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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1030 matches for " Mona Mamoun "
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Use of family planning methods in Kassala, Eastern Sudan
Abdel Aziem A Ali, Duria A Rayis, Mona Mamoun, Ishag Adam
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-43
Abstract: Across sectional community-based study was conducted during the period February-April 2010 to investigate the use of family planning in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and use of family planning. The mean ± SD of the age and parity of 613 enrolled women was 31.1 ± 7 years and 3.4 ± 1.9, respectively. Only 44.0% of these women had previously or currently used one or more of the family planning methods. Combined pills (46.7%) and progesterone injection (17.8%) were the predominant method used by the investigated women. While age, residence were not associated with the use of family planning, parity (> five), couple education (≥ secondary level) were significantly associated with the use of family planning. Husband objection and religious beliefs were the main reasons of non-use of family planning.Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the religious persons might promote family planning in eastern Sudan.High fertility rate and inadequate spacing between births, can lead to high maternal and infant mortality. An estimated 600 000 maternal deaths occur worldwide each year; the vast majority of these take place in developing countries. WHO estimates that 13% of these deaths are due to unsafe abortion. Worldwide, where approximately 50 million women resort to induced abortion, frequently results in high maternal morbidity and mortality [1,2]. Thus, family planning and spacing among births are one of the methods to avoid these deaths. Promotion of family planning and contraceptive use is highly adopted by the international community as one of the strategy to reduce the maternal mortality and to reach the Millennium Development Goals [3-5]. Africa characterized by high rate of lack to contraceptive access reaching 57% and this lack lead to unwanted pregnancies, increased demand to abortion and death related to unsafe abortion [6].In Sudan, the largest African country, there is unac
Clostridium difficile Modulates Host Innate Immunity via Toxin-Independent and Dependent Mechanism(s)
Nazila V. Jafari, Sarah A. Kuehne, Clare E. Bryant, Mamoun Elawad, Brendan W. Wren, Nigel P. Minton, Elaine Allan, Mona Bajaj-Elliott
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069846
Abstract: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of hospital and community-acquired antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and currently represents a significant health burden. Although the role and contribution of C. difficile toxins to disease pathogenesis is being increasingly understood, at present other facets of C. difficile-host interactions, in particular, bacterial-driven effects on host immunity remain less studied. Using an ex-vivo model of infection, we report that the human gastrointestinal mucosa elicits a rapid and significant cytokine response to C. difficile. Marked increase in IFN-γ with modest increase in IL-22 and IL-17A was noted. Significant increase in IL-8 suggested potential for neutrophil influx while presence of IL-12, IL-23, IL-1β and IL-6 was indicative of a cytokine milieu that may modulate subsequent T cell immunity. Majority of C. difficile-driven effects on murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC) activation were toxin-independent; the toxins were however responsible for BMDC inflammasome activation. In contrast, human monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) released IL-1β even in the absence of toxins suggesting host-specific mediation. Infected DC-T cell crosstalk revealed the ability of R20291 and 630 WT strains to elicit a differential DC IL-12 family cytokine milieu which culminated in significantly greater Th1 immunity in response to R20291. Interestingly, both strains induced a similar Th17 response. Elicitation of mucosal IFN-γ/IL-17A and Th1/Th17 immunity to C. difficile indicates a central role for this dual cytokine axis in establishing antimicrobial immunity to CDI.
Metabolic Response of the Two Marine Unicellular Algae Chlorella salina and Dunaliella bardawil to Toxicity of the Antifouling Agent Irgarol 1051  [PDF]
Mona Kaamoush
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.99056
Abstract: Toxic pollutants are metabolic poisons that can seriously injure or destroy the photosynthetic organisms upon which the food chain depends. Since microalgae play a key role in marine ecosystems, marine microalgae are proposed as excellent bio-indicators of pollution due to their high sensitivity, which can give warning of the toxic effects of chemicals sooner than any other species. The aim of this work concentrated on the effect of different concentrations of the antifouling biocide (Irgarol 1051) on growth and chlorophylls content (as an essential metabolite) of the two marine unicellular green algae Chlorella salina and Dunaliella bardawil that usually used in fish feeding. The growth of the wall-less Dunaliella bardawil was more sensitive to Irgarol 1051 than the walled cells Chlorella salina, although the concentrations used were greatly different. The product of photosynthesis in the two algal species greatly affected since in the presence of Irgarol 1051, a serious destructive effect was observed. The cell wall appeared to play a significant role in protecting the organism against toxicity of the antifouling agent either by adsorption or degradation. The strength of toxicity depends mainly on the concentration of the antifouling agent, the length of culturing period and the type of organism tested.
4-[(1E,3E,5E)-6-(4-Pyridyl)hexa-1,3,5-trienyl]pyridine
Mamoun M. Bader
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2009, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536809029092
Abstract: The two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C16H14N2, are planar [dihedral angle between the terminal pyridine rings = 1.76 (2)°] and each display an all-trans configuration of C=C double bonds. One of the two molecules lies about a center of inversion. The dihedral angle between the two pyridine rings in the molecule lying on a general position is 1.65 (2)°.
2,5-Bis(5-bromo-2-thienyl)thiophene
Mamoun M. Bader
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2009, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536809030864
Abstract: In the crystal structure of the title compound, C12H6Br2S3, the molecules are planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.06 ). Consecutive molecules do not stack in a planar fashion. There is an angle of 81.7 (12)° between the planes of the closest molecules.
Early Stage Cost Estimation of Buildings Construction Projects using Artificial Neural Networks
Mohammed Arafa,Mamoun Alqedra
Journal of Artificial Intelligence , 2011,
Abstract: Early stage cost estimate plays a significant role in any initial construction project decisions, despite the project scope has not yet been finalized and still very limited information regarding the detailed design is available during these early stages. This study aimed at developing an efficient model to estimate the cost of building construction projects at early stages using artificial neural networks. A database of 71 building projects is collected from the construction industry of the Gaza Strip. Several significant parameters were identified for the structural skeleton cost of the project and yet can be obtained from available engineering drawings and data at the pre-design stage of the project. The input layer of the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) model comprised seven parameters, namely: ground floor area, typical floor area, number of storeys, number of columns, type of footing, number of elevators and number of rooms. The developed ANN model had one hidden layer with seven neurons. One neuron representing the early cost estimate of buildings formed the output layer of the ANN model. The results obtained from the trained models indicated that neural networks reasonably succeeded in predicting the early stage cost estimation of buildings using basic information of the projects and without the need for a more detailed design. The performed sensitivity analysis showed that the ground floor area, number of storeys, type of foundation and number of elevators in the buildings are the most effective parameters influencing the early estimates of building cost.
Cotrimoxazole-Induced Hypoglycaemia in a Patient with Churg-Strauss Syndrome
Russell Senanayake,Mamoun Mukhtar
Case Reports in Endocrinology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/415810
Abstract: Cotrimoxazole is a commonly used antimicrobial agent which is traditionally indicated in the management of pneumocystis infection of which HIV and immunosuppressed individuals are at high risk. Furthermore, it can be used on the long term for prophylactic indications. Hypoglycaemia following commencement of cotrimaoxazole is a rare adverse effect which was first described in 1988. We describe a case of hypoglycaemia shortly following initiation of cotrimoxazole indicated as long-term prophylaxis on a background of Churg-Strauss syndrome. The patient was symptomatic for hypoglycaemia despite simultaneous use of high-dose prednisolone; however, the hypoglycaemia did not require a hospital admission. We will explore the risk factors, monitoring requirements, and the mechanism by which co-trimoxazole induces hypoglycaemia. 1. Introduction Cotrimoxazole (combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole) is an antimicrobial agent which has both prophylactic and therapeutic indications for Pneumocystis jirovecii infection which represents a high risk among immunosuppressed patients. Pneumocystis is an opportunistic infection which often presents as fever, nonproductive cough, and dyspnoea in HIV patients although symptoms are not as marked and with a relatively shorter duration in immunocompromised patients for reasons other than HIV [1]. It is typically identified on microscopy which can be obtained from bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. Mortality associated with pneumocystis infection has been linked to mechanical ventilation needs or failure in antimicrobial treatment [2]. Cotrimoxazole is commonly used as long term prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients to promote increased survival [3]. Furthermore, it has been trialed with positive results in the management of drug-resistant superbugs [4]. The efficacy of cotrimoxazole has made it ideal as first line management in both treatment and prophylaxis of pneumocystis infection. Despite this, there are high rates of adverse effects and potential for P. jirovecii drug resistance [5]. Alternative chemoprophylactic agents for pneumocystis infections include pentamidine and dapsone. The most common adverse effect associated with cotrimoxazole is gastric discomfort and reduced appetite. We discuss a case of cotrimoxazole-induced hypoglycaemia initiated in a patient with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Of the case reports we analysed detailing hypoglycaemia secondary to cotrimoxazole in our discussion section the patients were either on high dose cotrimoxazole or were otherwise elderly frail and had renal impairment or
Experimental Investigation of the Mg-Nd-Zn Isothermal Section at 300 °C
Ahmad Mostafa,Mamoun Medraj
Metals , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/met5010084
Abstract: The Mg-Nd-Zn isothermal section at 300 °C was established in the full composition range using diffusion couples and equilibrated key alloys. Microstructural characterization was carried out using WDS, XRD, and metallographic methods. The homogeneity ranges of the binary and ternary compounds were determined by WDS analysis. Six ternary compounds were observed in the Mg-Nd-Zn system at 300 °C. These are: τ 1 (Nd 5Mg 21+xZn 45 ?x; 0 ≤ x ≤ 4), τ 2 (Nd 5Mg 3+yZn 25 ?y; 0 ≤ y ≤ 1), τ 3 (NdMg 1+zZn 2 ?z; 0 ≤ z ≤ 0.44), τ 4 (Mg 40Nd 5Zn 55), τ 5 (Mg 22–23.5Nd 15.5–17.5Zn 59.1–61.8), and τ 6 (Nd 2(Mg,Zn) 23). τ 5 was found to have a homogeneity range of 22.0–23.5 atom % Mg, 15.5–17.6 atom % Nd and 59.1–61.8 atom % Zn and τ 6 was found to have 54.1–61.3 atom % Mg at a constant Nd of 8.0 atom %. The ternary solubility of Zn in Mg-Nd compounds was found to increase with the decrease in Mg concentration. Accordingly, (Mg 41Nd 5) was found to have an extended solubility of 3.1 atom % Zn, whereas (Mg 3Nd) was found to have 30.0 atom % Zn. MgNd was found to have a complete substitution of Mg by Zn. The maximum solid solubility of Zn in α-Mg was measured as 4.8 atom % Zn.
Impact of the Human Activities on the Local Climate and Environment of the Suez City in Egypt  [PDF]
Mona Fouad Kaiser
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.57063
Abstract:

Surface temperature and vegetation are the major land cover changes that significantly affect on the thermal environment. In the present study, remote sensing techniques were applied to identify the relationship between anthropogenic activities and the thermal environment in the North Gulf of Suez area. Results have indicated that the urbanization and agricultural expansion have been increased during the last 25 years. Although urban areas increased from 49 km2 in 1987 to 57 km2 in 2012, the urban heat island-range declined from very high and high, to moderate and low. An expansion in cultivated areas from 3 km2 in 1987 to 26 km2 in 2012 was responsible for the decline. The results of this study provided valuable information for understanding the local thermal changes that associate rapid urbanization and expansion of cultivated areas. Consequently, this work recommends that proper planning and management regimes for land use and cover changes associated with rapid urbanization will result in positive impacts on the local climate and environment.

A Multihypothesis Sequential Probability Test for Fault Detection and Identification of Vehicles' Ultrasonic Parking Sensors
Mamoun F. Abdel-Hafez
International Journal of Navigation and Observation , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/137671
Abstract: This paper presents a sequential fault detection and identification algorithm for detecting a fault in a vehicle's ultrasonic parking sensors. The algorithm identifies a bias fault in any of the ultrasonic sensors by computing the probability of having that bias fault given a carefully constructed measurement residual that is only a function of the measurement noise and the possible measurement fault. A set of bias hypotheses is assumed and initially given equal alarm probability. It is assumed that only one sensor will acquire a bias at any given time. Once the probability of a hypothesis approaches 1, that hypothesis is declared as the correct hypothesis and the bias associated with the hypothesis is removed from the sensors' reading. The accuracy and convergence characteristics of the proposed algorithm are verified using experimental results. This study is essential to ensure accurate operation of vehicle's ultrasonic parking sensors. 1. Introduction The problem of a fault occurring in dynamic systems is being addressed continuously by researchers due to its high impact on the accuracy and integrity of the overall system performance [1–17]. Among this effort, extensive study is focused on the integrity monitoring of navigation systems [1–5]. Other researchers tackled the signal processing and integrity monitoring of sonar sensors [6–10]. Also, researchers address the integrity monitoring and fault detection of automotive sensors and systems [11–18]. A sensor fault can be modeled in two ways first, as an additive random process with an associated statistics, that is, mean and covariance [1–3]. Alternatively, other researchers account for the fault as an increase in the magnitude of the measurements noise covariance [4, 5]. The change in the measurement noise covariance is detected using various statistical algorithms. The problem of change detection was formulated by reference [19] for independent observations with a given prior probability density distribution. Upon the onset of a fault, the observations’ probability density will change to another distribution that needs to be identified. In transport vehicles, new sensors are constantly being added to enhance passengers comfort and increase vehicle’s safety [11, 12]. With the addition of new sensors, it is imperative to continuously check for the integrity of the sensors’ readings to completely and correctly achieve their given tasks [13–18]. Model-based techniques have been used in the literature to check for automotive sensors faults [20]. In these techniques, different measurement models are
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