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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9019 matches for " Molecular Biology "
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Human endogenous retroviruses: Their possible role in the molecular etiology of the schizophrenia  [PDF]
Raúl Alelú-Paz, Ignacio Iturrieta-Zuazo
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2012.21009
Abstract: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) represent footprints of previous retroviral infections. They are integrated within the human germ line and constitute approximately 8% of our genome. They have the potential to harm, given their capacity to alter the cellular metabolism, and could be involved in various pathological processes. This revision intends to highlight the importance of HERVs in health and disease, and the increasing interest of the scientific community in their biology. In this overview, we will present a brief summary of the structure and physiological function of HERVs and an analysis of their role in schizophrenia, a paradigm of mental illness, particularly stressing the importance of HERV research to explore the more basic mechanisms disrupted in this psychiatric condition.
Detecting Variation in the Rate of Molecular Evolution in Different Lineages of Mammals  [PDF]
Sammer M. Marzouk
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2018.85052
Abstract: A major research topic within molecular evolution studies is to understand more about the causes of the molecular evolutionary patterns that are recorded within and between taxa. The amount of germ cell divisions in females and males causes the majority of mutations, during DNA replication, that impact molecular evolution. In an XX female and an XY male system of diploid animals, the autosomes come in duplicates, with one copy from the male and female parent. Because of this, the idea that evolution is driven by male mutations has become increasingly more likely. This paper looks at the different male-mutation rates and determines that the male-mutation rate is much higher than female-mutation rates. Ry/a to be approximately 2.2, which means that Ry is approximately -24.2. From software analysis, x was approximated to be about 0.5. And since x and Ry are known, Ry/x was determined to be -49. The results for this paper show the calculated Rx/a and Ry/a are similar to the results of another study, but they are unique in that they produced a relatively high negative number for the Ry/a, which was about -49. This provides evidence that the male-mutation rate is higher than the female-mutation rate. This is interesting because this suggests that, from the data, the mutation rate in males is the defining force in molecular evolution. And because the rate goes beyond the prescribed model, future models of molecular systems will need to consider the rate of male mutations, as well as clarifying this male-mutation rate and calculating the rate of mutation in other sex-determinant systems.
DIVERGêNCIA GENéTICA ENTRE DOZE GENóTIPOS DE ABACAXIZEIRO (Ananas comosus L, Merril.) ESTIMADA POR ANáLISE DE MARCADORES RAPD
PEREIRA, CíCERO DONIZETE;KERR, WARWICK ESTEVAM;
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-29452001000200027
Abstract: through molecular studies, the genetic distance among 12 genotypes of a. comosus for rapd markers (random amplified polymorphic dna) was determined using 11 primers (decamers) of the operon technologies inc. from the 12 genotypes, 1 came from jamaica, 2 from the state of acre (quinari and rbr-1), 2 from the state of maranh?o (turia?u and s?o domigos), 3 the state of piauí (cefas, floriano-1 and floriano-2), 2 from the state of bahia (monte alegre-1 and monte alegre-2) and 2 from minas gerais (pérola and smooth cayenne). by the analysis of cluster, using the method of upgma, a great divergence was verified among the genotypes of a. comosus studied or tima separation in two groups of a genetic distance of 31,1%.
TET2 Mutations in Ph-Negative-Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Identification of Three Novel Mutations and Relationship with Clinical and Laboratory Findings  [PDF]
Andrea Patriarca, Donatella Colaizzo, Gianluca Tiscia, Raffaele Spadano, Silvia Di Zacomo, Antonio Spadano, Ida Villanova, Maurizio Margaglione, Elvira Grandone, Alfredo Dragani
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2013.33017
Abstract: High-throughput DNA sequence analysis was used to screen for TET2 mutations in peripheral blood derived DNA from 97 patients with BCR-ABL-negative-myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Overall six mutations in the coding region of the gene were identified in 7 patients with an overall mutational frequency of 7.2%. In polycythemia vera patients (n = 25) were identified 2 mutations (8%); in those with essential thrombocythemia (n = 55) 2 mutations (3.6%); in those with unclassifiable MPN (n = 8) 3 mutations (37.5%). No primary myelofibrosis patiens (n = 6) harboured TET2 mutations. Three unreported mutations were identified (p.P177fs, p.C1298del, p.P411del) the first two in patients with unclassifiable MPN, the last in a patient with essential thrombocythemia. On multivariate analysis the diagnosis of an unclassifiable MPN was significantly related to the presence of TET2 mutations (p = 0.02; OR: 2.81; 95% CI 1.11 - 7.06). We conclude that TET2 mutations occur in both JAK2V617F-positive and -negative MPN and are more frequent in MPN-U patients. This could represent the biological link between the different classes of myeloid malignancies.
Characterization of an Early Berry Development Grapevine Somatic Variant (Vitis labrusca L. cv. Isabel Precoce)  [PDF]
Gisele Passaia, Márcia Margis-Pinheiro, Flavio Bello Fialho, Fernanda Sbeghen, Diogo Denardi Porto, Luís Fernando Revers
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526403
Abstract: Over the past 10 years significant advances have been made towards the description of genetics and molecular mechanisms controlling grapevine berry growth. Regardless of this, many aspects of early fruit morphogenesis and its development control remain to be elucidated. In an attempt to understand gene expression patterns associated with the berry growth development, the contrasting phenotype between the cv. Isabel (Vitis labrusca L.) and its early berry development mutant “Isabel Precoce” has been explored by a candidate gene approach. “Isabel Precoce” (Vitis labrusca L.) was confirmed as an EDV (Essentially Derived Variety) of Isabel, with a 30-35-day reduction in the berry growth phase when compared to the wild type and thus, it constitutes an informative model to investigate many aspects of fruit growth and development. Phenotypic analysis showed that “Isabel Precoce” develops fruits that are smaller in diameter and volume despite of following similar development kinetics. The expression of many genes associated with plant growth and development (MIKCC-type MADS box genes), sugar transport and with the control of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway have been evaluated. The majority of the genes presented a remarkably similar transcription profile. However, a higher induction of transcript accumulation for some genes has been observed in the “Isabel Precoce” genetic background.
An Enzyme That Oversees RNA Quality Control
PLOS Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030191.20050521
Abstract:
A New Yeast Poly(A) Polymerase Complex Involved in RNA Quality Control
Vanácová Stepánka,Wolf Jeannette,Martin Georges,Blank Diana
PLOS Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030189.20050521
Abstract: Eukaryotic cells contain several unconventional poly(A) polymerases in addition to the canonical enzymes responsible for the synthesis of poly(A) tails of nuclear messenger RNA precursors. The yeast protein Trf4p has been implicated in a quality control pathway that leads to the polyadenylation and subsequent exosome-mediated degradation of hypomethylated initiator tRNAMet (tRNAiMet). Here we show that Trf4p is the catalytic subunit of a new poly(A) polymerase complex that contains Air1p or Air2p as potential RNA-binding subunits, as well as the putative RNA helicase Mtr4p. Comparison of native tRNAiMet with its in vitro transcribed unmodified counterpart revealed that the unmodified RNA was preferentially polyadenylated by affinity-purified Trf4 complex from yeast, as well as by complexes reconstituted from recombinant components. These results and additional experiments with other tRNA substrates suggested that the Trf4 complex can discriminate between native tRNAs and molecules that are incorrectly folded. Moreover, the polyadenylation activity of the Trf4 complex stimulated the degradation of unmodified tRNAiMet by nuclear exosome fractions in vitro. Degradation was most efficient when coupled to the polyadenylation activity of the Trf4 complex, indicating that the poly(A) tails serve as signals for the recruitment of the exosome. This polyadenylation-mediated RNA surveillance resembles the role of polyadenylation in bacterial RNA turnover.
The next millennium and epidemiology: searching for information
Castiel, Luis David;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1998000400018
Abstract: on the eve of the new millennium, it has become 'natural' to admit the emergence of tendencies to perform evaluations and inventories of the past and attempts to forecast future scenarios. while recognizing the ensuing uncertainties, the current paper takes this point of view as the point of departure for proposing a discussion on the future directions and prospects of epidemiology. based on the pertinent analyses performed by the sussers (father and son), i approach and discuss the scope and limits of new aspects assumed by the field, especially to the extent that it has included techniques and instruments from bioinformatics and molecular biology. in the latter areas (amongst many others), the notion of information has gained enormous importance. i then proceed to analyze the conceptual origins and shifts in this notion, in addition to possible repercussions and effects on the field of biological sciences in general and their research practices in particular.
Biologia molecular do cancer colorretal: uma revolu??o silenciosa em andamento
Pinho, Mauro de Souza Leite;
Revista Brasileira de Coloproctologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-98802008000300017
Abstract: despite remaining as the main hope for emerging new concepts and strategies for treatment of colorectal cancer, the lack of results with clinical impact over the last years may contribute to frustrate those not entirely aware about current research data. so, the aim of this paper is to present a brief review since the first molecular biology studies in colorectal carcinogenesis until recent advances in proteomics, in order to demonstrate the consistent production of new data supporting a realistic expectancy for a near future availability of high impact resources that may change dramatically the results of treatment of colorectal cancer.
Pesquisa em biologia molecular: como fazer?
Pinho, Mauro de Souza Leite;
Revista Brasileira de Coloproctologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-98802006000300016
Abstract: molecular biology studies are presently regarded as a major source for research in medicine, and an increasing number of medical professionals are interested in improving their knowledge and scientific production in this subject. however, structuring the research project may become a difficult challenge due to the wide range of methods and techniques available in this area, most of them depending on existing technological facilities and personal skill. the aim of this study is to contribute for the task of setting up a research project by presenting a brief review of most used structure models in molecular biology studies as well as its related principles and methods.
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