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Bridges are omnipresent in every society and they affect
its human, social, ecological, economical and cultural aspects. This is why a
durable and safe usage of bridges is an imperative goal of structural
management. Measurement and monitoring have an essential role in structural
management. The benefits of the information obtained by monitoring are apparent
in several domains. In deformation analysis, the functional relationship
between the acting forces and the resulting deformations should be established. If
time depending observations are given, a regression could be used as a
functional model. In case of stochastic model uncorrelated observations with
identical variance are assumed. Due to the high sampling rate, a small time
difference arises between two observations. Thus the assumed stochastic model
is not suitable. The calculation has to be effected by means of auto-correlated
observations. This paper investigates an integrated monitoring
system for the estimation of the deformation (i.e., static, quasi-static) behavior of bridges from total station
observations and studies the effect of autocorrelation technique on the
accuracy of the estimated parameters and variances. The results have shown that
autocorrelation technique is reduced the standard deviation of X&Y-direction about 6.7% to 29.4% and 6.5% to 15.5% of the original
value, respectively, but the situation was differ in Z direction; the standard deviation in vertical component Z was increased.
The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between locus of control (LOC), religious orientation (RO) and test anxiety (TA) among Iranian EFL learners. Furthermore, it scrutinized the role of gender on these variables. To achieve such goals, 100 Iranian EFL students (57 females, 43 males) studying English at Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman participated in the study. These students were randomly selected from among junior and senior students majoring in English Translation and English Literature. In order to obtain the required data, three questionnaires were utilized: Rotters’s (1966) locus of control scale (LOCS) to measure participants’ level of LOC, Sarason’s (1975) test anxiety scale (TAS) to measure participants’ TA, and Allport and Ross’s (1967) Religious Orientation Scale (ROS) to determine participants’ intrinsic or extrinsic religious orientation. For analysis of data, the Pearson Product Moment Correlation and T-test were used. The results revealed that there was a significant negative relationship between ILOC and TA and a significant positive relationship between ELOC and TA. Furthermore, there was a significant positive relationship between ILOC and IRO and a significant positive relationship between ELOC and ERO. Also, there was a significant negative relationship between ILOC and TA, and a significant positive relationship between ELOC and TA. Finally, there were not any significant differences among males and females regarding ILOC, ELOC, TA, IRO, and ERO.
The trabecular bone fracture healing differs from diaphyseal fracture healing, in which trabecular bone heals based on intramembraneous ossification. The process includes a small callus formation, then woven bone forms, it follows by remodeling process to form regular trabecular bone. The objective of this study was to present an energy based model to simulate bone formation and remodeling during trabecular bone fracture healing. This modeling mainly focused on the mechanical factors. The model distinguishes three basic type of tissue: bone, cartilage and soft tissue. In order to determine tissue differentiation a fuzzy controller was proposed. An algorithm was developed to link the fuzzy logic controller to a finite element model (FEM) of trabecular bone. In general, finite element analysis provides input for fuzzy controller. Based on the input data, the fuzzy system selects the type of tissue to build. Strain energy density was used as the mechanical stimulus and a new parameter was incorporated in to the healing process as the remodeling index.