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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32 matches for " Modeste Kiumbu Nzita "
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Food Insecurity Is Associated with Increased Risk of Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-Infected Adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Cross-Sectional Study
Patou Masika Musumari, Edwin Wouters, Patrick Kalambayi Kayembe, Modeste Kiumbu Nzita, Samclide Mutindu Mbikayi, S. Pilar Suguimoto, Teeranee Techasrivichien, Bhekumusa Wellington Lukhele, Christina El-saaidi, Peter Piot, Masako Ono-Kihara, Masahiro Kihara
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085327
Abstract: Background Food insecurity is increasingly reported as an important barrier of patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in both resource-poor and rich settings. However, unlike in resource rich-settings, very few quantitative studies to date have investigated the association of food insecurity with patient adherence to ART in Sub-Saharan Africa. The current study examines the association between food insecurity and adherence to ART among HIV-infected adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods and Findings This is a cross-sectional quantitative study of patients receiving ART at three private and one public health facilities in Kinshasa, DRC. Participants were consecutively recruited into the study between April and November 2012. Adherence was measured using a combined method coupling pharmacy refill and self-reported adherence. Food insecurity was the primary predictor, and was assessed using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Of the 898 participants recruited into the study, 512 (57%) were food insecure, and 188 (20.9%) were not adherent to ART. Food insecurity was significantly associated with non-adherence to ART (AOR, 2.06; CI, 1.38–3.09). We also found that perceived harmfulness of ART and psychological distress were associated respectively with increased (AOR, 1.95; CI, 1.15–3.32) and decreased (AOR, 0.31; CI, 0.11–0.83) odds of non-adherence to ART. Conclusion Food insecurity is prevalent and a significant risk factor for non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected individuals in the DRC. Our findings highlight the urgent need for strategies to improve food access among HIV-infected on ART in order to ensure patient adherence to ART and ultimately the long-term success of HIV treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Retention in a NGO Supported Antiretroviral Program in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Olivier Koole, Lucien Kalenga, Modeste Kiumbu, Joris Menten, Robert W. Ryder, Henri Mukumbi, Robert Colebunders
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040971
Abstract: Background Retention of patients in ART care is a major challenge in sub-Saharan programs. Retention is also one of the key indicators to evaluate the success of ART programs. Methods and Findings A retrospective review of 1500 randomly selected medical charts of adult ART patients from a local non-governmental (NGO) supported ART program in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Retention was defined as any visit to the clinic in the 4 months prior to the abstraction date. Retention over time and across different sites was described. The relationship between patient characteristics and retention rates at 1 year was also examined. 1450 patients were included in the analysis. The overall retention rates were 81.4% (95% CI: 79.3–83.4), 75.2% (95% CI: 72.8–77.3), 65.0% (95% CI: 62.3–67.6) and 57.2% (95% CI: 54.0–60.3) at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years respectively. The retention rates between sites varied between 62.1% and 90.6% at 6 months and between 55.5% and 86.2% at 1 year. During multivariable analysis weight below 50 kg (aHR: 1.33, 95%CI: 1.05–1.69), higher WHO stage at initiation (aHR: 1.22, 95%CI 0.85–1.76 for stage 3 and aHR: 2.98, 95%CI: 1.93–4.59 for stage 4), and male sex (aHR: 1.32, 95%CI: 1.05–1.65) remained as significant risk factors for attrition during the first year after ART initiation. Other independent risk factors were year of initiation (aHR: 1.73, 95%CI: 1.26–2.38 for the year 2007 and aHR: 3.06, 95%CI: 2.26–4.14 for the period 2008–2009), and site. Conclusions Retention is a major problem in DRC, while coverage of patients on ART is still very low. With the flattening of funding for HIV care and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, and with decreasing funding worldwide, maximizing retention during the much needed scaling-up will even be more important.
Older Adults Accessing HIV Care and Treatment and Adherence in the IeDEA Central Africa Cohort
Jamie Newman,Jeniffer Iriondo-Perez,Jennifer Hemingway-Foday,Anna Freeman,Wilfred Akam,Ashu Balimba,Lucien Kalenga,Marcel Mbaya,Brigitte Mfangam Molu,Henri Mukumbi,Théodore Niyongabo,Joseph Atibu,Innocent Azinyue,Modeste Kiumbu
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/725713
Abstract: Background. Very little is known about older adults accessing HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from 18,839 HIV-positive adults at 10 treatment programs in Burundi, Cameroon, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We compared characteristics of those aged 50+ with those aged 18–49 using chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to determine if age was associated with medication adherence. Results. 15% of adults were 50+ years. Those aged 50+ were more evenly distributed between women and men (56% versus 44%) as compared to those aged 18–49 (71% versus 29%) and were more likely to be hypertensive (8% versus 3%) ( ). Those aged 50+ were more likely to be adherent to their medications than those aged 18–49 ( ). Adults who were not heavy drinkers reported better adherence as compared to those who reported drinking three or more alcoholic beverages per day ( ). Conclusions. Older adults differed from their younger counterparts in terms of medication adherence, sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. 1. Introduction 2.8 million people living with HIV worldwide are over the age of 50 [1]. In the USA, 24% of all people living with HIV are older than 50 [2]. In sub-Saharan Africa, more than 14% of adults with HIV are 50 years or older, and this population is growing [3]. Perceived risk of contracting HIV among older adults is low [4] despite physiological changes associated with aging which place older adults at increased risk of contracting HIV [5, 6]. HIV disease progresses more rapidly among older adults than among their younger counterparts, and mortality among older adults is higher after developing an AIDS-defining illness [7, 8]. Older adults are more likely to be diagnosed at late stage of HIV disease progression than their younger counterparts [8, 9]. This may be due, in part, to low perceived susceptibility of HIV among older adults [10] as well as their healthcare providers [11]. Orel et al. [12] evaluated state departments of public health in the USA and concluded that there is a dearth of HIV/AIDS risk-reduction materials targeting older adults. A study conducted in eight sub-Saharan African countries found that older adults had lower levels of knowledge about HIV, and, among older adults, women had the lowest levels of HIV-related knowledge [10]. Few prevention programs in this setting are aimed at older adults [6]. Interest in HIV and aging is mounting as evidenced by the increasing body of literature focused on aging, the emergence of meetings such as the 1st International Workshop
La nouvelle économie politique en Afrique: une analyse des enjeux
étienne Modeste Assiga Ateba
Africa Development , 2006,
Abstract: The purpose of the present article is to analyse in the context of less democratic political systems the stakes – in terms of equitable revenue repartition – of the political economy of structural reforms which are still pervasive in Africa, especially in the line of what is currently designed as the ‘policy of the “second generation” of reforms'. In this respect, the hypothesis developed in this study is that the State is confronted with second order constraints in its relations with both national and international organisations and the markets, the reason being that strategic behaviours of economic agents do not necessary converge towards an optimal Nash equilibrium. These divergences affect growth and development of Sub-Saharan African countries so that such equilibrium seems rather difficult to reach. To overcome it, the State could play a decisive role by introducing competition in order to increase the organisational efficiency of the economy; however the pertinence of this competition still has to be proved in Africa. Africa Development Vol. 31(1) 2006: 89-117
Backward stochastic differential equations with oblique reflection and local Lipschitz drift
Auguste Aman,Modeste N'Zi
International Journal of Stochastic Analysis , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/s1048953303000248
Abstract: We consider reflected backward stochastic differential equations with time and space dependent coefficients in an orthant, and with oblique reflection. Existence and uniqueness of solution are established assuming local Lipschitz continuity of the drift, Lipschitz continuity and uniform spectral radius conditions on the reflection matrix.
Homogenization of reflected semilinear PDE with nonlinear Neumann boundary condition
Auguste Aman,Modeste N'Zi
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: We study the homogenization problem of semi linear reflected partial differential equations (reflected PDEs for short) with nonlinear Neumann conditions. The non-linear term is a function of the solution but not of its gradient. The proof are fully probabilistic and uses weak convergence of associated reflected generalized backward differential stochastic equations (reflected GBSDEs in short).
Le dictionnaire comme outil d'enseignement des langues au Gabon
Guy-Modeste Ekwa Ebanéga
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/20-0-140
Abstract: RéSUMé: Le but de cet article est de montrer dans quelle mesure le dictionnaire peut être un outil d'enseignement des langues gabonaises. Dans un pays, comme le Gabon, caractérisé par une pluralité de langues locales et étrangères, le dictionnaire sera non seulement un ouvrage de référence contenant l'ensemble des mots d'une langue et fournissant pour chacun des données phonétiques, morphologiques, sémantiques, étymologiques etc. Il sera également un outil didactique permettant aux étudiants et aux élèves d'acquérir une compétence nécessaire de leurs langues. Il sera encore un moyen efficace qui va permettre aux usagers de ma triser leurs langues et dépasser les frontières linguistiques qui existent entre les langues. Mots clés: DICTIONNAIRE, LANGUES GABONAISES, ENSEIGNEMENT, UNITéS LEXICOGRAPHIQUES, STRUCTURE DU DICTIONNAIRE, PHONéTIQUE, MORPHOLOGIE, SéMANTIQUE, VOCABULAIRE, éTYMOLOGIE ABSTRACT: The Dictionary as Tool for Teaching the Gabonese Languages. The aim of this article is to show to what extent the dictionary can be a tool for teaching the Gabonese languages. In a country like Gabon, characterized by a multiplicity of local and foreign languages, the dictionary will not only be a reference work containing a collection of the words of a language and providing for each its phonetic, morphologic, semantic and etymologic etc. data. It will also be a didactic tool allowing students and pupils to acquire the necessary competence in their languages. It will further be an efficient means which will allow users to master their languages and to overcome the linguistic boundaries existing between the languages.
Parasitism of Mesohomotoma tessmanni Aulmann (Psylloidea, Carsidaridae) Psyllid Pest of Theobroma cacao and Octolobus spectabilis (Sterculiaceae) in Cameroon and Taxonomy of Parasitoids
Tamesse Joseph Lebel,Tiyo Boniface Modeste
Journal of Agronomy , 2007,
Abstract: Mesohomotoma tessmanni is the pest of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and Octolobus spectabilis W. in Cameroon. The parasitoids complex of this psyllid was studied in 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2006 in some cocoa areas in Cameroon (Yaounde, Obala and Santchou). Two hundred and ninety eight (298) and three hundred and twenty nine (329) mummified larvae were collected on T. cacao and O. spectabilis, respectively. The rate of parasitism was estimate as 78.1%. The emergence level was 87.9% on T. cacao and 75.4% on O. spectabilis. The emerged parasitoids belong to the families Encyrtidae and Figitidae. The Encyrtidae’s specie belongs to the genus Psyllaephagus; this specie is described, Psyllaephagus mesohomotomae sp.n.. The Figitidae’s specie belongs to the genus Dilyta; this species is described, Dilyta camerounensis sp.n.. These important parasitoids will help to reduce the level of the infestations of cocoa during the process of the biological control of the psyllid in Cameroon.
Consistency in Z-R Relationship Variability Regardless Precipitating Systems, Climatic Zones Observed from Two Types of Disdrometer  [PDF]
Bakary Bamba, Abé Delfin Ochou, Eric-Pascal Zahiri, Modeste Kacou
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.45083
Abstract:

Data from rain Drop Size Distributions gathered on five sites in Africa as well as those of the pilot site in Kourou (French Guyana, South America), located in different climatic zones, and collected by two types of disdrometer (the impact JW RD-69 disdrometer and the Optical Spectro-Pluviometer, OSP) are used to study the consistency of the reflectivity factor-rain rate at the ground (Z-R) relationship variability. The results clearly confirm that the relationship Z-R knows a large spatial variability, from a type of precipitation to another and within the same precipitation regardless the type of disdrometer used for DSD measurements. Base on the similarity of the relations reflectivity factor-rain rate and ratio median volume diameter over the total number of drops-rain rate, the variability of the Z-R coefficients (A, b) through the simultaneously implication of the size and number of drops which characterize the DSD was exhibited. It was shown that the relationships A-α and b-β designed to understand the involvement of parameters D0 and NT of DSD in

Reflected generalized BSDEs with random time and applications
Auguste Aman,Abouo Elouaflin,Modeste N'zi
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, we aim to study solutions of reflected generalized BSDEs, involving the integral with respect to a continuous process, which is the local time of the diffusion on the boundary. We consider both a finite random terminal and a infinite horizon. In both case, we establish an existence and uniqueness result. Next, as an application, we get an American pricing option in infinite horizon and we give a probabilistic formula for the viscosity solution of an obstacle problem for elliptic PDEs with a nonlinear Neumann boundary condition.
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