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Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Springs in Kyambogo University Propinquity  [PDF]
Timothy Omara, Winfred Nassazi, Monica Adokorach, Sarah Kagoya
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105100
Abstract:
The availability of usable water in an area is the first indication of its demonstrated ability to sustain life. In peri-urban areas, urbanites utilize water from springs and compete disapprovingly for it amongst themselves and with animals. The straggling populace and the compromised sanitation are deteriorating spring water sources. There is an urgent need to analyze springs to ascertain their bacteriological and physical quality for possible cross contaminations that may be of public health importance. This study evaluated the bacteriological and physical profile of water from three springs in Kyambogo University vicinity. Two weekly water samples from each spring for five weeks were obtained and analyzed. The physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, chlorides and sulphates), total coliform and E. coli counts of the samples were determined. The mean temperature of the water samples from Katalina, Airport spring 1 and Airport spring 2 were 20.53℃ ± 1.2, 21.53 ± 0.60 and 20.33 ± 1.62 respectively. The corresponding statistical mean pH values were 5.33 ± 0.25, 6.30 ± 0.10 and 7.10 ± 0.46. All the springs were found to be microbiologically contaminated with total coliforms and E. coli above WHO permissible limits. Conclusively, water from the sampled springs are not safe for drinking and the immediate strategy is to boil or treat the water before drinking. Drainage ditches should be constructed uphill of the springs to divert torrential flowing rain water which carry contaminants washed from Kyambogo hill.
Correspondence Analysis on a Space-Time Data Set for Multiple Environmental Variables  [PDF]
Palma Monica
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2015.610090
Abstract: Applications of the multivariate technique called correspondence analysis for environmental studies are relatively new and are limited to spatial multivariate data set. In this paper, a procedure of applying correspondence analysis to a large space-time data set for multiple environmental variables is shown. In particular, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide hourly concentrations measured during January 1999 at several monitored stations in a district of Northern Italy are analyzed. The procedure consists in transforming the continuous variables into categorical ones by the means of appropriate indicator variables, generating special contingency tables and applying correspondence analysis. The use of this classical multivariate technique allows the identification of important relationships among pollution levels and monitoring stations and/or relationships among pollution levels and observation times.
Effect of Pixellization on Efficiency and Stability of MEH-PPV Based Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes  [PDF]
Ranbir Singh, Monica Katiyar
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2012.21002
Abstract: Organic light-emitting diodes are generally depicted as sequential deposition of active layers and electrodes onto a substrate, but commercial devices are fabricated using pixellization technique, where an insulator layer is introduced between the indium tin oxide and organic layer to define the area of the active device. Here, we have inserted a layer of photoresist (thickness ~ 200 nm) at the edge of patterned anode (indium tin oxide) and between the anode and hole transport layer (Poly 3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene poly styrenesulfonate) to examine its effect on the leakage current of organic light-emitting diode and on the electron-hole recombination ratio in the emission area, as a result increasing the luminance efficiency. Current leakage causes the loss of charges, which adversely affects the recombination of electrons and holes in the emitting zone and results in poorer luminance efficiency. In this paper, we report the effect of pixellization on current density-voltage, luminescence-voltage and degradation behavior of single layer Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethylhexyloxy)-1, phenylene vinylene] based organic light-emitting diodes. Devices with isolation layer have 30% higher external electroluminescence quantum efficiency and reduced device degradation in comparison to without isolation layer.
Critical Factors in Managing Relationally Demanding Jobs, in Care for Very Ill and/or Dying Patients: A Phenomenological Study among Public Hospital Nurses  [PDF]
Asgerdur Bjarnadottir, Monica Lillefjell
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.51007
Abstract: Background: Workload, interpersonal relationships, professional conflict and the emotional cost of providing care are potential sources of stress and burnout among nurses. Based on experiences of hospital nurses, this paper aims to identify critical factors for nurses in managing relationally demanding situations in care for very ill and/or dying patients. Methods: In-depth interviews were carried out with six nurses, working in a medium-sized hospital in Norway. The interviews were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: The lack of identification with the core aspect of the job, relational contact with patients and relatives, and external motivation were found as potential barriers for managing relationally demanding jobs. The results also indicate that the nurses’ experiences of symptoms of burnout can be a result of demands that exceeded the nurses’ resources. A match between personal capacity and demands, mutual support among colleagues and leadership support, and contextual factors are critical to prevent the negative process of burnout. Conclusion: The results underscore the importance of an early response to employees who are beginning to struggle at work and the relevance of a true match between personal capacity and job demands. Moreover support among colleagues and leadership seems critical to prevent a negative process of burnout and help to manage relationally demanding jobs.
A Bayesian Abstract Economy with a Measure Space of Agents
Monica Patriche
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/523619
Abstract: We define the model of an abstract economy with differential (asymmetric) information and a measure space of agents. We generalize N. C. Yannelis's result (2007), considering that each agent is characterised by a random preference correspondence instead of having a random utility function. We establish two different equilibrium existence results.
Decision making in local therapy for breast cancer
Monica Morrow
Breast Cancer Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1806
Abstract: The mean patient age was 60 years and 70% were white. Less than a high school level of education was reported by 27%; 61% graduated from high school or had some college education, and 13% were college graduates. The mastectomy rate was 30% for patients with both DCIS and invasive cancer. Accepted clinical contraindications to breast-conserving surgery were reported by 11.5% of the study population. In 41% of cases the patient reported that she was the primary decision maker, the decision was shared in 37%, and was made by the surgeon in 22% of cases. The therapy recommended by the surgeon was breast-conserving surgery in 49%, mastectomy in 15%, and patients reported being offered a choice between the two procedures in 37% of cases. Greater patient involvement in the decision-making process was significantly correlated with treatment by mastectomy after adjustment for multiple clinical and demographic variables. Only 5.8% of women whose surgeon made the treatment decision had a mastectomy, as compared with 16.8% who reported a shared decision and 27% of women who reported that they made the decision (P = 0.003).Concern about disease recurrence was the most influential factor in treatment choice, with 40% of women reporting that their treatment choice was greatly influenced by this concern. Concerns about disease recurrence were strongly associated with receipt of mastectomy; 52% of women who were greatly concerned about disease recurrence received a mastectomy, as compared with 19% of those who were not influenced, or only slightly influenced, by this concern (P < 0.001) [1].Patients expressed a high level of confidence in decision making, with more than 80% of women of all ages being very or extremely confident about their treatment choice. However, fewer than 50% were able to answer correctly a true-false question about the lack of a survival difference after treatment by mastectomy or lumpectomy and radiation.We also examined the match between decision control and
Personalized surgical treatment of breast cancer
Monica Morrow
Breast Cancer Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1810
Abstract: During the past decade, substantial strides have been made in the application of personalized surgical therapy, with the majority of women now being offered a choice between mastectomy alone, mastectomy with immediate reconstruction, or breast-conserving therapy (BCT), consisting of lumpectomy and radiation. Multiple prospective randomized trials have shown no difference in survival between patients treated with BCT and those undergoing mastectomy, even after long-term follow up. Selection criteria for BCT have been defined [1] and are related to the extent of disease within the breast and the ability to administer radiotherapy safely. Contraindications to BCT are as follows: first and second trimester of pregnancy; inability to achieve negative margins of resection; multicentric cancer; diffuse suspicious or indeterminate microcalcifications; and history of prior irradiation to breast region. Interestingly, biological factors such as hormone receptor status, HER2 over-expression, tumour grade and other histological features, and node status are not useful criteria for identifying women best treated by mastectomy. Adhering to the BCT contraindications given above, local control rates of greater than 90% at 10 years are now obtained in patients receiving adjuvant systemic therapy [2].The use of gene profiles to predict the risk for systemic recurrence [3] has raised interest in the role of these profiles in identifying patients at high risk for local recurrence when treated with BCT. Mamounas and coworkers [4] examined the ability of the 21-gene recurrence score (Oncotype Dx?; Genomic Health Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA) to identify groups of women with different risks for locoregional recurrence (LRR). The 21-gene recurrence score has been shown to be both prognostic and predictive of the benefit of adding chemotherapy to tamoxifen. In a retrospective study using material from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) treatment trials, statistically
How much can improved molecular and pathologic discriminants change local therapy?
Monica Morrow
Breast Cancer Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2165
Abstract: How accurately the extent of disease is assessed with currently available tools can be evaluated by examining mastectomy rates in patients who are initially selected for BCT and the use of re-excision to obtain negative margins in patients undergoing BCT. The available data indicate that disease too extensive to allow BCT is reliably identified with clinical evaluation, diagnostic mammography and ultrasonography. Morrow and coworkers reported that only 2.9% of 263 patients selected for BCT between 1989 and 1993 required conversion to mastectomy [2]. In a population-based study conducted in 800 patients from the Los Angeles and Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Registry (SEER) treated between June 2005 and May 2006, 12% of patients were converted from BCT to mastectomy [3]. However, in 8% this conversion took place after a single lumpectomy attempt, suggesting that re-excision would have allowed successful BCT in some of these cases. In contrast to the low rate of conversion from BCT to mastectomy, re-excision to obtain negative margins is a common surgical procedure. In the population-based study 22% of patients required re-excision [3], and in some studies the rate of re-excision approaches 50% [4]. These findings suggest that a more precise definition of microscopic extent of disease with molecular tools would facilitate surgical excision. Although this idea is attractive, it is associated with major pitfalls, illustrated by experience with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast.MRI is well documented to be a more sensitive method for detecting cancer than mammography or ultrasound. A meta-analysis of 19 studies involving 2,763 breast cancer patients revealed that MRI detected additional disease in 16% (range 6% to 34%) that led to more extensive surgical therapy [5]. It has been assumed that these larger surgical procedures were beneficial to the patient, but more recent studies have cast doubt upon this assumption. Bleicher and coworkers
An analysis of Sorghum halepense’s behavior in presence of tropane alkaloids from Datura stramonium extracts
Monica Butnariu
Chemistry Central Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-153x-6-75
Abstract: Preliminary chemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids.The presence of alkaloids was confirmed through HPLC–UV system analysis. Various concentrations of analytic purity alkaloids had similar effects on germination and development of S. halepense’s root systems with those of extracts from of D. stramonium. Germination was not affected by any of the tested extracts, but growth was inhibited by the presence of tropane alkaloids. Extracts had effects at higher alkaloid concentrations. Seedlings of S. halepense developed toxicity symptoms in the presence of alkaloid extracts, but the occurrence of several chlorotic and necrotic areas was noticed in the flower extract biotest.Results show that the tested species is sensitive to alkaloids in their growth environment. This research justifies the fact that aqueous extracts from D. stramonium are adequate to the situations in which S. halepense becomes damaging.The approach and solutions suggested in this study include a complex comparative analysis of the behaviour of S. halepense plants and a combination of some relatively traditional methods (germination and seedling growth) [1] and chemical methods. A research focused on a set of results pointing to useful information aiming to controlling the pest species [2] requires a complex, multidisciplinary approach [3] in line with the latest achievements [4]. The nature of genetic resources shows that there is a high genetic variability of selections and ecological solutions, which have the potential to reach performances in the ecological agriculture system.[5-7].Interactions between species are part of the characteristic biocoenosis structure [8,9].Some plants release toxic substances that inhibit the growth of other plants (allelopathy), a feature that represents a competitive advantage [10]. Allelopathy is a plant’s effect on another plant [11] manifested as chemical compounds released and diffused in the environment [12,13]. Most allelochemicals are
Comparative researches on two direct transmethylation without prior extraction methods for fatty acids analysis in vegetal matrix with low fat content
Monica Harmanescu
Chemistry Central Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-153x-6-8
Abstract: Comparatively, between the average values obtained for all analysed fatty acids by the two methods based on direct transmethylation without prior extraction no significantly difference was identified (p > 0.05). The results of fatty acids for the same forage sample were more closely to their average value, being more homogenous for BF3/MeOH than HCl/MeOH, because of the better accuracy and repeatability of this method. Method that uses BF3/MeOH reagent produces small amounts of interfering compounds than the method using HCl/MeOH reagent, results reflected by the better statistical parameters.The fast and non-expensive BF3/methanol method was applied with good accuracy and sensitivity for the determination of free or combined fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) in forage matrix with low fat content from grassland. Also, the final extract obtained by this method, poorer in interfering compounds, is safer to protect the injector and column from contamination with heavy or non-volatile compounds formed by transmethylation reactions.Lipids play diverse and important roles in nutrition and health and many lipids are absolutely essential for life. For instance, humans have dietary requirements for certain essential fatty acids (e.g., linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid), because they cannot be synthesized from simple precursors in our diet [1]. For humans lipids source can be the foods with animal origin and oleaginous seeds but for herbivores the lipids source is only natural forage or concentrates. Many studies were made about the influence of nutrition types on lipids composition of foods from poultry (meat and eggs), pork (meat) and herbivores (meat and milk) [2-6]. It is widely accepted that ruminants grazing or feeding with natural forage are beneficial to produce meat and dairy foods with healthier lipid composition than those fed with concentrates [7,8]. Hence, the increased interest to obtain vegetal matrix from grasslands with higher production, both qualitat
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