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Finding the Silent Message: Nurses’ Experiences of Non-Verbal Communication Preceding a Suicide  [PDF]
Patrik Rytterstr?m, Mirja Lindeborg, Sari Korhonen, Tabita Sellin
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.101001
Abstract: Suicidal individuals often communicate their intention to commit suicide, but not necessarily verbally. Psychiatric nurses play a central role in the care of patients exhibiting suicidal behaviour or thoughts. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore nurses’ experiences of the indirect messages about forthcoming suicide from patients’ everyday life before they committed suicide. A qualitative design was used with a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. Seven nurses working in specialist psychiatric care were interviewed about their experience of the phenomenon communication about suicide. Results show how the nurses noticed changes in patients just before they committed suicide. These changes included rapid improvement, disguise of real feelings, and unreceptiveness to further treatment or encouragements. The nurses also described patients becoming aware of painful life conditions of losing hope and confidence in the future and experiencing feelings of powerlessness or an inability to influence the situation. Their last moments were characterised by a greater preoccupation with thoughts about death and finding ways to express farewells. This manifested itself in practical preparations and expressing gratitude to people, which was understood by the nurses as a way of saying goodbye. This study shows that it is possible for skilled staff to develop an understanding of a suicidal patient’s internal state and to recognise the non-verbal messages of someone who later committed suicide. The knowledge of how patients prepare and act before suicide could be used to complement a structural suicide risk assessment.
Heart Rate Responses to Synthesized Affective Spoken Words
Mirja Ilves,Veikko Surakka
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/158487
Abstract: The present study investigated the effects of brief synthesized spoken words with emotional content on the ratings of emotions and heart rate responses. Twenty participants' heart rate functioning was measured while they listened to a set of emotionally negative, neutral, and positive words produced by speech synthesizers. At the end of the experiment, ratings of emotional experiences were also collected. The results showed that the ratings of the words were in accordance with their valence. Heart rate deceleration was significantly the strongest and most prolonged to the negative stimuli. The findings are the first suggesting that brief spoken emotionally toned words evoke a similar heart rate response pattern found earlier for more sustained emotional stimuli. 1. Introduction Verbal communication is unique to humans, and speech is an especially effective means to communicate ideas and emotions to other people [1]. McGregor [2] argued that spoken language is a more primary and more fundamental means of communication than written language. In speech, both verbal meaning and prosodic cues within the speech can communicate emotions; however, there is little research on the role of the verbal meaning of spoken words to human emotions. Although studies concerning the emotional processing of the verbal content of speech are rare, the scope of emotion studies has recently broadened from studying the reactions to the pictures of emotional scenes and human faces to visually presented linguistic stimuli. In a way, emotionally charged spoken stimuli uttered in a monotone or a neutral tone of voice partly parallels written text. By this, it is meant that only lexical contents of the stimuli offer knowledge about emotion, so the results about visually presented written words can provide some background references for studying reactions to spoken emotional words. Studies using event related potential (ERP) measurements have repeatedly found that early cortical responses to visually presented words with emotional content are enhanced as compared to ERPs to neutral words. This suggests that the emotional content of a word is identified at an early lexical stage of processing (e.g., [3–5]). In addition, there is evidence that written emotionally negative words evoke larger activation of corrugator supercilii (i.e., frowning) facial muscle than positive words do [6–8]. There are also studies that have found larger startle reflex to unpleasant words than to neutral and positive words during shallow word processing [9, 10]. Further, there is some evidence that written
A New Regime of Governing Childhood? Finland as an Example
Harrikari, Timo,Satka, Mirja
Social Work and Society , 2006,
Improving High-Tech Product Development through Communication Audits  [PDF]
Mirja Vaananen, Pekka Belt, Janne Harkonen, Matti Mottonen
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2012.31004
Abstract: Functional communication is a necessity to succeed in high technology product development where projects typically are multi-site, multi-cultural, multi-technical, and products are complex. The aim of this study is to clarify what kind of process is suitable for assessing the effectiveness of communication in high-tech product development. Based on the literature analysis, a communication audit process is constructed and tested in five product development projects of different information and communication technology (ICT) companies. Based on test case experiences and analyses, this study proposes a streamlined communication audit process. An outcome of this paper is a streamlined communi-cation audit process that provides benefits for companies, but does not burden the organisation unnecessarily. Man-agers of high-tech companies can utilise the developed process for enhancing communication in their product devel-opment.
The Relationships between Pre-Service Primary Teachers’ Teaching and Instructing/Coaching Orientations, and Their Perceived Strengths in Teaching Physical Education at the Primary Level  [PDF]
Juha Valtonen, Mirja Hirvensalo, Jyrki Reunamo, Heikki Ruism?ki
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.511109
Abstract: This study explored if the orientations towards instructing/coaching in physical activities (PA) and teaching physical education (PE) affect the perceived strengths in teaching PE at the primary level (PSTPEs). The orientations were considered as socializing factors into teaching PE. In this study, the perceived strengths were divided into discipline- and pupil-focused strengths. Online questionnaire was used to collect the data from 386 first year pre-service primary teachers before their first PE course of formal teacher education, to expose the acculturative influences of the orientations. Cross tabulation and logistic regression were used to analyze the relationships. The main results suggested that pre-service primary teachers with an instructing/coaching orientation perceived discipline-focused strengths (sportiness and teaching skills) as their assets in teaching PE contrasted by the finding that those with teaching orientation and without instruction/coaching orientation more likely perceived the pupil-focused empathy as their main asset. Even though, the associations were not strong, they exposed interesting directions of effects of acculturative socialization into teaching in terms of perceived strengths. This study adds to the existing research on teaching PE information of the acculturative formation of discipline- and pupil-focused PSTPEs through instruction/coaching and teaching orientations. In order to develop the effectiveness of formal teacher education, we suggest widening and deepening the research of acculturative formation of the perceived strengths and particularly their practical influences on formal teacher training and later on their behavior while teaching PE.
Pitfalls in efficacy testing – how important is the validation of neutralization of chlorhexidine digluconate?
Mirja Reichel, Peter Heisig, Günter Kampf
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-7-20
Abstract: Experiments were carried out according to ASTM E 1054-02. The neutralization capacity was tested separately with five challenge microorganisms in suspension, and with a rayon swab carrier. Either 0.5 mL of the antiseptic solution (suspension test) or a saturated swab with the antiseptic solution (carrier test) was added to tryptic soy broth containing neutralizing agents. After the samples were mixed, aliquots were spread immediately and after 3 h of storage at 2 – 8°C onto tryptic soy agar containing a neutralizing mixture.The neutralizer was, however, not consistently effective in the suspension test. Immediate spread yielded a valid neutralization with Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Corynebacterium jeikeium but not with Micrococcus luteus (p < 0.001) and Candida albicans (p < 0.001). A 3-h storage period of the neutralized active agents in suspension resulted in significant carry-over activity of CHG in addition against Staphylococcus epidermidis (p < 0.001) and Corynebacterium jeikeium (p = 0.044). In the carrier test, the neutralizing mixture was found to be effective and non toxic to all challenge microorganisms when spread immediately. However, after 3 h storage of the neutralized active agents significant carry-over activity of CHG against Micrococcus luteus (p = 0.004; Tukey HSD) was observed.Without effective neutralization in the sampling fluid, non-volatile active ingredients will continue to reduce the number of surviving microorganisms after antiseptic treatment even if the sampling fluid is kept cold straight after testing. This can result in false-positive antiseptic efficacy data. Attention should be paid during the neutralization validation process to the amount of antiseptic solution, the storage time and to the choice of appropriate and sensitive microorganisms.Different alcohols such as propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol and ethanol as well as chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) have been used as effective antiseptic agents for many yea
Extramurale Praktika im Rahmen des veterin rmedizinischen Studiums [Clinical externships within undergraduate studies in veterinary medicine ]
B?rchers, Mirja,Teke, Alper,Tipold, Andrea
GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung , 2010, DOI: 10.3205/zma000711
Abstract: [english] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of checklists for clinical practical courses. Clinical externships are a component of the practical part of the veterinary medicine curriculum. The control is under the responsibility of the training centres. Guidelines and checklists for extramural clinical courses were developed in order to facilitate control mechanisms. The analysis of such checklists should give an overview over the actual situation to enable the setting of minimum standards for extramural courses. The guidelines list practical activities carried out by the students in the veterinary practices or clinics. Data of 360 checklists were assessed in this study to evaluate whether checklists constitute a useful tool to control extramural studies.The results show that checklists are useful to enhance the knowledge of the training centre about the training of students to be adapted. However, the advantage is not completely clear to students. The communication of the importance of the extramural training sessions has to be enhanced. [german] In der vorliegenden Studie soll der Nutzen von Checklisten für klinische Praktika überprüft werden. Im veterin rmedizinischen Studium sind im praktischen Studienteil extramurale klinische Praktika vorgesehen. Die Kontrolle obliegt dabei den Ausbildungsst tten. Um diese Kontrolle übersichtlich zu gestalten, wurden ein Leitfaden und Checklisten für klinische Praktika entwickelt. Die Auswertung soll das Erlangen einer übersicht über die derzeitige Situation und die Schaffung von Mindeststandards bei der Praktikumsgestaltung gew hrleisten. In den Leitf den werden ausgeführte T tigkeiten der Studierenden in den externen kurativen Praxen oder Tierkliniken aufgeführt. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden die Daten von insgesamt 360 Checklisten erhoben. Die Auswertung soll darüber Aufschluss geben, ob die Einführung von Checklisten eine sinnvolle Erg nzung für die Lehre darstellt. Die Ergebnisse verdeutlichen, dass mit Checklisten ein enormer Erkenntnisgewinn für die Hochschule zu erreichen ist, dieses Potential in der praktischen Anwendung jedoch h ufig nicht vollst ndig ausgesch pft wird und somit die Vermittlung ihrer Wichtigkeit zunehmende Bedeutung erlangt.
Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland
Suvi Niemi,Eija Hiltunen-Back,Mirja Puolakkainen
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/481890
Abstract: Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%), F (28%), and G (13%). Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland. 1. Introduction Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is worldwide a common cause of sexually transmitted infections. Even asymptomatic infections can lead to serious sequelae such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The infections are very prevalent among adolescents, and reinfections are common [1]. Young people with C. trachomatis constitute an important target group for public health interventions. Since 1995, the number of C. trachomatis infections has been officially notified in Finland, and the number of notifications has been increasing. Lately, there has been around 14 000 notified cases annually (250 cases/100 000 inhabitants) [2]. In Finland, C. trachomatis infections are diagnosed mainly with sensitive and specific nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), but these tests do not differentiate between genotypes. The seroimmunological analysis of C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) first leads to the identification of ≥15 different serovars, and sequence differences in the ompA gene, especially in the areas coding the variable domains of MOMP, later confirmed this discrimination [3, 4]. C. trachomatis types A–C cause trachoma, types D–K cause urogenital infections, and types L1–L3 cause lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). C. trachomatis has also a cryptic plasmid which is commonly used as a target sequence in diagnostic NAATs. In 2006, there was an unexpected fall in C. trachomatis cases in Sweden, which was caused by the appearance of a new variant of C. trachomatis (nvCT) with a 377 base pair deletion in the cryptic plasmid [5]. At the same time, the proportion of urogenital samples that tested positive by Cobas TaqMan CT Test, old version (Roche), decreased slightly in Southern Finland (Dr. Jukka
Changes in Physical Activity Involvement and Attitude to Physical Activity in a 16-Year Follow-Up Study among the Elderly
M?kil? P?ivi,Hirvensalo Mirja,Parkatti Terttu
Journal of Aging Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/174290
Abstract: We studied changes of physical activity among noninstitutionalized 65 years and older persons over a sixteen-year follow-up period. The focus of our interest was on changes in involvement, frequency, intensity, and various modes of physical activity. Furthermore, we studied changes in perceived importance, motives for, and obstacles to participation in physical activity. The results showed that the proportion of those reporting less frequent and intensive activities increased. Men were more active than women over the follow-up time (in 1988 , in 1996 , in 2004 ). The biggest difference at the end of the followup between men and women was found in participation in supervised exercise classes (39% and 14%, resp.). Most popular forms of physical activity were walking and calisthenics at home. Men undertook more modes of physical activity than women. The importance of physical activity declined during the followup in both gender groups but more among women than men. The most common obstacles to physical activity were poor health and lack of interest. The promotion of health maintained it's place as the most important reason for physical activity over the follow-up period. 1. Introduction Physical activity has an important role in the well-being of aging people. its importance for maintaining physical capacity and health during a person’s lifetime has been well documented [1–7]. Furthermore, physical activity contributes to mental well-being offering, for example, possibilities to maintain social networks [8, 9]. The modes, regularity, and intensity of physical activity change with increasing age, so that the total time spent in physical activity and, particularly, the regularity and intensity of the activity clearly decline after 75–80 years of age [10–12]. Health promoting physical activity seems to decrease during the lifetime, but there are big differences between individuals. Although some are engaged in optimal levels of physical activity, others develop lifestyles that are generally sedentary [13]. Furthermore, differences appear between gender groups. It has been explained by gender-roles that physical activity and sports has been men’s domain, and women were presumed to get all the exercise they needed in their domestic chores [14]. To be able to develop physical activity interventions for older people, it is important to know how different aspects of physical activity change with increasing age. What happens to attitude, motives, and barriers to physical activity. Although the number of studies on older people’s physical activity is growing
The Diverse Impacts of the Neo-liberal Social Policies on Children’s Welfare and Social Work with Young People: The Finnish Perspective
Satka, Mirja,Harrikari, Timo,Hoikkala, Susanna,Pekkarinen, Elina
Social Work and Society , 2007,
Abstract: This article discusses the impacts of globalization, neo-liberal social policies and the Finnish economic recession of the 1990s on children's and young people's welfare. It summarises some of the impacts of Finnish social policies on the everyday lives of families with children and highlights some of the features of the recent and current debates surrounding youth delinquency and the societal reactions to young generations. All this contributes to a contradictory and conflicting societal context which challenges experts in the field of child welfare social work experts to operate - as expected - at the right moment, legally and effectively. Instead of being overly-defensive for the ‘good old’ ways of practicing social work with children, the authors invite social work scholars and practitioners to reconceptualise both the concept of children's citizenship and its position both in child welfare theory and practice in the context of children's global rights.
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