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Effect of roflumilast on inflammatory cells in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice
Piero A Martorana, Benedetta Lunghi, Monica Lucattelli, Giovanna De Cunto, Rolf Beume, Giuseppe Lungarella
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-8-17
Abstract: Slides were obtained from blocks of the previous study and VV was assessed immunohistochemically and by point counting using a grid with 48 points, a 20× objective and a computer screen for a final magnification of 580×. Neutrophils were marked with myeloperoxidase antibody, macrophages with Mac-3, dendritic cells with fascin, B-lymphocytes with B220, CD4+ T-cells with CD4+ antibody, and CD8+T-cells with CD8-α. The significance of the differences was calculated using one-way analysis of variance.Chronic smoke exposure increased neutrophil VV by 97%, macrophage by 107%, dendritic cell by 217%, B-lymphocyte by 436%, CD4+ by 524%, and CD8+ by 417%. The higher dose of roflumilast prevented the increase in neutrophil VV by 78%, macrophage by 82%, dendritic cell by 48%, B-lymphocyte by 100%, CD4+ by 98% and CD8+ VV by 88%. The lower dose of roflumilast did not prevent the increase in neutrophil, macrophage and B-cell VV but prevented dendritic cells by 42%, CD4+ by 55%, and CD8+ by 91%.These results indicate (i) chronic exposure to cigarette smoke in mice results in a significant recruitment into the lung of inflammatory cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system; (ii) roflumilast at the higher dose exerts a protective effect against the recruitment of all these cells and at the lower dose against the recruitment of dendritic cells and T-lymphocytes; (iii) these findings underline the role of innate immunity in the development of pulmonary emphysema and (iiii) support previous results indicating that the inflammatory cells of the adaptive immune system do not play a central role in the development of cigarette smoke induced emphysema in mice.Recently, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as a disease characterized by progressive, not fully reversible, flow limitation and "associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles and gases" [1].
Is neutrophil elastase the missing link between emphysema and fibrosis? Evidence from two mouse models
Monica Lucattelli, Barbara Bartalesi, Eleonora Cavarra, Silvia Fineschi, Benedetta Lunghi, Piero A Martorana, Giuseppe Lungarella
Respiratory Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-6-83
Abstract: This study was done in two animal models in which emphysema and fibrosis were induced either by bleomycin (BLM) or by chronic exposure to cigarette-smoke. In order to assess the protease-dependence of the BLM-induced lesion, a group mice was treated with 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride, a serine proteinase inhibitor active toward neutrophil elastase. Lungs from each experimental group were used for the immunohistochemical assessment of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and for determination of the mean linear intercept as well as the percent volume densities of fibrosis and of emphysematous changes. Additionally, the lungs were also assessed for desmosine content and for the determination of elastase levels in the pulmonary interstitium by means of immunoelectron microscopy.We demonstrate that in BLM-treated mice (i) the development of elastolytic emphysema precedes that of fibrosis; (ii) significant amount of elastase in alveolar interstitium is associated with an increased expression of TGF-β and TGF-α; and finally, (iii) emphysematous and fibrotic lesions can be significantly attenuated by using a protease inhibitor active against neutrophil elastase.Also, in a strain of mice that develop both emphysema and fibrosis after chronic cigarette-smoke exposure, the presence of elastase in alveolar structures is associated with a positive immunohistochemical reaction for reaction for both TGF-β and TGF-α.The results of the present study strongly suggest that neutrophil elastase may represent a common pathogenic link between emphysema and fibrosis. Proteases and in particular neutrophil elastase could act as regulatory factors in the generation of soluble cytokines with mitogenic activity for mesenchymal cells resulting either in emphysema or in fibrosis or both.Lung emphysema and fibrosis are generally considered to be two diseases that totally differ in their morphological aspects and pathogenic mechan
The HIV Matrix Protein p17 Promotes the Activation of Human Hepatic Stellate Cells through Interactions with CXCR2 and Syndecan-2
Barbara Renga, Daniela Francisci, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Adriana Carino, Sabrina Cipriani, Claudio D'Amore, Angelo Sidoni, Rachele Del Sordo, Ivana Ferri, Monica Lucattelli, Benedetta Lunghi, Franco Baldelli, Stefano Fiorucci
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094798
Abstract: Background The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p17 is a matrix protein involved in virus life's cycle. CXCR2 and Syndecan-2, the two major coreceptors for the p17 protein, are expressed in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a key cell type involved in matrix deposition in liver fibrotic disorders. Aim In this report we have investigated the in vitro impact of p17 on HSCs transdifferentiation and function and underlying signaling pathways involved in these processes. Methods LX-2 cells, a human HSC line, and primary HSC were challenged with p17 and expressions of fibrogenic markers and of p17 receptors were assessed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Downstream intracellular signaling pathways were evaluated with qRT-PCR and Western blot as well as after pre-treatment with specific pathway inhibitors. Results Exposure of LX2 cells to p17 increases their contractile force, reshapes the cytoskeleton fibers and upregulates the expression of transdifferentiation markers including αSMA, COL1α1 and endothelin-1 through the activation of Jak/STAT and Rho signaling pathways. These effects are lost in HSCs pre-incubated with a serum from HIV positive person who underwent a vaccination with a p17 peptide. Confocal laser microscopy studies demonstrates that CXCR2 and syndecan-2 co-associate at the plasma membrane after exposure to p17. Immunostaining of HIV/HCV liver biopsies from co-infected patients reveals that the progression of liver fibrosis correlates with a reduced expression of CXCR2. Conclusions The HIV matrix protein p17 is pro-fibrogenic through its interactions both with CXCR2 and syndecan-2 on activated HSCs.
Correspondence Analysis on a Space-Time Data Set for Multiple Environmental Variables  [PDF]
Palma Monica
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2015.610090
Abstract: Applications of the multivariate technique called correspondence analysis for environmental studies are relatively new and are limited to spatial multivariate data set. In this paper, a procedure of applying correspondence analysis to a large space-time data set for multiple environmental variables is shown. In particular, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide hourly concentrations measured during January 1999 at several monitored stations in a district of Northern Italy are analyzed. The procedure consists in transforming the continuous variables into categorical ones by the means of appropriate indicator variables, generating special contingency tables and applying correspondence analysis. The use of this classical multivariate technique allows the identification of important relationships among pollution levels and monitoring stations and/or relationships among pollution levels and observation times.
Effect of Pixellization on Efficiency and Stability of MEH-PPV Based Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes  [PDF]
Ranbir Singh, Monica Katiyar
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2012.21002
Abstract: Organic light-emitting diodes are generally depicted as sequential deposition of active layers and electrodes onto a substrate, but commercial devices are fabricated using pixellization technique, where an insulator layer is introduced between the indium tin oxide and organic layer to define the area of the active device. Here, we have inserted a layer of photoresist (thickness ~ 200 nm) at the edge of patterned anode (indium tin oxide) and between the anode and hole transport layer (Poly 3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene poly styrenesulfonate) to examine its effect on the leakage current of organic light-emitting diode and on the electron-hole recombination ratio in the emission area, as a result increasing the luminance efficiency. Current leakage causes the loss of charges, which adversely affects the recombination of electrons and holes in the emitting zone and results in poorer luminance efficiency. In this paper, we report the effect of pixellization on current density-voltage, luminescence-voltage and degradation behavior of single layer Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethylhexyloxy)-1, phenylene vinylene] based organic light-emitting diodes. Devices with isolation layer have 30% higher external electroluminescence quantum efficiency and reduced device degradation in comparison to without isolation layer.
Critical Factors in Managing Relationally Demanding Jobs, in Care for Very Ill and/or Dying Patients: A Phenomenological Study among Public Hospital Nurses  [PDF]
Asgerdur Bjarnadottir, Monica Lillefjell
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.51007
Abstract: Background: Workload, interpersonal relationships, professional conflict and the emotional cost of providing care are potential sources of stress and burnout among nurses. Based on experiences of hospital nurses, this paper aims to identify critical factors for nurses in managing relationally demanding situations in care for very ill and/or dying patients. Methods: In-depth interviews were carried out with six nurses, working in a medium-sized hospital in Norway. The interviews were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: The lack of identification with the core aspect of the job, relational contact with patients and relatives, and external motivation were found as potential barriers for managing relationally demanding jobs. The results also indicate that the nurses’ experiences of symptoms of burnout can be a result of demands that exceeded the nurses’ resources. A match between personal capacity and demands, mutual support among colleagues and leadership support, and contextual factors are critical to prevent the negative process of burnout. Conclusion: The results underscore the importance of an early response to employees who are beginning to struggle at work and the relevance of a true match between personal capacity and job demands. Moreover support among colleagues and leadership seems critical to prevent a negative process of burnout and help to manage relationally demanding jobs.
Thin Film Encapsulation at Low Temperature Using Combination of Inorganic Dyad Layers and Spray Coated Organic Layer  [PDF]
Sandeep Kumar, Monica Katiyar
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2017.74011
Abstract: Organic devices have many advantages such as low material consumption and low energy requirements, but they have serious issues regarding long term stability. Hence we need to develop a barrier film which solves this problem. Initially, the organic devices were fabricated on glass and were encapsulated using glass and epoxy (as sealant). Gradually there was a need to shift on to flexible substrates which required encapsulation to be flexible as well. Therefore, the motivation of the work is to develop thin film encapsulation that can be made flexible. The low temperature PECVD grown films of SiOx and SiNxwere used as the barrier film. Alternate inorganic layers (2-dyads) provided barrier of ~10-2 g/m2 day and increasing the number of dyads to five improved the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) only by one order of magnitude. However, introducing organic layers in this structure resulted in WVTR value of order 10-5 g/m2 day. The organic layers were deposited by spray technique.
Drug-Induced Hemolytic Anemia: A Fatal Complication Further Under-Recognized in Sickle Cell Disease  [PDF]
Monica Khurana, Shekhar S. Raj
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2017.73008
Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) is commonly attributed to cephalosporins. Ceftriaxone is the most frequently administered cephalosporin in patients with sickle cell disease. We present a pediatric patient with severe DIIHA (hemoglobin < 2 g/dl) who survived. Since DIIHA often goes undiagnosed until late in the course, vigilance of DIIHA minimizes unnecessary diagnostic tests and therapies. DIIHA likely remains under-recognized in all patient subpopulations due to its rarity and overlapping presentations with other conditions. Distinction between exacerbation of chronic hemolysis and new onset of acute hemolysis poses a unique challenge in patients with sickle cell disease. A thorough analysis is warranted to better identify factors within the pediatric sickle cell population that may increase the predisposition for DIIHA, particularly due to ceftriaxone.
Master’s Degree, a New Requirement to Become an RDN by 2024: A Comparison of Nutrition Graduate Programs Offered in the USA  [PDF]
Monica Sanchez, Deanna L. Pucciarelli
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.101001
Abstract: Background: The registered dietetic four-year degree educational structure has been intact since 1926. Master level nutrition programs exist in the U.S., but are not standardized or accredited unlike four-year degrees. Academic requirements for nutrition graduate programs vary regionally across the nation. Objective: To 1) quantify and describe the availability of Master level nutrition programs regionally; and 2) examine the current M.A. and M.S. program requirements for a nutrition graduate degree in the U.S. Methods: Nutrition graduate programs (n = 201) were analyzed and compared by geographical region. Data were collected between August 2017 and May 2018. Inclusion criteria were defined as: nutrition graduate programs listed in the American Society of Nutrition (ASN) database that had a nutrition graduate program website. Descriptive statistical analysis measured evaluated variables. Results: A total of 201 nutrition graduate programs in the U.S. were identified. The title of the programs was categorized into 29 main themes. The most common nutrition graduate program title was a M.S. in Nutrition, 55 institutions (27.4%). A total of 181 institutions offered a M.S. with a required thesis, whereas 95 offered a M.S. with a non-thesis option, and only eight offered a M.A. Region 3-South offered the highest number of nutrition graduate programs (66), followed by region 2-Midwest with 49 programs, region 1-Northeast offered a total of 46 programs, and 37 programs were offered in region 4-West. Conclusion: In 2024, as part of the RD eligibility criteria, it will be required that students possess a master’s degree. To date, only one master’s program in the U.S. is accredited, which assures the student a measure of confidence of program rigor and accountability. Dietitians’ three major professional concerns: respect, recognition and rewards are predicated on rigorous educational programs that meet ACEND standards. It is unlikely that all U.S. master level programs will be accredited by 2024.
A Bayesian Abstract Economy with a Measure Space of Agents
Monica Patriche
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/523619
Abstract: We define the model of an abstract economy with differential (asymmetric) information and a measure space of agents. We generalize N. C. Yannelis's result (2007), considering that each agent is characterised by a random preference correspondence instead of having a random utility function. We establish two different equilibrium existence results.
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