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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 226827 matches for " Monica R. Choksi "
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Learning to Learn: Theta Oscillations Predict New Learning, which Enhances Related Learning and Neurogenesis
Miriam S. Nokia, Helene M. Sisti, Monica R. Choksi, Tracey J. Shors
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031375
Abstract: Animals in the natural world continuously encounter learning experiences of varying degrees of novelty. New neurons in the hippocampus are especially responsive to learning associations between novel events and more cells survive if a novel and challenging task is learned. One might wonder whether new neurons would be rescued from death upon each new learning experience or whether there is an internal control system that limits the number of cells that are retained as a function of learning. In this experiment, it was hypothesized that learning a task that was similar in content to one already learned previously would not increase cell survival. We further hypothesized that in situations in which the cells are rescued hippocampal theta oscillations (3–12 Hz) would be involved and perhaps necessary for increasing cell survival. Both hypotheses were disproved. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on two similar hippocampus-dependent tasks, trace and very-long delay eyeblink conditioning, while recording hippocampal local-field potentials. Cells that were generated after training on the first task were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine and quantified after training on both tasks had ceased. Spontaneous theta activity predicted performance on the first task and the conditioned stimulus induced a theta-band response early in learning the first task. As expected, performance on the first task correlated with performance on the second task. However, theta activity did not increase during training on the second task, even though more cells were present in animals that had learned. Therefore, as long as learning occurs, relatively small changes in the environment are sufficient to increase the number of surviving neurons in the adult hippocampus and they can do so in the absence of an increase in theta activity. In conclusion, these data argue against an upper limit on the number of neurons that can be rescued from death by learning.
Small Volume Fraction Limit of the Diblock Copolymer Problem: I. Sharp Interface Functional
R. Choksi,M. A. Peletier
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: We present the first of two articles on the small volume fraction limit of a nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard functional introduced to model microphase separation of diblock copolymers. Here we focus attention on the sharp-interface version of the functional and consider a limit in which the volume fraction tends to zero but the number of minority phases (called particles) remains O(1). Using the language of Gamma-convergence, we focus on two levels of this convergence, and derive first and second order effective energies, whose energy landscapes are simpler and more transparent. These limiting energies are only finite on weighted sums of delta functions, corresponding to the concentration of mass into `point particles'. At the highest level, the effective energy is entirely local and contains information about the structure of each particle but no information about their spatial distribution. At the next level we encounter a Coulomb-like interaction between the particles, which is responsible for the pattern formation. We present the results here in both three and two dimensions.
CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN
Choksi Krishna,Shenoy Ashoka M,A. R. Shabharaya,Lala Minaxi
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg) and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg) were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg) to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate could not show significant anti-inflammatory activity on their own in acute as well as subacute inflammation models. Aspirin at sub-anti-inflammatory dose (50mg/Kg) when co-administered along with calcium salts produced the significant anti-inflammatory response which was comparable to anti-inflammatory response of aspirin at therapeutic dose (200mg/Kg). Also co-adminostration minimized the gastro-toxicity of aspirin.
A Regularization Approach to Blind Deblurring and Denoising of QR Barcodes
Yves van Gennip,Prashant Athavale,r?me Gilles,Rustum Choksi
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: QR bar codes are prototypical images for which part of the image is a priori known (required patterns). Open source bar code readers, such as ZBar, are readily available. We exploit both these facts to provide and assess purely regularization-based methods for blind deblurring of QR bar codes in the presence of noise.
Factors Aggravating or Precipating Acne
Dave Kairavee, Choksi Vivek
National Journal of Community Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: This cross- sectional study was conducted from 11thMarch to 11th April 2010 among 100 consecutive prospective patients attending the clinics of a renowned dermatologist for the treatment of Acne in the city of Surat. The study identifies variables such as consumption of spicy foods, pickles, mango, fast food, fried food; stressful situations mainly examinations, financial constrains and family disputes; sun exposure; excessive oiling of hair; pre-menstrual exacerbation; washing of face with soaps as triggers and aggravating factors as perceived and self reported by respondents. The study recommends a relook on the pertinent variables, especially the dietary ones. The study also brings out the need to formulate strategies to enable adolescents and young adults to effectively deal with the perplexing issue of Acne.
Global minimizers for the doubly-constrained Helfrich energy: the axisymmetric case
Rustum Choksi,Marco Veneroni
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: Since the pioneering work of Canham and Helfrich, variational formulations involving curvature-dependent functionals, like the classical Willmore functional, have proven useful for shape analysis of biomembranes. We address minimizers of the Canham-Helfrich functional defined over closed surfaces enclosing a fixed volume and having fixed surface area. By restricting attention to axisymmetric surfaces, we prove the existence of global minimizers.
Can Incarceration of Uterus between 14 - 17 Wks. Be Managed by General Anaesthesia Only? A Second Reported Case  [PDF]
Divyesh V. Shukla, Shilpi D. Shukla, Amit Shah, Yesha Choksi
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2018.88076
Abstract: This is a case of primigravida of 35 years of age having spontaneous conception & 14.5 wks. pregnancy with retention of urine and pain in lower abdomen for 5 days. There was history of unsuccessful attempt of correction of retroversion one day prior. Transabdominal USG (ultrasonography) confirmed 14.5 wks. live pregnancy with incarceration of uterus. In this case, only GA (general anaesthesia) corrected retroversion & incarceration.
Activin-Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Differentially Modulates Alveolar Epithelial Wound Repair via Paracrine Mechanism  [PDF]
Khondoker M. Akram, Monica A. Spiteri, Nicholas R. Forsyth
Stem Cell Discovery (SCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/scd.2014.43008
Abstract:

Differentiated embryonic stem cells (ESC) can ameliorate lung inflammation and fibrosis in animal lung injury models; therefore, ESC, or their products, could be candidates for regenerative therapy for incurable lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In this study, we have investigated the paracrine effect of differentiated and undifferentiated human ESC on alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) wound repair. hESC line, SHEF-2 cells were differentiated with Activin treatment for 22 days in an embryoid body (EB) suspension culture. Conditioned media (CM) which contain cell secretory factors were collected at different time points of differentiation. CM were then tested onin vitro wound repair model with human type II AEC line, A549 cells (AEC). Our study demonstrated that CM originated from undifferentiated hESC significantly inhibited AEC wound repair when compared to the control. Whereas, CM originated from Activin-directed hESC differentiated cell population demonstrated a differential reparative effect on AEC wound repair model. CM obtained from Day-11 of differentiation significantly enhanced AEC wound repair in comparison to CM collected from pre- and post-Day-11 of differentiation. Day-11 CM enhanced AEC wound repair through significant stimulation of cell migration and cell proliferation. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry confirmed that Day-11 CM was originated form a mixed population of endodermal/mesodermal differentiated hESC. This report suggests a putative paracrine-mediated epithelial injury healing mechanism by hESC secreted products, which is valuable in the development of novel stem cell-based therapeutic strategies.

Small Volume Fraction Limit of the Diblock Copolymer Problem: II. Diffuse-Interface Functional
Rustum Choksi,Mark A. Peletier
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We present the second of two articles on the small volume fraction limit of a nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard functional introduced to model microphase separation of diblock copolymers. After having established the results for the sharp-interface version of the functional (arXiv:0907.2224), we consider here the full diffuse-interface functional and address the limit in which epsilon and the volume fraction tend to zero but the number of minority phases (called particles) remains O(1). Using the language of Gamma-convergence, we focus on two levels of this convergence, and derive first- and second-order effective energies, whose energy landscapes are simpler and more transparent. These limiting energies are only finite on weighted sums of delta functions, corresponding to the concentration of mass into `point particles'. At the highest level, the effective energy is entirely local and contains information about the size of each particle but no information about their spatial distribution. At the next level we encounter a Coulomb-like interaction between the particles, which is responsible for the pattern formation. We present the results in three dimensions and comment on their two-dimensional analogues.
Deblurring of One Dimensional Bar Codes via Total Variation Energy Minimisation
Rustum Choksi,Yves van Gennip
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: Using total variation based energy minimisation we address the recovery of a blurred (convoluted) one dimensional (1D) barcode. We consider functionals defined over all possible barcodes with fidelity to a convoluted signal of a barcode, and regularised by total variation. Our fidelity terms consist of the L^2 distance either directly to the measured signal or preceded by deconvolution. Key length scales and parameters are the X-dimension of the underlying barcode, the size of the supports of the convolution and deconvolution kernels, and the fidelity parameter. For all functionals, we establish regimes (sufficient conditions) wherein the underlying barcode is the unique minimiser. We also present some numerical experiments suggesting that these sufficient conditions are not optimal and the energy methods are quite robust for significant blurring.
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