Depression is predicted to become the second highest disease burden by 2020 as well as being a common mental health condition across the globe. Nevertheless, the presentation of depression varies depending on several factors with the patient’s cultural background playing a significant role. Although depression is such a universal condition, the manner of how a patient presents not only affects the clinician’s ability to make a diagnosis, but ultimately affects the wellbeing of the patient. It is therefore paramount that as clinicians we appreciate how culture not only affects the presentation of depression but also how cultural beliefs affect the patient’s acceptance of such a diagnosis.
Botrytis cinerea affects plant yield and quality. Many Botrytis species are morphologically similar leading to difficulty in pathogen identification. Spectroscopy can be used to identify pathogenic fungi. This study describes a novel method for fungal characterization. Here, we determined the spectral signatures of different B. cinerea isolates as well as various fungal genera. A unique spectral pattern was investigated at both genus and isolate level. The short wave infrared II (2055 - 2315 nm) provided the best discrimination between the fungal samples observed. Moreover, the spectral analysis was performed on non-transformed data and investigated significant differences among fungal genera as well as B. cinerea isolates, while the results investigated high similarity among replicates of the same isolate of B. cinerea. The results of each spectral test were obtained reproducibly without an expensive cost consumable during sample preparation and measurements. This innovative approach would allow us to identify, discriminate and classify fungi rapidly and inexpensively at the genus, species and isolate level.
Most studies investigating genetics of
dementia have focused on Alzheimer’s disease, but little is known about the
genetics of vascular dementia (VD). The aim of this study was to identify the
association between Apolipoprotein E4 (Apo E4) genotype and VD in cerebrally
infarcted patients. The study was conducted
on 100 patients with cerebral infarction: 50 had VD (cases) and 50 didn’t have
dementia (controls). Diagnosis of VD was based on Mini-Mental State
Examination, Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition criteria for the diagnosis of VD (DSM-IV), Hachinski Ischemic Score, and
computed tomography of the brain (CT brain). Apo E4 allele was assessed through
DNA genotyping. The study showed that hypertension
(p = 0.027, OR = 4.71), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.003, OR = 6.05) and Apo E4
allele (p = 0.017, OR = 13.39) were the independent risk factors of VD among studied participants. The study concluded that cerebrally infarcted
patients with Apo E4 genotype are
at high risk of developing VD.
The photovoltaic (PV) generator exhibits a
nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristic that its maximum power point
(MPP) varies with solar insolation. In this paper, a maximum power point
tracking (MPPT) method using fuzzy logic control (FLC) is presented. This
method is based on the concept of perturbation and observation (P & O)
algorithm to track the MPP of a stand-alone PV system. The controller is used
to maximize the power generated by the PV array and the simulation of the
system is implemented in MATLAB. Simulation results are compared with those
obtained by the conventional P & O controller. Results show that the FLC
gives better and more reliable control for the stand-alone PV system feeding
Multi-Walled carbon nanotubes are used as preconcentrating probes for the quantitative determination of trace cadmium, copper and lead in environmental and biological sample using graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and inductively coupled Plasma Optical Emission spectrometry. The method is based on the electrostatic interactions of positively charged Cd+, Cu+ and Pb+ with the negatively charged multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for the preconcentration and isolation of analytes from sample solutions. Effective preconcentration of trace cadmium, copper and lead was achieved in a pH range of 5 - 7, 5 - 7 and 4 - 7, respectively. The retained cadmium, copper and lead were efficiently eluted with 0.3 mol·L-1 HCl for graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry determination. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes packed micro-column exhibited fairly fast kinetics for the adsorption of cadmium, copper and lead, permitting the use of high sample flow rates up to at least 3 mL·min-1 for the flow injection on micro-column preconcentration without the loss of the retention efficiency. The detection limits (3σ) were 0.03, 0.01 and 0.5 ng·mL-1 for Cd, Cu and Pb, respectively. The relative standard deviation under optimum condition is less than 2.9% (n = 10). The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace Cd, Cu and Pb in a variety of environmental and biological samples.