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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 147873 matches for " Miriam B. Vos "
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Action-oriented obesity counseling attains weight stabilization and improves liver enzymes among overweight and obese children and adolescents  [PDF]
Allison C. Sylvetsky, Jean A. Welsh, Stephanie M. Walsh, Miriam B. Vos
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.23037
Abstract: Introduction: Pediatricians are encouraged to promote behavior modification to reduce childhood obesity and its co-morbidities, yet the effectiveness of office counseling is unclear. We aimed to evaluate if a low-intensity intervention (action-oriented counseling) in a clinic setting results in weight stabilization, and if the effect is modified by a diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that patients with NAFLD would be more motivated to adhere to the lifestyle goals set in clinic, due to the diagnosis of an obesity-related condition; and, would therefore achieve greater weight reduction compared to similarly overweight and obese patients without a diagnosis of NAFLD. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 73 (35 male, 38 female) overweight and obese patients (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) attending a pediatric GI clinic between January 2006 and October 2011. Analysis was conducted to determine if lifestyle goals discussed with the patient at each clinic visit were associated with improved BMI, BMI z-score, and liver enzymes. Treatment outcomes among NAFLD patients and similarly obese patients without NAFLD were compared using t-tests and chi-square tests. Results: Of the children evaluated, 74.0% achieved a reduction or stabilization in BMI z-score after 3 months of follow-up. Among NAFLD patients, liver enzymes improved in 72% of those who were able to stabilize or reduce their BMI and among 43% of those who gained weight. Treatment outcome did not significantly differ based on having a diagnosis of NAFLD, although there was a trend towards greater improvements. Conclusion: Our study suggests that action oriented counseling including goal-setting in a low intensity, clinic based approach is effective in improving patient BMI, in the presence or absence of an obesity-related co-morbidity, such as NAFLD. Further, we demonstrated that lifestyle modification led to improvement of liver enzymes in NAFLD patients and may result in other clinically relevant improvements. Longer studies will be needed to determine if the improvements are sustained.
Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Induced Fatty Liver Is Not Caused by Sulfur Amino Acid Insufficiency
Sachin S. Kunde,James R. Roede,Miriam B. Vos,Michael L. Orr,Young-Mi Go,Youngja Park,Thomas R. Ziegler,Dean P. Jones
Nutrients , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/nu3110987
Abstract: Fructose-sweetened liquid consumption is associated with fatty liver and oxidative stress. In rodent models of fructose-mediated fatty liver, protein consumption is decreased. Additionally, decreased sulfur amino acid intake is known to cause oxidative stress. Studies were designed to test whether oxidative stress in fructose-sweetened liquid-induced fatty liver is caused by decreased ad libitum solid food intake with associated inadequate sulfur amino acid intake. C57BL6 mice were grouped as: control ( ad libitum water), fructose ( ad libitum 30% fructose-sweetened liquid), glucose ( ad libitum 30% glucose-sweetened water) and pair-fed ( ad libitum water and sulfur amino acid intake same as the fructose group). Hepatic and plasma thiol-disulfide antioxidant status were analyzed after five weeks. Fructose- and glucose-fed mice developed fatty liver. The mitochondrial antioxidant protein, thioredoxin-2, displayed decreased abundance in the liver of fructose and glucose-fed mice compared to controls. Glutathione/glutathione disulfide redox potential (E hGSSG) and abundance of the cytoplasmic antioxidant protein, peroxiredoxin-2, were similar among groups. We conclude that both fructose and glucose-sweetened liquid consumption results in fatty liver and upregulated thioredoxin-2 expression, consistent with mitochondrial oxidative stress; however, inadequate sulfur amino acid intake was not the cause of this oxidative stress.
Youth Understanding of Healthy Eating and Obesity: A Focus Group Study
Allison C. Sylvetsky,Monique Hennink,Dawn Comeau,Jean A. Welsh,Trisha Hardy,Linda Matzigkeit,Deanne W. Swan,Stephanie M. Walsh,Miriam B. Vos
Journal of Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/670295
Abstract: Introduction. Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States, we aimed to investigate youth's understanding of obesity and to investigate gaps between their nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, and perceived susceptibility to obesity and its co-morbidities. Methods. A marketing firm contracted by Children's Healthcare of Atlanta facilitated a series of focus group discussions (FGD) to test potential concepts and sample ads for the development of an obesity awareness campaign. Data were collected in August and September of 2010 with both overweight and healthy weight 4th-5th grade and 7th-8th grade students. We conducted a secondary analysis of the qualitative FGD transcripts using inductive thematic coding to identify key themes related to youth reports of family eating habits (including food preparation, meal frequency, and eating environment), perceived facilitators and barriers of healthy diet, and knowledge about obesity and its complications. Results. Across focus group discussions, mixed attitudes about healthy eating, low perceived risk of being or becoming obese, and limited knowledge about the health consequences of obesity may contribute to the rising prevalence of obesity among youth in Georgia. Most youth were aware that obesity was a problem; yet most overweight youth felt that their weight was healthy and attributed overweight to genetics or slow metabolism. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that urban youth in Georgia commonly recognize obesity as a problem, but there is less understanding of the link to lifestyle choices or the connection to future morbidities, suggesting a need for education to connect lifestyle behaviors to development of obesity. 1. Introduction The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has risen dramatically over the last three decades [1] and is the highest in the Southeastern region of the country [2]. Overweight youth are at risk of being obese during adulthood [3] and are likely to experience obesity-related chronic illness [4]. The increase in obesity and its comorbidities among youth is multifactorial in cause, including increased access to foods high in fats, added sugars and calories [5], increased eating outside the home [6], larger portion sizes [7], and a sedentary lifestyle [8]. The diversity of these contributors to childhood obesity has made it difficult to design simple, achievable, public health solutions. Studies have been conducted to identify strategies to combat obesity among youth; yet much remains to be understood. A recent qualitative study found that
Fructose Induced Endotoxemia in Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Ran Jin,Andrew Willment,Shivani S. Patel,Xiaoyan Sun,Ming Song,Yanci O. Mannery,Astrid Kosters,Craig J. McClain,Miriam B. Vos
International Journal of Hepatology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/560620
Abstract: In preclinical studies of fructose-induced NAFLD, endotoxin appears to play an important role. We retrospectively examined samples from three pediatric cohorts (1) to investigate whether endotoxemia is associated with the presence of hepatic steatosis; (2) to evaluate postprandial endotoxin levels in response to fructose beverage in an acute 24-hour feeding challenge, and (3) to determine the change of fasting endotoxin amounts in a 4-week randomized controlled trial comparing fructose to glucose beverages in NAFLD. We found that adolescents with hepatic steatosis had elevated endotoxin levels compared to obese controls and that the endotoxin level correlated with insulin resistance and several inflammatory cytokines. In a 24-hour feeding study, endotoxin levels in NAFLD adolescents increased after fructose beverages (consumed with meals) as compared to healthy children. Similarly, endotoxin was significantly increased after adolescents consumed fructose beverages for 2 weeks and remained high although not significantly at 4 weeks. In conclusion, these data provide support for the concept of low level endotoxemia contributing to pediatric NAFLD and the possible role of fructose in this process. Further studies are needed to determine if manipulation of the microbiome or other methods of endotoxin reduction would be useful as a therapy for pediatric NAFLD. 1. Introduction Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and is estimated to affect 40% of obese adolescents in the United States [1]. In adults with NAFLD, circulating endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide or LPS) has been reported to be elevated [2, 3]. Endogenous antibodies against endotoxin are also increased in adults with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), suggesting chronic exposure [4]. However, studies in the pediatric population remain scarce and it is less clear whether or not endotoxin is an important mediator of NAFLD in the early forms of the disease as seen in children. A study by Alisi et al. found increased endotoxin levels among children with NAFLD compared to healthy weight controls [5], but endotoxin could also be associated with obesity per se [6, 7], thus warranting further examination. Animal models have demonstrated that a high-fructose regimen causes increased portal blood endotoxin levels and hepatic steatosis [8, 9]. In mice, reduction of endotoxin using oral antibiotics improved both hepatic steatosis and inflammation [9]. In spite of the growing body of evidence associating fructose with endotoxemia and the metabolic
Availability and evaluation of European forest soil monitoring data in the study on the effects of air pollution on forests
Cools N,De Vos B
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry , 2011, DOI: 10.3832/ifor0588-004
Abstract: In the study of air pollution effects on forest ecosystems, solid soil data such as cation exchange capacity, base saturation and other exchangeable cation fractions, soil texture, soil moisture, soil weathering rates, C/N ratio and other variables form an important information base for many air pollution impact models. This paper shows some of the possibilities and the limitations of the soil data that European countries collected on the systematic Level I and on the intensive and permanent Level II monitoring plots within the ICP Forests programme. The soil data date from a first inventory in the 1990s and from a second inventory more than 10 years later. Both surveys were conducted following a common manual on sampling and analysis of soil. An example of the changes in pH(CaCl2) and base saturation in the forest floor and mineral soil on more than 2000 plots till a depth of 80 cm between the two surveys is presented. In this period the pH(CaCl2) significantly increased in the very acid forest soils [with pH(CaCl2) below 4.0] but further decreased in forest soils with pH(CaCl2) above 4.0. Following the trend in pH, the base saturation increased in soils with a very low buffering capacity (soils with a base saturation below 20% in the first inventory) and decreased in forest soils with reference base saturation values above 20%. There is both a decrease of soil pH and base saturation in the forest floor of the Arenosols and Podzols. In the Podzols this decreasing trend could not be established in the mineral soil, though this decreasing trend persisted in a number of mineral soil layers of the Arenosols. The only consistent increasing trend of pH and base saturation when stratifying according to the WRB reference soil groups was seen in the forest floor of the Luvisols and Cambisols.
Tetanus in a free-living Hippopotamus Hippopotamus Amphibius Capensis from the Kruger National Park
V de Vos,B. D de Klerk
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1980, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v23i1.644
Abstract: Tetanus in a free-living hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) from the Kruger National Park is described. The animal exhibited the classical tetanus symptomatology, the most salient clinical features being trauma (skin wounds) associated with exaggerated response of voluntary muscles to trivial stimuli, muscular spasms, general muscular rigidity, trismus, prolapsed third eye-lid and the preservation of consciousness. It is conjectured that the hippo's semi-aquatic way of life with its close proximity to dung-polluted water and an innate intraspecific aggression amongst males which often leads to fighting and trauma, should provide ample opportunity for infection with Clostridium tetani.
A scientific bibliography on the national parks of South Africa
Helena B. Bryden,V. de Vos
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1994, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v1i1.343
Abstract: The purpose of this bibliography is to enable students, researchers and managers working within the national parks of South Africa or compareable areas, to locate references relevant to their work.
Comparación de Metodologías Analíticas para Determinación de Aluminio en Fluidos de Hemodiálisis
Quirós,Miriam B.;
Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta , 2009,
Abstract: in order to quantifying aluminium by analyzing hemodialysis fluids, two methodologies were developed and validated: square wave adsorptive voltammetry (swav) and electrothermic absortion. performance parameters were established for the two methodologies. they were both applied successfully to the analysis of hemodialysis fluids.
Comparación de Metodologías Analíticas para Determinación de Aluminio en Fluidos de Hemodiálisis Comparison of Analytical Methodologies for Aluminium Determination in Hemodialysis Fluids
Miriam B. Quirós
Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta , 2009,
Abstract: Se desarrolló y validó una metodología para cuantificar aluminio en fluidos utilizados en hemodiálisis renal, basada en la reacción de Al con cupferrón, adsorción del complejo sobre un electrodo de gota de Hg y la posterior desorción y medida de la corriente producida por la reducción del complejo. Se realizó la validación de parámetros para voltamperometría de onda cuadrada (SWV). Se determinaron también los parámetros de desempe o del método, veracidad, ámbito lineal, límite de detección, límite de cuantificación. Se aplicó a la determinación de aluminio en muestras de hemodiálisis. Se desarrolló y validó posteriormente una metodología para la determinación de aluminio en fluidos empleados en hemodiálisis renal por absorción electrotérmica. Se determinaron las mejores condiciones para el tratamiento de la muestra. También se determinaron los parámetros de desempe o del método. Esta metodología se aplicó durante un a o al análisis de los fluidos de la Unidad de Hemodiálisis del Hospital México de la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social de Costa Rica. El contenido en μg/L de la mayor parte de las muestras analizadas por ambas metodologías se encontraban sobre las recomendaciones internacionales en agua empleada en hemodiálisis. In order to quantifying aluminium by analyzing hemodialysis fluids, two methodologies were developed and validated: square wave adsorptive voltammetry (SWAV) and electrothermic absortion. Performance parameters were established for the two methodologies. They were both applied successfully to the analysis of hemodialysis fluids.
Aptian-Late Cenomanian Fluvio-Lacustrine Lithofacies and Palynomorphs from Mamfe Basin, Southwest Cameroon, West Africa  [PDF]
Olivier A. Njoh, Miriam B. Nforsi, Junie N. Datcheu
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2015.67064
Abstract: The sedimentary sequences in the Mamfe Basin are generally thought of as continental (fluvio-lacustrine) in origin. But the wide spread occurrence of salt springs and salt accumulations and in places gypsum, often puts to question the exclusive continentality throughout this basin’s history. The sequences studied portray a wide range of complex lithologies and lithofacies relationships and include basal and intra-formational conglomerates, sandstones, shales, carbonaceous, carbonate and halite facies respectively. All these are well exposed at several outcrop sections distributed all over the basin with some measuring up to and above 30 m in height.Sedimentary structures include: parallel aligned imbricated prismatic pebbles, plannar to trough-cross stratifications, fining upward grain size distribution and thin frequently alternating sandstone-shale beds. Palynological data have been obtained for the first time from the shally and carbonate intervals and integrated with five lithofacies associations, permitting the determination of the ages and paleo environmental reconstruction. The palynomorphs are characterized by pteridophytic spores dominated byCicatricosisporitessp.,Cyathiditessp. andDeltoidsporasp., pollen grains include gymnosperms dominated byClassopollis annulatus
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