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Intraspecific Relationships and Variation of Two Lefua Species (Balitoridae, Cypriniformes) in the Tokai Region, Honshu, Japan  [PDF]
Jun-Ichi Miyazaki, Seiya Hida, Takurou Ozaki, Yuichirou Tabata, Misaki Iwata, Masashi Nakazawa, Youki Fukasawa, Tomonari Asaka
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.92016
Abstract: Two species Lefua echigonia and Lefua sp. 2 of the eight-barbel loach inhabit the Tokai region of Honshu, Japan. We determined sequences of the mitochondrial D-loop region to elucidate intraspecific phylogenetic relationships and variation in these two species. Lefua sp. 2 represented high intraspecific genetic similarity and complicated haplotype network, but three assemblages were recognized, including specimens mainly from Yahagi, Toyo, and Tenryu River systems, respectively, and named Groups 1 to 3. Divergence of Group 1 from the others was marginally supported, but Group 2 was paraphyletic to Group 3, suggesting the existence of two populations, i.e. Yahagi River population and Toyo-Tenryu River population. Lefua echigonia also represented high intraspecific genetic similarity, and two assemblages with slight genetic differentiation were discernible, including specimens from Shizuoka and southeastern Aichi prefectures and those from northwestern Aichi, Gifu, and Mie prefectures, respectively, and named Groups A and B. Star-like relationships of haplotypes suggested the dispersal origin located in eastern Aichi prefecture. The two species are threatened to extinction and thus we proposed evolutionary significant units for conservation.
Predictors of LGBT Recognition by Health Sciences University Students in Japan  [PDF]
Kyoko Asazawa, Ai Inamoto, Misaki Suzuki, Yukari Ashino, Yurina Ishihara, Yumu Oba, Maki Endo, Ayumi Iwata, Miki Kishioka, Arisa Tokunaga, Miharu Sumino, Natsuko Kojima, Eriko Shinohara
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2019.95041
Abstract: Background: This study aimed to identify the predictors of LGBT recognition by health sciences university students in Japan. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that used quantitative data collected from 481 returned self-report questionnaires distributed to 866 health sciences undergraduate and graduate students. The following survey item and scales were used for measuring the main outcomes: Thoughts about sexual identity, Empathy scale, Objectivity scale, and LGBT recognition scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, two-sample t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple regression analyses. SPSS ver. 23.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for data analysis at a 5% significance level. Results: The number of returned questionnaires was 481 (55.5%). There was no significant difference in the LGBT recognition and the participant’s characteristics (e.g., age and medical history). The 5 significant predictors of LGBT recognition were: 1) Empathy (β = 0.19, p < 0.001); 2) LGBT learning experience (β = 0.18, p < 0.001); 3) Objectivity (β = 0.15, p < 0.01); 4) Sexual problem with a close person (β = 0.13, p < 0.01); and 5) Suffering from gender identity (β = 0.09, p < 0.05). Conclusions: The predictive factors of LGBT recognition were Empathy, LGBT learning experience, Objectivity, Sexual problem with a close person, and Suffering from gender identity. Careful development and implementation of LGBT educational programs are needed to better understand the situations and ideas of LGBT parties to enhance their recognition.
Zero Sound Propagation in Femto-Scale Quantum Liquids  [PDF]
Yoritaka Iwata
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.36064
Abstract: Charge equilibration has been recognized as a dominant process at the early stage of low-energy heavy-ion reactions. The production of exotic nuclei is suppressed under the appearance of charge equilibration, in which the proton-neutron ratios of the final reaction products are inevitably averaged. Therefore charge equilibration plays one of the most crucial roles in the synthesis of chemical elements. Focusing on how and when the charge equilibration takes place, zero sound propagation in femto-scale quantum liquids is explained.
Alternative Infinitesimal Generator of Invertible Evolution Families  [PDF]
Yoritaka Iwata
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.54071
A logarithm representation of evolution operators is defined. Generators of invertible evolution families are characterized by the logarithm representation. In this article, using the logarithm representation, a concept of evolution operators without satisfying the semigroup property is introduced. In conclusion the existence of alternative infinitesimal generator is clarified.
Searching for New Clues about the Molecular Cause of Endomyocardial Fibrosis by Way of In Silico Proteomics and Analytical Chemistry
Misaki Wayengera
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007420
Abstract: Endomyocardial Fibrosis (EMF) –is a chronic inflammatory disease of the heart with related pathology to that of late stage Chaga's disease. Indeed, both diseases are thought to result from auto-immune responses against myocardial tissue. As is the case that molecular mimicry between the acidic termini of Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P0, P1 and P2β (or simply TcP0, TcP1, and TcP2β) proteins and myocardial tissue causes Chaga's disease, excessive exposure to certain infections, toxins including cassava ones, allergy and malnutrition has been suggested as the possible cause for EMF. Recent studies have defined the proteomic characteristics of the T. cruzi ribosomal P protein-C-termini involved in mediating auto-immunity against Beta1-adrenergic receptors of the heart in Chaga's disease. This study aimed to investigate the similarity of C-termini of TcP0/TcP2β to sequences and molecules of several plants, microbial, viral and chemical elements- most prior thought to be possible causative agents for EMF.
Zinc finger nucleases for targeted mutagenesis and repair of the sickle-cell disease mutation: An in-silico study
Misaki Wayengera
BMC Blood Disorders , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2326-12-5
Abstract: First, using the complete 1606 genomic DNA base pair (bp) sequences of the normal hemoglobin-beta (βA) chain gene, and the ZiFiT-CoDA-ZFA software preset at default, 57 three-finger arrays (ZFAs) that specifically bind 9 base-pair sequences within the normal hemoglobin-beta chain, were computationally assembled. Second, by serial linkage of these ZFAs to the Flavobacterium okeanokoites endonuclease Fok I― four ZFNs with unique specificity to >24?bp target-sequences at the genomic contextual positions 82, 1333, 1334, and 1413 of the βA chain-gene were constructed in-silico. Third, localizing the point-mutation of SCD at genomic contextual position ?69-70-71- bp (a position corresponding to the 6th codon) of the βA chain-gene, inspired the final design of five more ZFNs specific to >24?bp target-sequences within the 8,954?bp that are genomically adjacent to the 5′ end of the βA chain-gene.This set of 57 ZFAs and 9 ZFNs offers us gene-therapeutic precursors for the targeted mutagenesis and repair of the SCD mutation or genotype.
Proviral HIV-genome-wide and pol-gene specific Zinc Finger Nucleases: Usability for targeted HIV gene therapy
Misaki Wayengera
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-8-26
Abstract: First, we computationally generated the consensus sequences of (a) 114 dsDNA-binding zinc finger (Zif) arrays (ZFAs or ZifHIV-pol) and (b) two zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) which, unlike the AcsI and ApoI homeodomains, possess specificity to >18 base-pair sequences uniquely present within the HIV-pol gene (ZifHIV-polFN). Another 15 ZFNs targeting >18 bp sequences within the complete HIV-1 proviral genome were constructed (ZifHIV-1FN). Second, a model for constructing lentiviral vectors (LVs) that deliver and transduce a diploid copy of either ZifHIV-polFN or ZifHIV-1FN chimeric genes (termed LV- 2xZifHIV-polFN and LV- 2xZifHIV-1FN, respectively) is proposed. Third, two preclinical models for controlled testing of the safety and efficacy of either of these LVs are described using active HIV-infected TZM-bl reporter cells (HeLa-derived JC53-BL cells) and latent HIV-infected cell lines.LV-2xZifHIV-polFN and LV- 2xZifHIV-1FN may offer the ex-vivo or even in-vivo experimental opportunity to halt HIV replication functionally by directly abrogating HIV-pol-gene-action or disrupting/excising over 80% of the proviral HIV DNA from latently infected cells.Human infection with the retrovirus-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) [1]. Over a quarter a century since the description of the first clinical cases of AIDS, HIV/AIDS remains a global health challenge [2,3]. There are now over 33 million people currently infected with HIV world-over, and 25 million lives have already been lost to AIDS. Despite the advent of a powerful regimen of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) to treat HIV/AIDS, HAART has its limitations [4,5]. Specifically, while HAART targets actively replicating HIV, latent-HIV infection, particularly proviral HIV DNA integrated with resting CD4+ve cells, ultimately acts as a source of rebound viremia once treatment is stopped. Recent reports suggest that the reservoir of latent proviral HIV infection may exte
Identity of zinc finger nucleases with specificity to herpes simplex virus type II genomic DNA: novel HSV-2 vaccine/therapy precursors
Misaki Wayengera
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-8-23
Abstract: Using the whole genome of HSV-2 strain HG52 (Dolan A et al.,), and with the ZFN-consortium's CoDA-ZiFiT software pre-set at default, more than 28,000 ZFAs with specificity to HSV-2 DNA were identified. Using computational assembly (through in-silico linkage to the Flavobacterium okeanokoites endonuclease Fok I of the type IIS class), 684 ZFNs with specificity to the HSV-2 genome, were constructed. Graphic-analysis of the HSV-2 genome-cleavage pattern using the afore-identified ZFNs revealed that the highest cleavage-incidence occurred within the 30,950 base-pairs (~between the genomic context coordinates 0.80 and 1.00) at the 3' end of the HSV-2 genome. At approximately 3,095 bp before and after the 5' and 3' ends of the HSV-2 genome (genomic context coordinates 0.02 and 0.98, respectively) were specificity sites of ZFNs suited for the complete excision of over 60% of HSV-2 genomic material from within infected human cells, through the process of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Furthermore, a model concerning a recombinant (ICP10-PK mutant) replication competent HSV-2 viral vector for delivering and transducing a diploid copy (or pair) of the HSV-2-genome-specific ZFN genotype within neuronal tissue, is presented.ZFNs with specificity to HSV-2 genomic DNA that are precursors of novel host-genome expressed HSV-2 gene-therapeutics or vaccines were identified.Herpes simplex virus types I and II (HSV-1 and 2, respectively), together with the varicella-zoster (chicken-pox) virus, are members of the herpesviridae taxonomic family of viruses [1]. Human infection with these largely neuro-tropic viruses can be active or latent [1,2]. Active infection with HSV-1 or HSV-2 leads to ulcerative lesions of the oral or genital mucosa, respectively [3,4]; latent infection with these viral species is largely asymptomatic. Latent HSV-2 infection occurs primarily in neurons of the sacral root ganglia. Therefore, the clinical spectrum of HSV-2 can be said to comprise primary-active i
Theoretical basis for reducing time-lines to the determination of positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures using thymidylate kinase (TMK) assays
Misaki Wayengera
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-6-4
Abstract: Systems and chemical biology were used to derive parallel correlation of "M.tb growth curves" with "TMKmyc curves" theoretically in four different scenarios, showing that changes in TMKmyc levels in culture would in each case be predictive of M.tb growth through a simple quadratic curvature, |tmk| = at2+ bt + c, consistent with the "S" pattern of microbial growth curves. Two drug resistance profiling scenarios are offered: isoniazid (INH) resistance and sensitivity. In the INH resistance scenario, it is shown that despite the presence of optimal doses of INH in LJ to stop M.tb proliferation, bacilli grow and the resulting phenotypic growth changes in colonies/units are predictable through the TMKmyc assay. According to our current model, the areas under TMKmyc curves (AUC, calculated as the integral ∫(at2+ bt + c)dt or ~1/3 at3+ 1/2 bt2+ct) could directly reveal the extent of prevailing drug resistance and thereby aid decisions about the usefulness of a resisted drug in devising "salvage combinations" within resource-limited settings, where second line TB chemotherapy options are limited.TMKmyc assays may be useful for reducing the time-lines to positive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) cultures, thereby accelerating disease diagnosis and drug resistance profiling. Incorporating "chemiluminiscent or fluorescent" strategies may enable "photo-detection of TMKmyc changes" and hence automation of the entire assay.Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is one of the leading global health challenges [1,2]. An estimated 8–10 million persons acquire tuberculosis annually, 2 million of whom die [1,2]. The global TB epidemic has been complicated by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-epidemic [3]. Interaction between HIV and TB: (i) is associated with a higher risk of progression to active M. tuberculosis infection (ATBI) among persons with existing latent infection (LTBI); (ii) leads to increased s
On the general theory of the origins of retroviruses
Misaki Wayengera
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-7-5
Abstract: On the basis of an arbitrarily non-Euclidian geometrical "thought experiment" involving the cross-species transmission of simian foamy virus (sfv) from a non-primate species Xy to Homo sapiens (Hs), initially excluding all social factors, the following was derived. At the port of exit from Xy (where the species barrier, SB, is defined by the Index of Origin, IO), sfv shedding is (1) enhanced by two transmitting tensors (Tt), (i) virus-specific immunity (VSI) and (ii) evolutionary defenses such as APOBEC, RNA interference pathways, and (when present) expedited therapeutics (denoted e2D); and (2) opposed by the five accepting scalars (At): (a) genomic integration hot spots, gIHS, (b) nuclear envelope transit (NMt) vectors, (c) virus-specific cellular biochemistry, VSCB, (d) virus-specific cellular receptor repertoire, VSCR, and (e) pH-mediated cell membrane transit, (↓pH CMat). Assuming As and Tt to be independent variables, IO = Tt/As. The same forces acting in an opposing manner determine SB at the port of sfv entry (defined here by the Index of Entry, IE = As/Tt). Overall, If sfv encounters no unforeseen effects on transit between Xy and Hs, then the square root of the combined index of sfv transmissibility (√|RTI|) is proportional to the product IO* IE (or ~Vm* Ha* ∑Tt*∑As*Ω), where Ω is the retrovirological constant and ∑ is a function of the ratio Tt/As or As/Tt for sfv transmission from Xy to Hs.I present a mathematical formalism encapsulating the general theory of the origins of retroviruses. It summarizes the choreography for the intertwined interplay of factors influencing the probability of retroviral cross-species transmission: Vm, Ha, Tt, As, and Ω.The order Retroviridae constitutes a collection of non-icosahedral, enveloped viruses with two copies of a single-stranded RNA genome [1-5]. Retroviruses are known to infect avians [1] and murine [2], non-primate [3] and primate [4,5] mammals. Viruses of the order Retroviridae are unique in the sense that they
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