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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 513 matches for " Mireille Dosso "
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Draped heterogeneity, forced uniformity: when agro-environmental policies drive family development: The U Minh Th ng forest reserve, (Mekong delta, Vietnam) Hétérogénéité cachée, uniformité forcée : quand les politiques agro-environnementales guident le développement familial – Cas de la réserve forestière de U Minh Th ng (delta du Mékong, Vietnam) Heterogeneidad oculta, uniformidad forzada: cua
Mehdi Saqalli,Mireille Dosso
Field Actions Science Reports , 2011,
Abstract: The U Minh Th ng natural reserve was created during the 1990s with a surrounding buffer zone where 3,500 households have been settled between 1992 and 1995, each household on a lot of 4 hectares. From a social point of view, the settlers were selected as 'poor people' or war veterans. A social discrimination was slowly built in favour of the latter. Despite an apparent homogeneity, the environment shows slight variations which has huge effects on the potential of the lots. From 1992 to 1998, the provincial government applied uniformly different management policies, despite the fact that this repeated "new deal" of the variability among households and lots, produced various outcomes from total destruction to a real support to households. Finally, the support of international environmental non-governmental organizations enhanced a pro-nature hard-line that has affected farmers' livelihoods. This 'real world' social experiment enhances the necessity to at least understand the needs and constraints at a lower scale, especially for such a vast area. La réserve naturelle de U Minh Th ng a été créée dans les années 1990, ceinturée par une zone tampon où ont été installés 3 500 ménages entre 1992 et 1995. Chaque ménage a re u un lot de 4 hectares. Sur le plan social, les colons ont été sélectionnés parmi les pauvres ou les anciens combattants. Une différenciation sociale s’est progressivement instaurée en faveur de ces derniers. Malgré une homogénéité apparente, le milieu physique montre de légères variations, qui ont des répercussions considérables sur le potentiel des lots. De 1992 à 1998, le gouvernement provincial a appliqué différentes politiques d’aménagement de fa on uniforme, bien que cette nouvelle donne répétée de la variabilité entre les ménages et les terrains ait des effets mitigés, pouvant aller d’un échec total à un réel soutien aux familles. Enfin, le soutien d’ONG environnementalistes internationales a conforté une orientation pro-nature intransigeante qui a affecté les moyens de subsistance des agriculteurs. Cette expérience sociale en vraie grandeur renforce donc la nécessité d’intégrer au minimum les besoins et les contraintes à moindre échelle, en particulier sur un périmètre aussi large. La reserva natural de U Minh Th ng se creó en los a os noventa con una zona de delimitación circundante en la que, entre 1992 y 1995, se asentaron 3.500 casas con un terreno de 4 hectáreas cada una. Desde el punto de vista social, los pobladores elegidos fueron “gente pobre" o veteranos de guerra. Poco a poco se fue suscitando una discrimina
Effect of Robusta (Coffea canephora P.) Coffee Cherries Storage after Harvest before Putting Out for Sun Drying on Development of Toxigenic Fungi and the Variation of the Physicochemical Components  [PDF]
Irene Ahou Kouadio, Mathias Kouame Koffi, Mireille Bretin Dosso
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.52015
Abstract:

In this study, the effects of the storage duration of coffee cherries after harvest before putting out for sun drying on the kinetics of drying, fungi development and the variation of physicochemical content were evaluated. The results showed that the longer coffee cherries were stored after harvest before putting out for sun drying, the quicker they dried. Indeed, the drying durations were 19, 16, 12, 10, 7 days respectively for coffee cherries put out for sun drying at the day of harvest, the second, the fourth, the sixth and the eighth day after harvest. However, this storage of the cherries after harvest before putting out for sun drying led to the increasing to the infection of cherries by fungi. Indeed, samples of more contaminated inside were those from the lots of cherries stored 8 days after harvest before putting out for sun drying with 55.55% of the samples infected with a percentage of infected beans between 10% and 50%, and 44.45% of the samples were infected with a percentage of infected beans between 50% and 100%. Furthermore, those put out for sun drying at the day of harvest were free inside by fungi. Among the fungi isolated, toxigenic species was found. However, no relationship between the frequencies of ochratoxin A producing strains isolated and the storage duration of the cherries after harvest before putting out for sun drying was noted. This storage of the cherries after harvest before putting out for sun drying also led to the acidification of the cherries (pH = 5.27 - 3.6) and the degradation of their chlorogenic acids content (12.58% - 10.30%) while for their caffeine content (2.53% - 2.55%). No significant difference was observed about the storage duration of the cherries after harvest before putting out for sun drying.

Assessing Sub-saharian Erythrina for Efficacy: Traditional uses, Biological Activities and Phytochemistry
Witabouna Mamidou Kone,Kakou-Ngazoa E. Solange,Mireille Dosso
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The genus Erythrina comprises more than 100 species, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. In Africa, 31 wild species and 14 cultivated species have been described. In sub-Saharan Africa, Erythrina species are used to treat frequent parasitic and microbial diseases, inflammation, cancer, wounds. The rationale of these traditional uses in African traditional medicine was established by screening several species for biological activities. Promising activities were found against bacteria, parasites (Plasmodium), human and phytopathogenic fungi, some of which were multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms. Some species also exhibited antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities and enzymes inhibitory properties. Most of the species chemically investigated were reported to contain flavanones, prenylated isoflavones, isoflavanones and pterocarpans. Some phytochemicals (vogelin B, vogelin C, isowighteone, abyssinin II, derrone) were the active principles as antibacterials, antifungals, antiplasmodials and inhibitors of enzyme borne diseases (PTP1B, HIV protease, DGAT). This review highlights the important role of Erythrina species as sources of lead compounds or new class of phytotherapeutic agents for fighting against major public health (MDR infections, cancer, diabetes, obesity) in Sub-Saharan Africa.
QBC ParaLens TM LED fluorescent microscope attachment with QBC F.A.S.T.TM AFB staining system  [PDF]
Kouassi N’Guessan, Brian Joseph Hnatkovich, N’Guetta Aka, Armand Achy-Brou, Bakary Coulibaly, Jean Marc Assande, Philomène Mohoudi, Mireille Dosso
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2013.13008
Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the QBC ParaLensTM LED fluorescent microscope attachment and the QBC F.A.S.T.TM AFB staining system for the detection of Acid Fast Bacilli in pathological samples in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. A total of 50 patients were tested using direct smear specimens with both Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) light microscopy and LED fluorescence microscopy with QBC F.A.S.T. AFB stain. The samples were also cultured and tested using an immunochromatograpic test for detection of antigen MPT 64 and the results were compared to direct examination. ZN light microscopy detected 20 positive cases and LED fluorescent microscopy with QBC F.A.S.T. AFB stain detected 21. The sensitivity and specificity of ZN light microscopy was determined to be 84.2% and 87.1% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of LED fluorescent microscopy with QBC F.A.S.T. AFB stain was determined to be 94.7% and 90.3% respectively. Compared to ZN light microscopy, LED fluorescent microscopy with QBC F.A.S.T. AFB stain increased the sensitivity of direct examination without concentration by 10.5%.
Clinical Performances of Pure TB-Lamp Kit for M. tuberculosis Complex Detection in Sputum Samples  [PDF]
Kouassi N’guessan, Jacob Adegbele, Ibrahima Coulibaly, Natacha Kouame-N’takpé, Hortense Seck-Angu, André Guei, Jacquemin Kouakou, Mireille Dosso
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2017.52014
Abstract: Tuberculosis represents a main concern for public health worldwide. In poor countries, the most prevalent method for bacteriological confirmation re- mains Smear Sputum Microscopy (SSM). This study objective was to assess clinical performances of Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for TB detection (Lamp-TB). Sputum of patients presenting symptoms consistent with tuberculosis were collected according to the National Tuberculosis Control Programme guidelines in Centre Antituberculeux de Yopougon. SSM after Ziehl-Neelsen staining and TB-Lamp were blindly performed with spot sputum specimen. Samples, transported at Institut Pasteur de Cote d’Ivoire were decontaminated according to N-acetyl-L-cystein (NALC) method. In Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), 500 μl of pellet were inoculated and incubated in MGIT 960 instrument. MPT64 antigen was detected on positive culture. Of 500 patients enrolled, 469 were included. Clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis Complex were detected for 157 (33.5%). Comparatively to culture, Sensitivity and Specificity of SSM were 86% (95% Confidence interval (CI): 81% - 91%) 96% (95%IC: 94% - 98%) respectively. TB-Lamp Sensitivity was 92% (95%CI: 88% - 96%), and Specificity 94% (95%CI: 91% - 97%). Positive Predictive Value of SSM and TB-Lamp was 91.8% and 88.8% respectively. Negative Predictive Value of TB-Lamp assay was 95.7% whereas this of SSM was 93.3%. Positive Likelihood Ratio was 15.3 for TB-Lamp and 21.5 for SSM 21.5 whereas negative Likelihood of TB-Lamp was lower than SSM. Active tuberculosis was detected in162/469 (34.5%) with TB-Lamp and 147 (31.3%) with SSM. TB-Lamp assay performances estimated from sputum samples may improve detection of active TB cases in routine.
Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter Isolated from Chicken in C?te d’Ivoire
Goualié Gblossi Bernadette,Akpa Eric Essoh,Kakou-N'Gazoa Elise Solange,Guessennd Natalie,Bakayoko Souleymane,Niamké Lamine Sébastien,Dosso Mireille
International Journal of Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/150612
Abstract: Thermophilic Campylobacters are major causes of gastroenteritis in human. The main risk factor of infection is consumption of contaminated or by cross-contaminated poultry meat. In Côte d’Ivoire, gastroenteritis is usually observed but no case of human campylobacteriosis has been formally reported to date. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from chickens ceaca in commercial slaughter in Abidjan. Between May and November 2009, one hundred and nineteen (119) chicken caeca samples were collected and analyzed by passive filtration method followed by molecular identification (PCR). From these 119 samples, 76 (63.8%) were positive to Campylobacter tests. Among the positive colonies, 51.3% were C. jejuni and 48.7% were C. coli. Of the 39 C. jejuni isolates, 79.5%, 38.5%, 17.9%, 10.3%, and 7.7% were, respectively, resistant, to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Among the 37 isolates of C. coli, 78.4%, 43.2%, 13.5%, 8.1%, and 0% were resistant, respectively, to the same antibiotics. In conclusion, we reported in this study the presence of high Campylobacter contamination of the studied chickens. Molecular identification of the bacteria was performed and determination of high resistance to antimicrobials of the fluoroquinolone family was revealed.
Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Thermophilic Campylobacter Isolated from Chicken in C?te d’Ivoire
Goualié Gblossi Bernadette,Akpa Eric Essoh,Kakou-N'Gazoa Elise Solange,Guessennd Natalie,Bakayoko Souleymane,Niamké Lamine Sébastien,Dosso Mireille
International Journal of Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/150612
Abstract: Thermophilic Campylobacters are major causes of gastroenteritis in human. The main risk factor of infection is consumption of contaminated or by cross-contaminated poultry meat. In C?te d’Ivoire, gastroenteritis is usually observed but no case of human campylobacteriosis has been formally reported to date. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from chickens ceaca in commercial slaughter in Abidjan. Between May and November 2009, one hundred and nineteen (119) chicken caeca samples were collected and analyzed by passive filtration method followed by molecular identification (PCR). From these 119 samples, 76 (63.8%) were positive to Campylobacter tests. Among the positive colonies, 51.3% were C. jejuni and 48.7% were C. coli. Of the 39 C. jejuni isolates, 79.5%, 38.5%, 17.9%, 10.3%, and 7.7% were, respectively, resistant, to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Among the 37 isolates of C. coli, 78.4%, 43.2%, 13.5%, 8.1%, and 0% were resistant, respectively, to the same antibiotics. In conclusion, we reported in this study the presence of high Campylobacter contamination of the studied chickens. Molecular identification of the bacteria was performed and determination of high resistance to antimicrobials of the fluoroquinolone family was revealed. 1. Introduction Campylobacter bacteria are Gram negative, curved, highly mobile, and microaerophilic. Thermophilic Campylobacter species, particularly Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, have been recognized as a major cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in humans since 1970 and it is estimated that Campylobacter spp. are responsible for 400–500 millions cases of diarrhea each year worldwide [1–4]. In developing countries, incidence of children under 5 years old is estimated to 40?000 cases for 100?000 persons per year [5, 6] and according to World Health Organization (WHO) this incidence is underestimated. Unpasteurized milk, water, and foods of animal origin are potential sources of contaminations [7–9], but the major risk factor for campylobacteriosis for humans is the consumption of undercooked poultry and the handling of raw poultry [9–16]. Most Campylobacter infections do not need to be treated with antimicrobial agents. However, in a subset of patients Campylobacter may cause severe complications and increased risk for death and therefore requires treatment [17–19]. When clinical treatment is necessary, fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin, e.g.) or macrolides
Mycolactone Diffuses into the Peripheral Blood of Buruli Ulcer Patients - Implications for Diagnosis and Disease Monitoring
Fred S. Sarfo equal contributor,Fabien Le Chevalier equal contributor,N'Guetta Aka,Richard O. Phillips,Yaw Amoako,Ivo G. Boneca,Pascal Lenormand,Mireille Dosso,Mark Wansbrough-Jones,Romain Veyron-Churlet,Laure Guenin-Macé,Caroline Demangel
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001237
Abstract: Background Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer (BU), is unique among human pathogens in its capacity to produce a polyketide-derived macrolide called mycolactone, making this molecule an attractive candidate target for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Whether mycolactone diffuses from ulcerated lesions in clinically accessible samples and is modulated by antibiotic therapy remained to be established. Methodology/Principal Finding Peripheral blood and ulcer exudates were sampled from patients at various stages of antibiotic therapy in Ghana and Ivory Coast. Total lipids were extracted from serum, white cell pellets and ulcer exudates with organic solvents. The presence of mycolactone in these extracts was then analyzed by a recently published, field-friendly method using thin layer chromatography and fluorescence detection. This approach did not allow us to detect mycolactone accurately, because of a high background due to co-extracted human lipids. We thus used a previously established approach based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. By this means, we could identify structurally intact mycolactone in ulcer exudates and serum of patients, and evaluate the impact of antibiotic treatment on the concentration of mycolactone. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides the proof of concept that assays based on mycolactone detection in serum and ulcer exudates can form the basis of BU diagnostic tests. However, the identification of mycolactone required a technology that is not compatible with field conditions and point-of-care assays for mycolactone detection remain to be worked out. Notably, we found mycolactone in ulcer exudates harvested at the end of antibiotic therapy, suggesting that the toxin is eliminated by BU patients at a slow rate. Our results also indicated that mycolactone titres in the serum may reflect a positive response to antibiotics, a possibility that it will be interesting to examine further through longitudinal studies.
Les escargots comestibles de C te d'Ivoire: influence de substrats d'élevage sur les paramètres de croissance de Archachatina ventricosa (Gould, 1850) en élevage hors-sol
Kouassi, KD.,Otchoumou, A.,Dosso, H.
Tropicultura , 2007,
Abstract: Edible Ivorian Snails: Influence of the Breeding Substratum on the Parameters of Growth of Archachatina ventricosa (Gould, 1850) in Indoor Rearing. Two hundred fifty youngs of Archachatina ventricosa (Gould, 1850) with an average of 2.30 g body weight and 20.12 mm shell length, two weeks old approximately were bred for 48 weeks on five types of substrata [S1 (ground collected under a cassava plantation (Manihot spp.); S2 (S1 with oyster powder 10%), S3 (S1 with sawdust 10%), S4 (S1 with oyster powder 5% and sawdust 5%), S5 (ground of humid tropical forest)]. In order to determine the substratum inducing the best performances of growths, all the individuals were fed a concentrated food with 14.01% of calcium. This study revealed that the quality of the substratum influences the parameters of growth of A. ventricosa. The best growth was obtained on the substratum S3 (0.284 g/j; 0.169 mm/j). The substrata S2 and S4 support a similar growth to the pilot substratum (S5). The sawdust thus supports a better growth of A. ventricosa and could then be advised as source of amendment of the substrata to whoever would like to make the breeding of this specie.
Economic incentive in community nursing: attraction, rejection or indifference?
Mireille Kingma
Human Resources for Health , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-1-2
Abstract: Using incentives and disincentives to direct individuals' energies and behaviour is common practice in all work settings, of which the health care system is no exception. The range and influence of economic incentives/disincentives affecting community nurses are the subject of this discussion paper. The tendency by nurses to disregard, and in many cases, deny a direct impact of economic incentives/disincentives on their motivation and professional conduct is of particular interest. The goal of recent research was to determine if economic incentives/disincentives in community nursing exist, whether they have a perceivable impact and in what areas.Understanding the value system of community nurses and how they respond to economic incentives/disincentives facilitates the development of reward systems more likely to be relevant and strategic. If nurse rewards are to become more effective organizational tools, the data suggest that future initiatives should:? Improve nurses' salary/income relativities (e.g. comparable pay/rates);? Provide just compensation for job-related expenses (e.g. petrol, clothing);? Introduce promotional opportunities within the clinical area, rewarding skill and competence development;? Make available a range of financed rewards.- Direct (e.g. subsidized education, additional leave, insurance benefits);- Indirect (e.g. better working conditions, access to professional support network, greater participation in decision-making bodies).The half-life of knowledge in the medical fields is estimated to be between five and seven years [1,2]. Providers who do not conscientiously pursue a programme to maintain state-of-the-art practice could lose half of their competence in that period of time. This implies that the information base upon which clinical judgements are made is in constant flux. Similarly, it suggests that health care policy and interventions must regularly change or adapt in order to keep up with the pace of scientific advances. Change and
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