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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3202 matches for " Monica Gagliano "
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Seeing Green: The Re-discovery of Plants and Nature’s Wisdom
Monica Gagliano
Societies , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/soc3010147
Abstract: In this article, I endeavor to recount the odd history of how we have come to perceive plants like we do, and illustrate how plants themselves perceive and sense the world and, most importantly, what they can tell us about Nature. Through examples of the ingenious ways plants have evolved to thrive, I engage the idea that our modern society is afflicted by a severe disorder known as plant blindness, a pervasive condition inherited from our forefather Aristotle and accountable for the current state of vegetal disregard and hence environmental dilapidation. I propose that the solution to this state of affairs rests in a radical change of perspective, one that brings the prevailing, yet defective, Aristotelian paradigm together with its expectations on how Nature should behave to an end. Enacted, such change releases us into a new experience of reality, where the coherent nature of Nature is revealed.
Spot the Difference: Mimicry in a Coral Reef Fish
Monica Gagliano, Martial Depczynski
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055938
Abstract: Eyespots on the body of many animals have long been assumed to confer protection against predators, but empirical evidence has recently demonstrated that this may not always be the case and suggested that such markings may also serve other purposes. Clearly, this raises the unresolved question of what functions do these markings have and do they contribute to an individual’s evolutionary fitness in the wild. Here, we examined the occurrence of eyespots on the dorsal fin of a coral reef damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis), where these markings are typical of the juvenile stage and fade away as the fish approaches sexual maturation to then disappear completely in the vast majority of, but not all, adult individuals. By exploring differences in body shape among age and gender groups, we found that individuals retaining the eyespot into adulthood are all sexually mature males, suggesting that these eyespots may be an adult deceptive signal. Interestingly, the body shape of these individuals resembled more closely that of immature females than mature dominant males. These results suggest that eyespots have multiple roles and their functional significance changes within the lifetime of an animal from being a juvenile advertisement to a deceptive adult signal. Male removal experiments or colour manipulations may be necessary to establish specific functions.
Preliminary Study on Bioactive Compounds of Citrus × myrtifolia Rafinesque (Chinotto) to Its Potential Application in Food Industry  [PDF]
Monica Scordino, Leonardo Sabatino, Adalgisa Belligno, Giacomo Gagliano
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.27094
Abstract: The present study investigated for the first time some physical quality attributes of unripe Citrus x myrtifolia Rafinesque which is the ingredient of the popular soft drink Chinotto. Samples for analysis were processed to better reproduce the crude materials used for industrial chinotto extract, discarding part of the juice. Fruit bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, chlorophylls, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity were estimated. An important nutritional aspect arose from the data presented was the high concentration of flavonoids (780 mg/100 g FW) and vitamin C (42 mg/100 g FW). A good antioxidant capacity (5872 µM Trolox equivalents/100 g FW) was estimated by oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). This matrix could be considered as a good nutraceutical source, giving new opportunity to citrus industry.
Out of Sight but Not out of Mind: Alternative Means of Communication in Plants
Monica Gagliano, Michael Renton, Nili Duvdevani, Matthew Timmins, Stefano Mancuso
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037382
Abstract: Current knowledge suggests that the mechanisms by which plants communicate information take numerous forms. Previous studies have focussed their attention on communication via chemicals, contact and light; other methods of interaction between plants have remained speculative. In this study we tested the ability of young chilli plants to sense their neighbours and identify their relatives using alternative mechanism(s) to recognised plant communication pathways. We found that the presence of a neighbouring plant had a significant influence on seed germination even when all known sources of communication signals were blocked. Furthermore, despite the signalling restriction, seedlings allocated energy to their stem and root systems differently depending on the identity of the neighbour. These results provide clear experimental evidence for the existence of communication channels between plants beyond those that have been recognized and studied thus far.
Using Age-Based Life History Data to Investigate the Life Cycle and Vulnerability of Octopus cyanea
Jade N. Herwig, Martial Depczynski, John D. Roberts, Jayson M. Semmens, Monica Gagliano, Andrew J. Heyward
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043679
Abstract: Octopus cyanea is taken as an unregulated, recreationally fished species from the intertidal reefs of Ningaloo, Western Australia. Yet despite its exploitation and importance in many artisanal fisheries throughout the world, little is known about its life history, ecology and vulnerability. We used stylet increment analysis to age a wild O. cyanea population for the first time and gonad histology to examine their reproductive characteristics. O. cyanea conforms to many cephalopod life history generalisations having rapid, non-asymptotic growth, a short life-span and high levels of mortality. Males were found to mature at much younger ages and sizes than females with reproductive activity concentrated in the spring and summer months. The female dominated sex-ratios in association with female brooding behaviours also suggest that larger conspicuous females may be more prone to capture and suggests that this intertidal octopus population has the potential to be negatively impacted in an unregulated fishery. Size at age and maturity comparisons between our temperate bordering population and lower latitude Tanzanian and Hawaiian populations indicated stark differences in growth rates that correlate with water temperatures. The variability in life history traits between global populations suggests that management of O. cyanea populations should be tailored to each unique set of life history characteristics and that stylet increment analysis may provide the integrity needed to accurately assess this.
Marmi rifiutati nelle Terme Milano: le decorazioni architettoniche. Una nota preliminare. Refused marbles from the Terme Milano: the architectural decorations. A preliminary note
Elena Gagliano
Lanx , 2012, DOI: 10.6092/2035-4797/1885
Abstract: Il contributo si propone di presentare alcuni tra i frammenti architettonici rinvenuti nell’area delle cosiddette Terme Milano a Gortina di Creta (direttore Prof. G. Bejor), attualmente in corso di studio, alla luce di un importante risultato della campagna di scavo 2010: il rinvenimento di una piccola calcara. I frammenti architettonici trovati negli strati di livellamento e di riempimento potrebbero essere stati abbandonati a seguito dell’interruzione dei lavori cantieristici e non già a seguito del collasso degli edifici nei quali erano impiegati. The aim of this paper is to present some architectural fragments found in the area of the “Terme Milano” in Gortys, Crete (director Prof. G. Bejor), in the light of the important data known after the excavations of 2010: the founding of a little limekiln. The architectural fragments found in leveling and filling strata may have been stored after the neglect of the construction site and not after the collapse of the buildings in which these pieces were initially used.
UHPLC/MS-MS Analysis of Six Neonicotinoids in Honey by Modified QuEChERS: Method Development, Validation, and Uncertainty Measurement
Michele Proietto Galeano,Monica Scordino,Leonardo Sabatino,Valentina Pantò,Giovanni Morabito,Elena Chiappara,Pasqualino Traulo,Giacomo Gagliano
International Journal of Food Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/863904
Abstract: Rapid and reliable multiresidue analytical methods were developed and validated for the determination of 6 neonicotinoids pesticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in honey. A modified QuEChERS method has allowed a very rapid and efficient single-step extraction, while the detection was performed by UHPLC/MS-MS. The recovery studies were carried out by spiking the samples at two concentration levels (10 and 40?μg/kg). The methods were subjected to a thorough validation procedure. The mean recovery was in the range of 75 to 114% with repeatability below 20%. The limits of detection were below 2.5?μg/kg, while the limits of quantification did not exceed 4.0?μg/kg. The total uncertainty was evaluated taking the main independent uncertainty sources under consideration. The expanded uncertainty did not exceed 49% for the 10?μg/kg concentration level and was in the range of 16–19% for the 40?μg/kg fortification level. 1. Introduction Neonicotinoids are a relatively new class of insecticides that share a common mode of action that affect the central nervous system of insects, resulting in paralysis and death [1]. They possess either a nitromethylene, nitroimine, or cyanoimine group [2]. They include acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam. Studies suggested that neonicotinoids residues can accumulate in pollen and nectar of treated plants and represent a potential risk to pollinators [3]. Therefore, neonicotinic pesticides may play a role in recent pollinator declines. The Honey Italian Observatory stated that in 2008 more than half of Italian hives, and that 600,000 of a total of 1,100,000 have been put out of production for the depopulation of entire apiaries. The honey production in 2008 fell by 50% reduced to 7,000 tons. One result might be expected given that the previous year, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) stated that the bee die-off had hit the 50% bee population, compared to the annual average of 15%. Neonicotinoids can also be persistent in the environment and, when used as seed treatments, translocate to residues in pollen and nectar of treated plants. The potential for these residues to affect bees and other pollinators remains uncertain. Despite these uncertainties, neonicotinoids are beginning to dominate the market place because of their high systemicity, the broad spectrum of action, and the reduced dose. In light of these findings, the Italian Ministry of Agriculture has asked the Ministry of Health to suspend action. The Ministry of
Correspondence Analysis on a Space-Time Data Set for Multiple Environmental Variables  [PDF]
Palma Monica
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2015.610090
Abstract: Applications of the multivariate technique called correspondence analysis for environmental studies are relatively new and are limited to spatial multivariate data set. In this paper, a procedure of applying correspondence analysis to a large space-time data set for multiple environmental variables is shown. In particular, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide hourly concentrations measured during January 1999 at several monitored stations in a district of Northern Italy are analyzed. The procedure consists in transforming the continuous variables into categorical ones by the means of appropriate indicator variables, generating special contingency tables and applying correspondence analysis. The use of this classical multivariate technique allows the identification of important relationships among pollution levels and monitoring stations and/or relationships among pollution levels and observation times.
Theory of Nuclear Spin-Lattice Relaxation in La$_2$CuO$_4$ at High Temperatures
A. Sokol,E. Gagliano,S. Bacci
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.47.14646
Abstract: The problem of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in La$_2$CuO$_4$ is revisited in connection with the recent measurements of the NQR relaxation rate for temperatures up to $ 900\mbox{K} $ [T.\ Imai {\em et al.}, Phys.\ Rev.\ Lett., in press]. We use an approach based on the exact diagonalization for the Heisenberg model to calculate the short wavelength contribution to the relaxation rate in the high temperature region, $ T \! \agt \! J/2 $. It is shown that the spin diffusion accounts for approximately 10\% of the total relaxation rate at $900 \mbox{K} $ and would become dominant for $T\! >\! J$. The calculated $1/T_1$ is in good agreement with the experiment both in terms of the absolute value and temperature dependence.
Charge Transfer Excitons and Possible Exitonic Pairing in the Extended Three Band Hubbard Model
C. Vermeulen,W. Barford,E. R. Gagliano
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/31/4/007
Abstract: Exact diagonalisations of the extended Hubbard model are performed. In the insulating regime it is shown that the nearest neighbour copper-oxygen repulsion, $V$, leads to Frenkel excitons in the charge transfer gap at values of $V$ of the order of copper-oxygen hybridisation, $t$. In the metallic regime it is shown that the static charge-transfer and density-density correlation functions diverge as a function of $V$, indicating a charge-tansfer instability and phase separation. This is accompanied by a softening of the $q \to 0$ mode of the dynamic correlation functions which is associated with the excitonic excitations responsible for the superconducting correlations observed in the proximity of the phase separation boundary of ref. \cite{cv95b}.
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