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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14065 matches for " Mohammad Delwer Hossain Hawlader "
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High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Bangladeshi Children: An Emerging Public Health Problem  [PDF]
Sanjana Zaman, Mohammad Delwer Hossain Hawlader, Animesh Biswas, Mahmudul Hasan, Mobashera Jahan, Gias U Ahsan
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.912123
Abstract: Background: Recent studies suggested that vitamin D deficiency among children is widespread worldwide. Most of the Asian countries are suffering from high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, especially in children. However, the vitamin D deficiency of Bangladeshi children has not been investigated yet. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among children in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed. Children aged 0 month to 16 years attended Pediatrics’ clinics with minor illness were conveniently recruited. After obtaining informed written consent, venous blood was taken and serum 25(OH)D levels were determined by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Descriptive statistics were performed for age, sex, biochemical parameters. Socio-economic status (SES) was estimated using a wealth index, producing a weighted score. Scores were categorized into quintiles, with category 1 representing the poorest and category 5 the richest. Serum 25(OH)D was categorized: deficient as <10 ng/ml, insufficient as 10 - 29 ng/ml and sufficient as 30 - 100 ng/ml. Results: 31.88% children of 0 - 1 year had deficient serum 25(OH)D level and 52.17% children had insufficient level. Among 2 - 5 years’ group, 38.16% were deficient and 50% were insufficient. Among the 6 - 11 years group, 41.02% were deficient and 52.56% were insufficient. Among 12 - 16 years group, 46.75% were deficient and 51.95% were insufficient. That means, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and insufficiency rate is found very high among Bangladeshi children. Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among children in Bangladesh is high. The study recommended that vitamin D supplementation in Bangladeshi children should be formally launched from first day of birth up to adolescence.
Psychiatric Morbidity of Chikungunya among Children in Bangladesh  [PDF]
Sanjana Zaman, Mohammad Delwer Hossain Hawlader, Ariful Bari Chowdhury, Gias U. Ahsan
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.101007
Abstract: Chikungunya occurred as a major epidemic form in Bangladesh in 2017 after a gap of 6 years. The first outbreak of Chikungunya was identified in Bangladesh in 2008. Another outbreak occurred at Dhaka in 2011. But the current outbreak is huge and effecting almost two third of the population. Methods: This was a retrospective case series study, consisted of 60 children, among which 35 were male and 25 female, ages ranging from 5 to 15 years. Those children were recruited from child health care clinic with a history of two to five days’ high grade fever. All patients recruited were IgM antibody for Chikungunya positive (after 5th day of onset of fever) and on the other hand antibody for Dengue was negative. Two patients were excluded from the study due to Cerebral Palsy and Claustrophobia. Finally 58 patients were assessed. Informed written consent was obtained from all the legal guardians before data collection. Results: All patients presented with a history of two to five days’ high grade fever. The fever was preceded by a maculopapular rash over the trunk and extremities, headache, myalgia and arthralgia. Delirium (non-specified) was most prevalent psychiatric symptoms 45 (77%). Other psychiatric symptoms were Panic Disorder (56%), Phobic Disorder (36%), Neurasthenia or Fatigue syndrome (27%), Hypersomnia (13%) and Claustrophobia (5%). Conclusion: This study suggested that psychiatric morbidity among pediatric Chikungunya patients is very common. Knowledge of the pathogenesis is required to reduce the psychiatric complications and to prevent the morbidity. There is an emergence to invent the prophylactic vaccination, proper and early diagnosis of Chikungunya.
Prevalence of Gilbert Syndrome in Bangladesh  [PDF]
Sanjana Zaman, Hiroko Fukushima, Ryoko Suzuki, Mohammad Delwer Hossain Hawlader, Shoji Yoshimatsu, Yu Kanai, Gias U. Ahsan, Takashi Fukushima
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2018.81001
Abstract: Background: Gilbert syndrome (GS) is characterized by an elevated serum bil-irubin due to a polymorphism in Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronosyl Transferase (UGT1A1) gene. Several studies have found high prevalence of Gilbert Syn-drome in some Asian countries but still haven’t explored in Bangladesh. Aim of this study was to determine the allele frequencies of two different variants of UGT1A1 polymorphisms (UGT1A1 6 and UGT1A1 28) among Bangladeshi population. Materials and method: Total 150 unrelated volunteer from outpa-tient unit of the Central Hospital Limited, and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood was obtained from each subject and DNA extraction was done by Genomic DNA Isolation Kit. Polymorphisms of UGT1A1*6 (c.211G>A) was genotyped using the TaqMan Assay-on-Demand SNP Typing System and UGT1A1*28 (c.-53_-52TA) promoter repeat number polymorphism was determined by PCR method on an ABI PRISM 3130 Genetic Analyzer. Results: 57.3% of the study participants were male, mean age of them was 4.05 years. Minor allele fre-quency (MAF) was 0.442 (44.2%) for UGT1A1*28 and 0.047 (4.7%) for UGT1A1*6. Conclusion: This is the first ever study conducted among Bangla-deshi population to identify the Gilbert syndrome and found very high prevalence. Drugs those who are conjugated by UGT1A1 may lead to worse adverse event due to UGT1A1 polymorphism. Infants having decreased UGT1A1 enzyme activity develop neonatal jaundice and its further complication like Ker-nicterus. Higher incidence of Gilbert syndrome among Bangladeshi might be the alert for the clinicians treating neonatal jaundice.
Descriptive Epidemiology of Multidrug Resistance Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Bangladesh  [PDF]
Abu Bakar Siddik, Muhammad Maqsud Hossain, Sanjana Zaman, Basana Marma, Gias Uddin Ahsan, Mohammad Rashed Uzzaman, Arman Hossain, Mohammad Delwer Hossain Hawlader
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.64026
Abstract: Background: The number of reported MDR-TB cases has been increasing in recent years. Objectives: To describe the epidemiological profile of MDR-TB cases in Bangladesh. Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Settings: The study was conducted among the multi drug resistant tuberculosis patient admitted in the National Institute of Diseases of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH) Dhaka, Bangladesh. Samples: 148 confirmed cases of MDR-TB. Materials and Methods: Hospital admitted MRD-TB cases were randomly chosen from the above mentioned hospital. Semi-structured and pretested questionnaire were introduced by researcher. Clinical and treatment data i.e. duration of TB drug intake, report of sputum, X-ray and blood test etc. were extracted from the hospital record. Results: Study found, majority of the participants (56.1%) were in the age group of 16 - 30 years. 64.2% of the study subjects were married. Majority of the participants education were whether under primary or primary level. 24.3% participant’s family member and 14.5% of neighbor were having TB. Most common comorbidity were diabetes, pulmonary infection, hearing loss, psychiatric symptoms, chest pain, joint pain etc. 63.5% respondent had high degree of AFB for sputum positivity and more than 98% had positive finding in X-ray chest. On an average ESR was low and also few cases of extremely low ESR were found. 71.6% were under twenty four months regimen. Conclusion: We can conclude that, many possible factors for MDR-TB. There is an urgent need for further study to confirm the exact factors in Bangladesh and address those immediately.
Assessment of Radiological Contamination of Soils Due to Shipbreaking Using HPGe Digital Gamma-Ray Spectrometry System  [PDF]
Mohammad Kamal Hossain, Syed Mohammod Hossain, AKM Moinul Haque Meaze
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.11002
Abstract: A systematic study of the distribution of the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials as well as the anthropogenic radionuclide in the working environment of the Shipbreaking yards of Sitakunda, Chittagong, Bangladesh, has been carried out with an objective of establishing reliable base line data on the radiation level and hence to measure the radiation dose expose to the workers and to the inhabitants of the studied area. Fifteen Soil samples have been col-lected from five different Shipbreaking yards. Three sampling spots in each yard have been selected for having repre-sentative samples for the assessment of radioactivity releasing from 226Ra (238U), 232Th and their daughters and 40K us-ing the Digital Gamma-ray Spectrometry system coupled with a High Purity Germanium (HPGe; Canberra, 40% rela-tive efficiency, 1.8 keV resolution at 1332 keV of 60Co) detector and PC based Multichannel Analyzer (MCA, upto 16k channel). The software Genie 2000 (Canberra) and Hypermet PC have been used for data acquisition and gamma peak analysis, respectively. Each of fifteen soils (~200g) and two standards (IAEA-Soil-6 and 800Bq liquid 226Ra sprayed in Al2O3) were counted in cylindrical plastic pot using gamma spectrometry system for 20000 sec for the determination of activity concentrations of the radionuclides. The samples and standards were kept in air tied condition at least for 4 weeks before gamma counting to attain the radioactive equilibrium between daughters and parents of 226Ra (238U) and 232Th decay series. The Al2O3 based 226Ra standard was used for the construction of efficiency curve covering the wide gamma energy range. The IAEA-Soil-6 was used for quality control (QC) of the analysis. The homogeneity test and density corrections of Al2O3 based 226Ra standard were performed and implemented for the analysis. The results of ac-tivity concentrations have been used to assess the radium equivalent activities (Raeq) and the representative level index (Iγr) values in the experimental soil samples. The results have been compared with other global radioactivity measure-ments and evaluations.
Seasonal Variation of Food Composition and Feeding Activity of Small Adult Barramundi (Lates calcarifer, Bloch) in the South West Coastal Water near Khulna, Bangladesh
Syeda Mushahida-Al-Noor,Sheikh Kamruzzaman,Md. Delwer Hossain
Journal of Fisheries International , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/jfish.2012.77.82
Abstract: Only a few studies has been found on seasonal variation of food composition and feeding activity of small adult Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) from the South West coastal waters of Bangladesh. The food habits of small adult Barramundi in the Rupsha and Shibsha river were investigated by examining the gastro intestine contents of 720 specimens collected from June, 2010 to July, 2011. Food and feeding habits of small adult Barramundi were studied based on analysis of the gut contents. Gravimetric Method was adopted for determining the fullness of the stomach of the fish. The major components of the diet in the stomach of small adult Barramundi were teleosts (32.40%), macro-crustacean (22.65%), zooplankton (17.16%), algae (10.40%) and insects (9.89%). Monthly fluctuations were also witnessed in the percentage occurrence of stomachs with different degrees of fullness. It is evident that higher percentage of fullness of the stomach was recorded in pre-monsoon due to pre-spawning fattening process. Higher percentage of emptiness of the stomach was recorded in monsoon due to starvation during breeding seasons. It is also observed that the percentage of stomach fullness was higher in Summer than the percentage in Winter in small adult Barramundi.
EWS Knockdown and Taxifolin Treatment Induced Differentiation and Removed DNA Methylation from p53 Promoter to Promote Expression of Puma and Noxa for Apoptosis in Ewing’s Sarcoma  [PDF]
Mohammad Motarab Hossain, Swapan Kumar Ray
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.512114
Abstract: Ewing’s sarcoma is a pediatric tumor that mainly occurs in soft tissues and bones. Malignant characteristics of Ewing’s sarcoma are correlated with expression of EWS oncogene. We achieved knockdown of EWS expression using a plasmid vector encoding EWS short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to increase anti-tumor mechanisms of taxifolin (TFL), a new flavonoid, in human Ewing’s sarcoma cells in culture and animal models. Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis showed high expression of EWS in human Ewing’s sarcoma SK-N-MC and RD-ES cell lines. EWS shRNA plus TFL inhibited 80% cell viability and caused the highest decreases in EWS expression at mRNA and protein levels in both cell lines. Knockdown of EWS expression induced morphological features of differentiation. EWS shRNA plus TFL caused more alterations in molecular markers of differentiation than either agent alone. EWS shRNA plus TFL caused the highest decreases in cell migration with inhibition of survival, angiogenic and invasive factors. Knockdown of EWS expression was associated with removal of DNA methylation from p53 promoter, promoting expression of p53, Puma, and Noxa. EWS shRNA plus TFL induced the highest amounts of apoptosis with activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in both cell lines in culture. EWS shRNA plus TFL also inhibited growth of Ewing’s sarcoma tumors in animal models due to inhibition of differentiation inhibitors and angiogenic and invasive factors and also induction of activation of caspase-3 for apoptosis. Collectively, knockdown of EWS expression increased various anti-tumor mechanisms of TFL in human Ewing’s sarcoma in cell culture and animal models.
Performance Evaluation of Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antennas Loaded with Plastic and Barium-Titanate Substrates at GSM 1800 MHz Band  [PDF]
Mohammad Ababil Hossain, M. Shah Alam
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation (OJAPr) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojapr.2018.63004
Abstract:
In this paper, the resonance and radiation characteristics of patch antennas fabricated with two different types of dielectric substrates have been investigated and compared at GSM 1800 MHz band. At first, the above-stated characteristics of a patch antenna loaded with conventional plastic substrate have been investigated. Later a high permittivity dielectric material (barium titanate) has been used as the antenna substrate. The main goal here is to reduce the antenna size with a high permittivity dielectric material and then to compare its resonance and radiation performance with the earlier low permittivity substrate loaded prototype. It is found that with the use of high permittivity substrate the antenna volume gets smaller (about 6% of the plastic substrate prototype) although the gain decreases by around 2.5 dB.
Murder: A Critical Analysis of the Common Law Definition  [PDF]
Mohammad Belayet Hossain, Saida Talukder Rahi
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2018.93028
Abstract: English Criminal law provides a range of offences that recognizes the sanctity of life by prohibiting the unlawful killing of a human being. The generic term “homicide” covers offences such as murder, manslaughter and causing death by dangerous driving. What all homicides have in common is the unlawful killing of a human being; what distinguishes them is either the state of mind of the defendant who has caused death, or the defense available. This article shall critically analyze the common law definition of murder in various criminal homicide cases to find out if any concrete common law definition could be established. It will be seen throughout this article that though criminal law throws up many exceptions to this general proportion, there is no fixed common law definition of murder. This article shall prompt the question whether the legislature should rethink the forms of criminal homicide and the judiciary reconsiders some of the definitions of the mens rea words produced in recent years.
International Economic Law and Policy: A Comprehensive and Critical Analysis of the Historical Development  [PDF]
Mohammad Belayet Hossain, Saida Talukde Rahi
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2018.94031
Abstract: The aim of this article is to analyse the evolution of international economic law and its fundamental principles. It will examine the current framework of international economic law and the efforts made to regulate international economic relations between states as part of an attempt to establish a global order. It will begin by surveying efforts made prior to the establishment of the UN, and will then focus on developments that have taken place since the establishment of the UN. The objective of the article is to provide a comprehensive and critical appraisal of the law developed to govern economic relations between different states, and between states and private economic actors such as multinational enterprises.
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