residual intersymbol interference (ISI).