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A Modified Limberg Flap versus Z Plasty Flap Technique in Management of Recurrent Pilonidal Disease: A Comparative Prospective Study  [PDF]
Asmaa Gaber R., Mohamed Yousef A., Mohamed Abdel Shafy Mohamed, Abd-El-Aal A. Saleem, Hassan A. Abdallah, Hamdy M. Husein
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104715
Abstract:
Background: There are controversies about the etiology and management of recurrent pilonidal sinus. The numbers of techniques are testament in treating pilonidal sinus (PNS) and no single procedure is superior in all aspects. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to compare two operative procedures (modified Limberg flap versus Z plasty flap) in management of recurrent pilonidal sinus, regarding their complications including recurrences of the disease, morbidity, hospital stay, day off work and postoperative complications. Patients and methods: This is comparative prospective study between modified Limberg flap and Z plasty flap in treatment of recurrent pilonidal sinus. 30 patients were divided into 2 groups: Group (1) treated with modified Limberg flap and group (2) treated with Z plasty, and we followed up the patients in both groups for postoperative complications, hospital stay, day off work, recurrences, patients satisfactions. Results: Operative time, hospital stay duration, complete wound healing was longer in group (2) Z plasty group. Mobilization was early in MLF group than Z plasty group (1 day versus 2 days). Time to return to work, it was 14 (12 - 16) days in MLF groups and 18 (15 - 22) in Z plasty group (p < 0.001). Infection occurred only in one in MLF group (1) and 2 patients in Z plasty group (2). The mean time for complete healing of the wound after Modified Limberg flap group (1) was 16 ± 4.2 days while in Z plasty group (2) it was 22 ± 6.8 days. Satisfaction score was better in MLF group (1). Recurrence hadn’t occurred in any of the patients included in this study during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Both of modified Limberg flap and Z-plasty technique are used to cause flattening of the natal cleft, thus reducing local recurrence rates. So, we recommend use of flap technique for recurrent pilonidal sinus patients; modified Limberg transposition flap is better than Z plasty flap, because of the less hospital stay time, early return to work, and cosmetically more accepted as it has less postoperative complications. Also Z plasty flap has a major limitation as it is difficult to apply if there is a wide defect in the horizontal axis.
Cultural Influences on the Presentation of Depression  [PDF]
Ahmed Mohamed Abdel Shafi, Reem Mohamed Abdel Shafi
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.44045
Abstract:

Depression is predicted to become the second highest disease burden by 2020 as well as being a common mental health condition across the globe. Nevertheless, the presentation of depression varies depending on several factors with the patient’s cultural background playing a significant role. Although depression is such a universal condition, the manner of how a patient presents not only affects the clinician’s ability to make a diagnosis, but ultimately affects the wellbeing of the patient. It is therefore paramount that as clinicians we appreciate how culture not only affects the presentation of depression but also how cultural beliefs affect the patient’s acceptance of such a diagnosis.

Spectral footprint of Botrytis cinerea, a novel way for fungal characterization  [PDF]
Mohamed Aboelghar, Hala Abdel Wahab
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.43050
Abstract:

Botrytis cinerea affects plant yield and quality. Many Botrytis species are morphologically similar leading to difficulty in pathogen identification. Spectroscopy can be used to identify pathogenic fungi. This study describes a novel method for fungal characterization. Here, we determined the spectral signatures of different B. cinerea isolates as well as various fungal genera. A unique spectral pattern was investigated at both genus and isolate level. The short wave infrared II (2055 - 2315 nm) provided the best discrimination between the fungal samples observed. Moreover, the spectral analysis was performed on non-transformed data and investigated significant differences among fungal genera as well as B. cinerea isolates, while the results investigated high similarity among replicates of the same isolate of B. cinerea. The results of each spectral test were obtained reproducibly without an expensive cost consumable during sample preparation and measurements. This innovative approach would allow us to identify, discriminate and classify fungi rapidly and inexpensively at the genus, species and isolate level.

Introduction of Fertigation in Sugarcane Production for Optimization of Water and Fertilizers Use  [PDF]
Daffa Alla Mohamed Abdel Wahab
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.511102
Abstract: A fertigation experiment was conducted during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons under com-mercial field conditions in Kenana Sugar Scheme, Sudan (latitude 13.10’N and longitude 32.40’E) in heavy clay soils, with 65% clay, 24% silt, 11% sand and pH 7.5 - 8.5. The primary objective of this study was to compare different strategies for timing of injection, to develop management practices on the efficient use of water and fertilizers in production of sugarcane, maximize yield, and improve quality. In both seasons four treatments were studied in a randomized complete block design with three replications as: Injection of the dissolved urea (46% N) during entire irrigation time (100%), during the first half of the irrigation time, during the second half of the irrigation time, and Mechanical application of urea. The first three treatments were applied with the third irrigation cycle through the irrigation water so that nitrogen fertilizer in form of dissolved urea (46% N) was injected in irrigation water by means of pressure differential tank system which is based on the principle of a pressure differential being created by a valve and flow regulator forcing and injecting a varying amount of dissolved fertilizer into the irrigation water. In the fourth treatment the fertilizer spreader and rigid tine cultivator were used for urea application just before the third irrigation event. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and the amount of water required for irrigating sugarcane plants were calculated according to its phenological stages using Peman-Monteith approach. The results of this study support the general finding that the injection during the entire irrigation (100% of the irrigation) produced the best distribution uniformity of added urea. In this study, injection during the first half of the irrigation was not statistically different from injection during 100% of the irrigation.
The Relation between Apolipoprotein E4 Genotype and Vascular Dementia  [PDF]
Tomader Taha Abdel Rahman, Safia Mohamed Shehata
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2014.33029
Abstract:

Most studies investigating genetics of dementia have focused on Alzheimer’s disease, but little is known about the genetics of vascular dementia (VD). The aim of this study was to identify the association between Apolipoprotein E4 (Apo E4) genotype and VD in cerebrally infarcted patients. The study was conducted on 100 patients with cerebral infarction: 50 had VD (cases) and 50 didn’t have dementia (controls). Diagnosis of VD was based on Mini-Mental State Examination, Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition criteria for the diagnosis of VD (DSM-IV), Hachinski Ischemic Score, and computed tomography of the brain (CT brain). Apo E4 allele was assessed through DNA genotyping. The study showed that hypertension (p = 0.027, OR = 4.71), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.003, OR = 6.05) and Apo E4 allele (p = 0.017, OR = 13.39) were the independent risk factors of VD among studied participants. The study concluded that cerebrally infarcted patients with Apo E4 genotype are at high risk of developing VD.

IDENTIFYING OPINION LEADERS USING SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS, A STUDY IN AN EGYPTIAN VILLAGE
Mohamed Mohamed Mohamed Abdel-Ghany
Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This research used four approaches to identify opinion leaders in two networks in an Egyptian Village. One approach was used for identifying single opinion leaders (network centrality measures), and three approaches were used to identify sets of key players (group centrality, network efficiency, KPP-Pos and KPP-Neg). Social network analysis software (UCINET 6) was used for individual and group centrality measures. The study used the key player software to identify sets of key players under KPP-Pos and KPP-Neg. The study identified different opinion leaders using the four different techniques. This research gives an opportunity for further work on a comprehensive approach to identify key players in social networks to overcome the problem of identifying different leaders by different techniques without an absolute answer for the question concerning which technique will capture the best leaders.
Fuzzy P & O Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm for a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System Feeding Hybrid Loads  [PDF]
Sahar M. Sadek, Faten H. Fahmy, Abd El-Shafy A. Nafeh, Mohamed Abu El-Magd
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2014.52003
Abstract:

The photovoltaic (PV) generator exhibits a nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristic that its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. In this paper, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method using fuzzy logic control (FLC) is presented. This method is based on the concept of perturbation and observation (P & O) algorithm to track the MPP of a stand-alone PV system. The controller is used to maximize the power generated by the PV array and the simulation of the system is implemented in MATLAB. Simulation results are compared with those obtained by the conventional P & O controller. Results show that the FLC gives better and more reliable control for the stand-alone PV system feeding hybrid loads.

Electrical Performance Study of a Large Area Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cell Using a Current Shunt and a Micropotentiometer  [PDF]
Hala Mohamed Abdel Mageed, Ahmed Faheem Zobaa, Ahmed Ghitas, Mohamed Helmy Abdel Raouf, Mohamed Sabry, Abla Hosni Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed Mamdouh Abdel Aziz
Engineering (ENG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2010.24036
Abstract: In this paper, a new technique using a Current Shunt and a Micropotentiometer has been used to study the electrical performance of a large area multicrystalline silicon solar cell at outdoor conditions. The electrical performance is mainly described by measuring both cell short circuit current and open circuit voltage. The measurements of this cell by using multimeters suffer from some problems because the cell has high current intensity with low output voltage. So, the solar cell short circuit current values are obtained by measuring the voltage developed across a known resistance Current Shunt. Samples of the obtained current values are accurately calibrated by using a Micropotentiometer (μpot) thermal element (TE) to validate this new measuring technique. Moreover, the solar cell open circuit voltage has been measured. Besides, the cell output power has been calculated and can be correlated with the measured incident radiation.
Ultra Sensitive Determination and Preconcentration of Cd2+, Cu2+ and Pb2+ after Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Adsorption  [PDF]
Ashraf Mohamed Abdel-Lateef, Ramadan Abdel-Wahed Mohamed, Hazem Hassan Mahmoud
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2013.31002
Abstract:

Multi-Walled carbon nanotubes are used as preconcentrating probes for the quantitative determination of trace cadmium, copper and lead in environmental and biological sample using graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and inductively coupled Plasma Optical Emission spectrometry. The method is based on the electrostatic interactions of positively charged Cd+, Cu+ and Pb+ with the negatively charged multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for the preconcentration and isolation of analytes from sample solutions. Effective preconcentration of trace cadmium, copper and lead was achieved in a pH range of 5 - 7, 5 - 7 and 4 - 7, respectively. The retained cadmium, copper and lead were efficiently eluted with 0.3 mol·L-1 HCl for graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry determination. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes packed micro-column exhibited fairly fast kinetics for the adsorption of cadmium, copper and lead, permitting the use of high sample flow rates up to at least 3 mL·min-1 for the flow injection on micro-column preconcentration without the loss of the retention efficiency. The detection limits (3σ) were 0.03, 0.01 and 0.5 ng·mL-1 for Cd, Cu and Pb, respectively. The relative standard deviation under optimum condition is less than 2.9% (n = 10). The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace Cd, Cu and Pb in a variety of environmental and biological samples.

Control of Dams Using Policies When the Input Process Is a Nonnegative L\primoslcurlybercurlybvy Process
Mohamed Abdel-Hameed
International Journal of Stochastic Analysis , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/916952
Abstract: We consider policy of a dam in which the water input is an increasing Lévy process. The release rate of the water is changed from 0 to and from to 0 at the moments when the water level upcrosses level and downcrosses level , respectively. We determine the potential of the dam content and compute the total discounted as well as the long-run average cost. We also find the stationary distribution of the dam content. Our results extend the results in the literature when the water input is assumed to be a Poisson process. 1. Introduction and Summary Lam and Lou [1] consider the control of a finite dam where the water input is a Wiener process, using policies. In these policies, the water release rate is assumed to be zero until the water reaches level as soon as this happens the water is released at rate until the water content reaches level Abdel-Hameed and Nakhi [2] discuss the optimal control of a finite dam using policies, using the total discounted as well as the long-run average costs. They consider the cases where the water input is a Wiener process and a geometric Brownian motion process. Lee and Ahn [3] consider the long-run average cost case when the water input is a compound Poisson process. Abdel-Hameed [4] treats the case where the water input is a compound Poisson process with a positive drift. He obtains the total discounted cost as well as the long-run average cost. Bae et al. [5] consider the policy in assessing the workload of an M/G/1 queuing system. Bae et al. [6] consider the log-run average cost for policy in a finite dam, when the input process is a compound Poisson process. In this paper, we consider the policy for the more general case where the water input is assumed to be an increasing Lévy process. At any time, the release rate can be increased from 0 to with a starting cost or decreased from to zero with a closing cost . Moreover, for each unit of output, a reward is received. Furthermore, there is a penalty cost which accrues at a rate , where is a bounded measurable function on the state space of the content process. We will use the term “increasing” to mean “nondecreasing” throughout this paper. In Section 2, we discuss the potentials of the processes of interest as well as the other results that are needed to compute the total discounted and long-run average costs. In Section 3, we obtain formulas for the cost functionals using the total discounted as well as the long-run average cost cases. In Section 4, we discuss the special cases where the water input is an increasing compound Poisson process as well as inverse Gaussian
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