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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461499 matches for " Mirghani A. Yousif "
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Assessment of Drugs’ Donation Practices in Sudan  [PDF]
Jacob L. Doro, Asim F Mustafa, Ahmed S. Eldalo, Mirghani A. Yousif
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.31017
Abstract: The quality requirements of drug donation are different from those of other donated items. Purpose: To describe and assess key aspects of pharmaceutical donations in Sudan, the kinds of benefits and drawbacks associated with drug donations, and the government controlling role in the donation process. Methods: Retrospective and prospective studies were conducted in the period from April 2007 to Mar 2008 in the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) and some working NGOs’ data bases. Some quality aspects of donated drugs were explored. Six randomly selected nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were examined for the relevance and some aspects of quality of donated drugs such as whether the donated drugs were listed in the National Essential Drug List, or labeled in International Nonproprietary Names, their dosage forms, the language on the package and if the donated drugs were sampled or returned ones. Results: The study showed that most of the donated drugs were relevant to NEDL normative standards. The median times from the date of arrival to the date of expiration were more than 400 days. The time prior to expiration range between 44.8% and 47.5% were found less than one year in arrival. The top ten therapies were accounted for about 40 shipped items. The study was revealed that Sudan did not develop its own guidelines for drug donations and NGOs are making no effort to develop written donation policies. Conclusion: development of national guidelines for drug donations is essential to control the donated drugs in Sudan.
Improving Adherence to Prescribed Antidiabetics and Cardiovascular Medications in Primary Health Care Centers in Nyala City, South Darfur State-Sudan  [PDF]
Ahmed Dahab Ahmed, Asim Ahmed Elnour, Mirghani Abd Elrahman Yousif, Farah Hamad Farah, Hasab Alrasoul Akasha Ahmed Osman, Abobakr Abasaeed
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2013.49098
Abstract:

Aims: Prospective pharmacist’s interventions aimed to improve patient’s knowledge and behaviors to adhere to medications in patients with type 2 diabetes with or without cardiovascular medical conditions in primary health care (PHCs) centers in Nyala city, South Darfur State, Sudan. Methodology and Materials: 300 patients were enrolled for assessing adherence with the Brief Medication Questionnaire (BMQ) in ten PHCs in Nyala city. We assessed patients’ responses to BMQ pre-and post-interventions plan by: complex interventions, humanitarianism and disease outcomes determined by health-related outcomes (SF-36), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood pressure. Results: BMQ scores have improved significantly in four screens (pre-and post-interventions): regimen [4.6 ± 0.2 to 1.8 ± 0.1; P =

Commissioning and Optimization of a Total Skin Electron Therapy Technique Using a High Dose Rate Electron Facility  [PDF]
Y. A. M. Yousif, Casper A. Willemse
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2015.43024
Abstract: Total skin electron therapy (TSET) is used for the treatment of Mycosis Fungoides. Several tech-niques have been developed, in order to achieve homogeneous dose distribution over the complete body surface. To implement a TSET technique, one has to optimize a variety of parameters. Monte Carlo simulation of TSET can facilitate this optimization. The aim of this study was to commission and optimize a TSET technique using the 4 and 6 MeV electron and the high dose rate facility on the Elekta Precise accelerator. The EGS4nrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code was used. The beam data were calculated and measured at two different scoring planes for a single beam. The Model was validated by comparing the simulation with measurements. Two different vertical angles were used to obtain a uniform dose. The angle was optimized for best dose uniformity. The Rando phantom is placed on a rotating platform and rotates 60 degrees apart to facilitate the six patient position orientations. The doses delivered in a phantom by complete treatment were measured with Kodak EDR2 films and TLDs. The dose distribution varied among various scanning directions by 2 - 3 mm and 3 - 4 mm for 4 and 6 MeV respectively. The composite percentage depth dose of all six dual fields for the 4 and 6 MeV yielded an R80 of ~4 mm and ~6 mm, respectively. Dose uniformity was ±6% for 4 MeV and ±5% for 6 MeV. The bremsstrahlung contamination was 0.9% - 1.3%. Good agreements were found with published literature and inline with international protocols.
An Efficient Method for Earth Resistance Reduction Using the Dead Sea Water  [PDF]
Yousif El-Tous, Salim A. Alkhawaldeh
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2014.64006
Abstract:

To protect humans, devices and maintain high reliability of electrical equipments, efficient earthing system has to be provided for residential and commercial buildings. The use of chemical elements around the electrode of earthing systems reduces the earth resistance which improves the efficiency of these systems. However, the use of these elements can’t achieve very small earth resistance especially in the case of dry clay. In addition, they are expensive and not available all the time. This paper presents a method that treats the soil with adding the Dead Sea water instead of the chemical elements to further reduce the earth resistance and to avoid the expenses of these elements. In our approach, the Dead Sea water is added to a hole around the electrode with a distance not exceeding 10 cm to avoid the corrosion layer on the electrode. Practical measurements are demonstrated to show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Probucol Attenuates Cyclophosphamide-induced Oxidative Apoptosis, p53 and Bax Signal Expression in Rat Cardiac Tissues
Yousif A. Asiri
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2010, DOI: 10.4161/oxim.3.5.13107
Abstract: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a widely used drug in cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppression, which could cause toxicity of the normal cells due to its toxic metabolites. Probucol, a cholesterol-lowering drug, acts as potential inhibitor of DNA damage and shows to protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant system including glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase. This study examined the possible protective effects of probucol, a lipid-lowering compound with strong antioxidant properties, against CPinduced cardiotoxicity. This objective could be achieved through studying the gene expression-based on the possible protective effects of probucol against CP-induced cardiac failure in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned into four treatment groups: Animals in the first (control) and second (probucol) groups were injected intraperitoneally with corn oil and probucol (61 mg/kg/day), respectively, for two weeks. Animals in the third (CP) and fourth (probucol plus CP) groups were injected with the same doses of corn oil and probucol (61 mg/kg/day), respectively, for one week before and one week after a single dose of CP (200 mg/kg, I.P.). The p53, Bax, Bcl2 and oxidative genes signal expression were measured by real time PCR. CP-induced cardiotoxicity was clearly observed by a significant increase in serum creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) (117%), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (64%), free (69%) and esterified cholesterol (42%) and triglyceride (69%) compared to control group. In cardiac tissues, CP significantly increases the mRNA expression levels of apoptotic genes, p53 with two-fold and Bax with 1.6-fold, and decreases the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 with 0.5-fold. Moreover, CP caused downregulation of antioxidant genes, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase and increased the lipid peroxidation and decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (40%) and ATP/ADP (44%) in cardiac tissues. Probucol pretreatment not only counteracted significantly the CP-induced increase in cardiac enzymes and apoptosis but also induced a significant increase in mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and improved ATP, ATP/ADP, glutathione (GSH) in cardiac tissues. In conclusion, data from the present study suggest that probucol prevents the development of CP-induced cardiotoxicity by a mechanism related, at least in part, to its ability to increase mRNA expression of antioxidant genes and to decrease apoptosis in cardiac tissues with the consequent improvement in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and energy production.
A New Biological Model System for the Determination of Industrial and Agricultural Effluents Polluted the Aquatic Environment In vitro
Yousif A. Elhassaneen
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Industrial and agricultural effluents represent wide spread contaminants of the aquatic environment. In a trial to assess the toxic effects of these pollutants, primary liver cell`s culture of Spot fish (Leiostomus xanthurus) was used as an alternative new biological model of the whole organisms. The obtained results indicated that some cytotoxic effects such as lysosomes (NR), mitochondria (MTT) dysfunction and cell wall integrity (CV) were observed on the liver cells at the lower concentrations of this toxic chemicals. For NR, MTT and CV assays, the absorbance measurements (as a percent of control) were ranged 36.2-115.8, 37.8-104.2, and 22.6 -109.2 ; 41.7-126.3, 44.3-124.1 and 25.7-126.5 ; and 53.2-132.7, 57.7-137.3 and 32.6-133.2 for paper, petroleum industries and agricultural effluents, respectively. Consequently, CV is more sensitive to industrial and agricultural effluents when compared with other assays. On the other side, the influence of such effluents on the biochemical assays such as growth assay (GA, as determined by protein analysis), protease activity (PA) and lactic dehydrogenase activity (LDH) of isolated liver cells were determined in a trial to make a comparison between biochemical and cytotoxicity assays. The present data demonstrated that all of cytotoxic assays i.e. NR, MTT and CV corresponded well to those with GA, PA and LDH assays. The results of this study can constitute a milestone toward application of the simple inexpensive laboratory biological-model system for screening of the acute toxicities of aquatic pollutants.
Effect of Circumferential Through-Wall Slits in Tubes Under Transverse End Loads
Yousif A. Khalid
Information Technology Journal , 2002,
Abstract: Not Available
Anticancer and Biochemical Effects of Calcium Chloride on Ehrlich Carcinoma Cell-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice
Yousif A. Asiri
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2009,
Abstract: The anticancer activity of calcium chloride was evaluated from the total count and viability of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells and their proteins, nucleic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) groups in addition to observations on survival and the body weight changes. The tumors at site of injection were investigated for histopathological changes. The treatment with calcium chloride (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day) caused cytotoxic activity. These data are substantiated by biochemical and histopathological changes and are attributed to calcium ions, which are known to disrupt calcium homeostasis, produce ROS, damage mitochondria and cause DNA breaks. Nevertheless, these data were not in agreement with the results on survival and body weight of the same animals. Treatment at the higher doses of calcium chloride increased the body weight and restricted the life span much earlier than the lower dose of calcium chloride and ADM. The discrepancy between these results might be due to the difference in the time of observation. While the experiments on cytotoxic activity, biochemical investigation and histopathology were conducted 10 and 5 days after the implantation of EAC cells and treatment, respectively, the observations on body weight and mortality were continued until death of all the animals or up to a maximum of 50 days. Data obtained in the present study demonstrate that treatment of calcium chloride at the higher doses had no influence on body weight and cause mortality as a long term effect, which might be due to co-morbidity of several diseases, caused by hypercalcemia and impairment of mitochondria. Further experiments are warranted on the use of a sufficient number of lower doses of calcium chloride to determine a pharmacologically effective and non-toxic dose.
Probucol Attenuates Cyclophosphamide-induced Oxidative Apoptosis, p53 and Bax Signal Expression in Rat Cardiac Tissues
Yousif A. Asiri
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2010, DOI: 10.4161/oxim.3.5.13107
Abstract: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a widely used drug in cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppression, which could cause toxicity of the normal cells due to its toxic metabolites. Probucol, a cholesterol-lowering drug, acts as potential inhibitor of DNA damage and shows to protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant system including glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase. This study examined the possible protective effects of probucol, a lipid-lowering compound with strong antioxidant properties, against CPinduced cardiotoxicity. This objective could be achieved through studying the gene expression-based on the possible protective effects of probucol against CP-induced cardiac failure in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned into four treatment groups: Animals in the first (control) and second (probucol) groups were injected intraperitoneally with corn oil and probucol (61 mg/kg/day), respectively, for two weeks. Animals in the third (CP) and fourth (probucol plus CP) groups were injected with the same doses of corn oil and probucol (61 mg/kg/day), respectively, for one week before and one week after a single dose of CP (200 mg/kg, I.P.). The p53, Bax, Bcl2 and oxidative genes signal expression were measured by real time PCR. CP-induced cardiotoxicity was clearly observed by a significant increase in serum creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) (117%), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (64%), free (69%) and esterified cholesterol (42%) and triglyceride (69%) compared to control group. In cardiac tissues, CP significantly increases the mRNA expression levels of apoptotic genes, p53 with two-fold and Bax with 1.6-fold, and decreases the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 with 0.5-fold. Moreover, CP caused downregulation of antioxidant genes, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase and increased the lipid peroxidation and decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (40%) and ATP/ADP (44%) in cardiac tissues. Probucol pretreatment not only counteracted significantly the CP-induced increase in cardiac enzymes and apoptosis but also induced a significant increase in mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes and improved ATP, ATP/ADP, glutathione (GSH) in cardiac tissues. In conclusion, data from the present study suggest that probucol prevents the development of CP-induced cardiotoxicity by a mechanism related, at least in part, to its ability to increase mRNA expression of antioxidant genes and to decrease apoptosis in cardiac tissues with the consequent improvement in mitochondrial oxidative
Performance Evaluation of the Siemens Electronic Portal Imaging Device for IMRT Plan Verification  [PDF]
Y. A. M. Yousif, A. J. Van Rensburg
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2015.43026
Abstract: A commercially available amorphous Silicon Electronic Portal imaging device (aSi-EPID) installed onto Siemens Oncor Linear accelerator was evaluated with the objective to be implemented for IMRT quality assurance. EPID properties were investigated; these include reproducibility, dependences between the relative EPID responses and field size, dose rate were studied for both photon beams. To determine the inherent build-up of the EPID, varied thickness of Solid-water was placed onto the detector surface and changes in EPID signals were investigated. EPID measurements were compared with ionization chamber measurements (type 30013) connected to a UNIDOS electrometer (PTW-Freiberg) in Water phantom. The use of EPID dose maps was tested by comparing it with TPS-calculated one for IMRT plan applying gamma criteria of 3%/3mm. The results demonstrated that the aSi-EPID signals were reproducible, and response to the applied MUs were linear up to 100 MUs, and then the response became stable for MUs higher than 200, detector should be calibrated in this range. The results showed a clear dependency on the field size and energy. The dosimetric properties measured in this work shows promise that the aSi-EPID can be used for IMRT verifications.
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