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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1043 matches for " Mitsuru Shoji "
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Safe Hydroformylation of Aliphatic Alkene in a Flow Reactor  [PDF]
Hisashi Masui, Eiki Honda, Sakura Niitsu, Mitsuru Shoji, Takashi Takahashi
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2018.81009
Abstract: Despite hydroformylation being a very efficient method for the transformation of alkenes, it is not commonly employed in laboratories owing to the flammable/toxic nature of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases and the necessity of high-pressure equipment in a batch system. Flow chemistry often raises the safety profiles against high-pressure and toxic gases because the diameter of the flow reactor is small. Herein, we show that aliphatic alkenes can be safely hydroformylated in a flow reactor. In our flow method, although the target hydroformylated product was obtained in a low yield (19%), toxic gases were safely treated using a flow reactor. Better yields could possibly be achieved by recycling of the unreacted alkene.
Selective Monoprotection of Symmetrical Diols in a Flow Reactor  [PDF]
Hisashi Masui, Masaru Takizawa, Yuki Sakai, Yasuhiro Kajiwara, Kiyofumi Wanibuchi, Mitsuru Shoji, Takashi Takahashi
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2018.82019
Abstract: Desymmetrization reactions provide a powerful approach for the construction of complex molecules. Various methods have been developed for the selective monoprotection of symmetrical diols; however, their application to large-scale operations is limited. In this study, the monotetrahydropyranylation of symmetrical diols in a flow reactor has been developed, whereby the length of the flow reactor tube and the amount of acid were optimized. A higher selectivity for the monoprotected derivative was observed when the reaction was performed in a flow reactor compared with that observed in a conventional batch experiment. The efficient flow method developed herein can be applied to large-scale synthesis by numbering up the flow reactor without affecting the selectivity and yield. Since monoprotection can be achieved without using a large excess of diol, our developed flow method is effective when expensive diol must be used.
Implications of double-stranded DNA structure for development, cancer and evolution  [PDF]
Mitsuru Furusawa
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2011.13014
Abstract: Genomes consist of DNA and the genetic information is encoded in a linear form of DNA. According to the central dogma of molecular biology, the genetic information is transcribed into mRNA, and mRNA translated into a polypeptide. Gene expression should be precisely regulated in order to create progeny. Unlike RNA, DNA has double-stranded structure. Is there any specific biological reason why DNA has evolved to possess double-stranded structure? In this presentation, biological implications of the double-stranded structure of the DNA molecule will be reviewed. In eukaryotes, it has been reported that cells might have the machinery that distinguishes one DNA-strand from the other, and that the strand-recognition mechanism might control development, cancer and evolution. Three prominent models concerning biological implications of replication of double-stranded DNA will be discussed: 1) Klar’s “somatic strand-specific imprinting and selective chromatid segregation model” for differential gene regulation, 2) Cairns’ “immortal strand inheritance model” for cancer prohibition, and 3) the “disparity mutagenesis model” for the acceleration of evolution proposed by the present author.
Animal Model of Lung Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Tool for the Development of Anti-Metastatic Therapeutics  [PDF]
Mitsuru Futakuchi
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.42A051

We observed that N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) given after a multi-carcinogenic treatment induces liver carcinomas with 56% lung metastasis. An additional treatment with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) with NMOR further enhanced the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with lung metastasis. We have further revised the duration of NMOR treatment to establish an animal model with a simple experimental protocol and an appropriate experimental duration to facilitate investigation exploring the mechanisms of HCC metastasis and development of anti-metastatic therapeutics. We observed that DEN exposure followed by a 16-week treatment with NMOR to be a most efficient protocol for the induction of HCC metastasizing to the lung. In this review, we will discuss about the usefulness of animal models for induction of highly metastatic HCC and the assessment of the efficacy of anti-metastatic therapeutics. Additionally, we will also discuss use of these models in analysis of individual steps in the metastatic process by using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin and indomethacin, two nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitors, pentoxifylline and N-acetyl-L-cysteine.

A Reaction-Diffusion Algorithm for Segmentation of Three-Dimensional Sinusoidal Networks in Rats Fed a High-Fat and High-Cholesterol Diet: New Insights and Evaluation  [PDF]
Hiroto Shoji
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.610004
Abstract: Microstructures in the liver are primarily composed of hepatocytes, hepatic blood, and biliary vessels. Because each hepatocyte comes in contact with both vessels, these vessels form three-dimensional (3D) periodic network patterns. Confocal microscope images are useful for observing 3D structures; however, it is necessary to explicitly describe the vessel structures using 3D images of sinusoidal endothelial cells. For this purpose, we propose a new approach for image segmentation based on the Turing reaction-diffusion model, in which temporal and spatial patterns are self-organized. Turing conditions provided reliable tools for describing the 3D structures. Moreover, using the proposed method, the sinusoidal patterns of rats fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet were examined; these rats exhibited pathological features similar to those of human patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis related to metabolic syndrome. The findings showed that the parameter in diffusion terms differed significantly among the experimental groups. This observation provided a heuristic argument for parameter selection leading to pattern recognition problems in diseased rats.
CO2 Absorption Performance of “Dry Matter” Prepared with Amino Acid-Based Ionic Liquids  [PDF]
Masaya Miyake, Mitsuru Satoh
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2017.73016
Abstract: Dry Matter (DM) is a powdery substance which is composed of micro droplets and surrounding hydrophobic silica nanoparticles. Because of the much larger surface area than that of the corresponding bulk liquid, DM, which contains amino-functionalized ionic liquids (ILs), is a promising CO2 absorption material provided with quick absorption speed. In the present study, we successfully prepared powdery DMs by utilizing aqueous solutions of amino acid-based ILs (tetraethylammonium glycine [N2222][Gly], and tetraethylammonium alanine [N2222][Ala]). Although a DM with lysine-based IL (N2222) [Lys]) was also prepared, only a soufflé-like material was obtained. We measured CO2 absorption performance for the DMs to find that the mass-base absorption ability (mass-base A.A.) (CO2 mol/DM kg) and the mol-base one (CO2 mol/IL mol) of [N2222][Lys] were ca. two times of [N2222][Gly] and [N2222][Ala], while the absorption speed of the former was inferior to the latter two, i.e., ca.15 min vs. 5 min for 90% absorption. In order to improve the mass-base A.A. of [N2222][Gly], we used 10% of aqueous poly(allylamine) (PAlAm) solution instead of water. The resultant mass-base A.A. proved to be significantly larger (1.9) than either of those of the respective single component systems (1.1 and 0.75 for the bulk IL and aq. PAlAm, respectively), and comparable to the A.A. (1.6 - 2.5) of 20% - 30% monoethanolamine solution which is commonly used in industrial application.
Effects of hot-water extract of Paecilomyces hepiali on hypertension parameters in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  [PDF]
Alfred Chioza, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.48048

In this study, effects of hot water extract of Paecilomyces hepiali mycelia on hypertension parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. The tested parameters included blood pressure, blood and urine biochemical composition, renin and angiotensin II levels in the blood. Prior to these tests, the extract was examined for toxicity. The fungus was cultivated in a solid medium composed of 40 g brown rice, 0.32 g glucose, 0.65 g sucrose, 2 g peptone and 65 ml corn steep liquor. No abnormality or harmful effects were observed in the toxicity test. Administration of a continuous-dose, once daily, to SHR for 27 weeks (from 13 weeks of age) decreased the systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly. Levels of blood urea nitrogen, β-lipoprotein lipid peroxides and low density lipoprotein were significantly lower in the treated groups when compared to the control group. Urinary protein was significantly reduced in the middle and high dose groups. In comparison with the control group (0 mg/kg/10ml/day), significantly higher values were obtained for total cholesterol in groups that were given middle (170 mg/kg/10ml/day) and high (250 mg/kg/10ml/day) dosages. In all dosages (low, middle and high) the values for triglyceride were significantly higher than value found in the control group. In terms of angiotensin II levels, the value in the control group was markedly higher than values in the other groups. The results suggest that oral administration of hot water extract of P. hepiali mycelia has ability to control hypertension in rats.

Cultivated Mushrooms in Malawi: A Look at the Present Situation  [PDF]
Alfred Chioza, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.41002

This paper presents the status of mushroom cultivation in Malawi. This is a developing country located in southeastern Africa between latitudes 9°25' South and 17°08' South and longitudes 33° East and 36°East. Almost all the mushroom cultivators in the country are growing Pleurotus ostreatus. This species is most preferred because of its easiness to cultivate using the low-cost cultivation method being practiced in the country. On average, the annual P. ostreatus production is estimated at 240 kg per grower. Mushroom cultivators are selling their produce at prices ranging from MK800 (USD2.04) to MK2000 (USD5.10) per kg. At present, there are four institutions that are producing spawn namely Bunda College (Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural resources), Bvumbwe Agricultural Research Station, Natural Resources College and the Biology Department at Chancellor College, University of Malawi. Currently, a total of about 1307 bottles (330 ml each) of P. ostreatus spawn are sold by these four spawn producers per month. Mushroom cultivation is not that popular in Malawi. This may be, partly, attributed to lack of know-how and awareness on the economic, nutritive and medicinal benefits of cultivated mushrooms. Some of the major supermarkets do sell Agaricus bisporus mushrooms which are imported from the Republic of South Africa. They also sell Pleurotus ostreatus

A Comparative Study on Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Paecilomyces hepiali and Wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis  [PDF]
Alfred Chioza, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.412093
Abstract: This study looked at comparison of chemical components and pharmacological activity between wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Paecilomyces hepiali. The chemical components investigated included amino acids, vitamins, dietary elements, protein, lipid, ash, carbohydrates, crude fibre, ergosterol and mannitol. Studies on pharmacological activity included anti-platelet aggregation, inhibitory effect on IL-8 gene expression, anti-mutagenic activity, skin whitening effect and impro- vement activity on human skin texture. The results show that P. hepiali has a larger total content of seven essential amino acids (leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine and valine) than O. sinensis, 8580 mg/100g and 6180 mg/100g respectively. The total content of dietary elements analysed (potassium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium) was also higher in P. hepiali (3135 mg/100g) than that in O. sinensis (2445 mg/100g). The total content of four vitamins (B1, B2, B6 and E) was almost equal for both fungi. Paecilomyces hepiali had more content of protein, lipid, ash, carbohydrate, ergosterol and mannitol than O. sinensis. However, the contents of lipid and ash were not significantly different between
Formulation of a Preconditioned Algorithm for the Conjugate Gradient Squared Method in Accordance with Its Logical Structure  [PDF]
Shoji Itoh, Masaaki Sugihara
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.68131
Abstract: In this paper, we propose an improved preconditioned algorithm for the conjugate gradient squared method (improved PCGS) for the solution of linear equations. Further, the logical structures underlying the formation of this preconditioned algorithm are demonstrated via a number of theorems. This improved PCGS algorithm retains some mathematical properties that are associated with the CGS derivation from the bi-conjugate gradient method under a non-preconditioned system. A series of numerical comparisons with the conventional PCGS illustrate the enhanced effectiveness of our improved scheme with a variety of preconditioners. This logical structure underlying the formation of the improved PCGS brings a spillover effect from various bi-Lanczos-type algorithms with minimal residual operations, because these algorithms were constructed by adopting the idea behind the derivation of CGS. These bi-Lanczos-type algorithms are very important because they are often adopted to solve the systems of linear equations that arise from large-scale numerical simulations.
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