Abstract:
tumor necrosis factor (tnf) consists of an inflammatory cytokine essential for homeostasis and organism defense. despite its physiological relevance, both increased biosynthesis and release of tnf lead to the exacerbation of inflammatory and oxidative responses, which are related to the pathogenesis of a host of diseases of an inflammatory, autoimmune and/or infectious nature. in this context, effective therapeutic approaches for the modulation of tnf have been the focus of research efforts. approximately one million individuals worldwide have been treated with biotechnological inhibitors of this cytokine, the so-called anti-tnf biopharmaceuticals. however, given the high risk of infection and the limitations related to cost and administration routes, new therapeutic approaches aimed at biological targets that directly or indirectly modulate the production and/or activation of tnf appear promising alternatives for the discovery of new anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory orally active drugs and are therefore discussed in this paper.

Abstract:
This article concerns the existence of solutions and the decay of the energy of the mixed problem for the coupled system of Klein-Gordon equations $$displaylines{ u'' - Delta u + alpha v^{ 2}u=0 quadhbox{in }Omega imes (0, infty), cr v'' - Delta v + alpha u^{2}v=0 quadhbox{in }Omega imes (0, infty), }$$ with the nonlinear boundary conditions, $$displaylines{ frac{partial u}{partial u} + h_1(.,u')=0 quadhbox{on } Gamma_1 imes (0, infty), cr frac{partial v}{partial u} + h_2(.,v')=0 quadhbox{on } Gamma_1 imes (0, infty), }$$ and boundary conditions $u=v=0$ on $(Gamma setminus Gamma_1) imes (0,infty)$, where $Omega$ is a bounded open set of $mathbb{R}^n~(n leq 3)$, $alpha >0$ a real number, $Gamma_1$ a subset of the boundary $Gamma$ of $Omega$ and $h_i$ a real function defined on $Gamma_1 imes (0, infty)$.

Abstract:
In an abstract framework, we consider the following initial value problem: u′′ + μAu + F(u)u = f？？in？？(0,T), , where is a positive function and f a nonsmooth function. Given u0, u1, and f we determine in order to have a solution u of the previous equation. We analyze two cases of . In our approach, we use the Theory of Linear Operators in Hilbert Spaces, the compactness Aubin-Lions Theorem, and an argument of Fixed Point. One of our two results provides an answer in a certain sense to an open question formulated by Lions in (1981, Page 284). 1. Introduction Let and be two real separable Hilbert spaces with dense in and continuously embedding in . The scalar product and norms of and are represented, respectively, by Let be the self-adjoint operator of defined by the triplet . Consider , . We denote by the Hilbert space equipped with the scalar product (cf. Lions [1]). Consider the following initial value problem: where is a positive function and a nonsmooth function. The objective of this work is to study the following inverse problem: given , , and ( dual space of ) to determine such that Problem (4) has a solution . We analyze two cases of , more precisely, the cases where is an appropriate Hilbert space. In Lions [2, Page 284], the following problem is formulated where is an open bounded set of with boundary , , and being the Dirac mass supported at . He says not to know if this problem admits a solution. He say also that one of the difficulties in the study of existence of solutions of the nonlinear equations lies in the difficulty in defining weak solutions, since the transposition method is essentially a linear method. This is ultimately connected to the fact that one cannot multiply distributions. Problem (4) with of the form (6) is an abstract formulation of Problem (7) with a slight modification of the nonlinear term. Theorem 3 gives the existence of solutions of this problem. In applications we give examples of Problem (7), with the modification of the nonlinear term, for an open bounded set of ,？？ . In Grotta Ragazzo [3] the following equation is studied: This equation is considered as a first approximation of the Klein-Gordon equation Observe that (8) with and is the meson equation of Schiff [4] (cf. also J？rgens [5]). The physical motivation of (8) with can be seen in Lourêdo et al. [6]. Problem (4) with of the form (5) generalizes (8) when . The existence of solutions of this problem is studied in Theorem 1. In Louredo et al., loc.cit., is analyzed the equation with nonlinear boundary condition. The given in (5) is different from the of

Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the existence and decay of solutions of the following Timoshenko system: $$ \left\|\begin{array}{cc} u"-\mu(t)\Delta u+\alpha_1 \displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^{n}\frac{\partial v}{\partial x_{i}}=0,\, \in \Omega\times (0, \infty),\\ v"-\Delta v-\alpha_2 \displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^{n}\frac{\partial u}{\partial x_{i}}=0, \, \in \Omega\times (0, \infty), \end{array} \right. $$ subject to the nonlinear boundary conditions, $$ \left\|\begin{array}{cc} u=v=0 \,\, in \,\Gamma_{0}\times (0, \infty),\\ \frac{\partial u}{\partial \nu} + h_{1}(x,u')=0\, in\,\, \Gamma_{1}\times (0, \infty),\\ \frac{\partial v}{\partial \nu} + h_{2}(x,v')+\sigma (x)u=0 \, in\, \,\Gamma_{1}\times (0, \infty), \end{array} \right. $$ and the respective initial conditions at $t=0$. Here $\Omega$ is a bounded open set of $\mathbb{R}^n$ with boundary $\Gamma$ constituted by two disjoint parts $\Gamma_{0}$ and $\Gamma_{1}$ and $\nu(x)$ denotes the exterior unit normal vector at $x\in \Gamma_{1}$. The functions $h_{i}(x,s),\,\, (i=1,2)$ are continuous and strongly monotone in $s\in \mathbb{R}$. The existence of solutions of the above problem is obtained by applying the Galerkin method with a special basis, the compactness method and a result of approximation of continuous functions by Lipschitz continuous functions due to Strauss. The exponential decay of energy follows by using appropriate Lyapunov functional and the multiplier method.}

Abstract:
We prove existence, uniqueness and exponential decay of solutions to the mixed problem $$u''(x,t)-mu(t)Delta u(x,t)+sum_{i=1}^n {partial hetaoverpartial x_i}(x,t)=0 $$ $$ heta'(x,t)-Delta heta(x,t) +sum_{i=1}^n {partial u'overpartial x_i}(x,t)=0,,$$ with a suitable boundary damping, and a positive real-valued function $mu$.

Abstract:
In this paper we have a look at squared squares with small integer sidelengths, where the only restriction is that any two subsquares of the same size are not allowed to share a full border. We prove that there are exactly two such squared squares (and their mirrored versions) up to and including size 17x17. They are shown in Figure 1 (page 2).

Abstract:
this study deals with the consolidation of financial statements upon the acquisition of company control, emphasizing the comparability of statements at the time of acquisition, in the preceding and in the subsequent period. when a subsidiary is inserted for the first time in the consolidated balance of the holding company, this fact may lead to decreased comparability because, in the year of control acquisition, the balance sheet is fully consolidated, but the income statement is only consolidated from the acquisition date onwards. therefore, the comparative analysis may be impaired since, in the previous year, there was no consolidation, since the subsidiary was not part of the economic group of the holding company while, in the next period, twelve months are consolidated in the accounts. the study aims to present an alternative to recover comparability between consolidated statements in control acquisition or business restructuring periods. this comparison can be achieved through pro forma consolidated statements. as a complement, we present a research carried out among financial and capital market professionals in order to evaluate their opinions about the publication of pro forma consolidated statements when relevant facts occur, such as control acquisition and business restructuring.

Abstract:
whenever there are commercial transactions involving investees and investors, the figure of unrealized profit may come up. when the subsidiary sells any asset to the controlling company with a profit, and the latter has not sold it yet to a third part, it is said that, for the economic group, this profit has not been realized yet. it may happen that the subsidiary distributes this profit and, thus, the controlling company will receive dividends early. this study deals with accounting practices of financial statements when this profit is distributed, as well as how these anticipated dividends should be presented on the individual statements of controlling company and subsidiary; it also treats possibility of reflex in the consolidated financial statements. as this subject has not been discussed in the accounting sphere, neither has it been included in brazilian legislation nor technical literature, this research aims to contribute to the subject by seeking to answer three questions: the first is related to the adequacy or not of the current accounting treatment of dividends from profits that have not been realized yet by the economic group. the second question seeks alternatives to the adequate accounting treatment of these dividends. the third refers to the presentation of financial statements in case of dividend payment from unrealized profits.

Abstract:
The urinary infection tract is the most common infectious complication in pregnancy.The aim was to conduct a literature review of the evidence on effectiveness, safetyand cost effectiveness of cranberry products in preventing urinary tract infection inpregnancy. Studies suggest a potential protective effect of cranberry products againsturinary tract infection in pregnancy and there is no documented evidence of danger orcontraindication in pregnancy or lactation. The cost effectiveness of cranberry productsin pregnancy has not been evaluated.

Abstract:
agroforestry systems represent important carbon sinks; nevertheless, in cuba they have not been considered in that sense due, mainly, to the absence of quantified information about their storage and fixation potential. this study shows the comparative results of a farm with a natural pasture and another turned into an agroforestry system with 11 years of exploitation. the carbon stored by the silvopastoral system was higher than that sequestered in the system of natural pasture. the forest carbon and the one retained in the pastures and in the soil reached values of 64; 38 and 24 t/ha, respectively. the silvopastoral system sequestered 126 t of carbon unlike the system of natural pasture, which only reached 32 t/ha in the year of evaluation. the agroforestry system substantially exceeded the system of natural pasture for its high environmental and economic contribution; its economic value is about 1 300 usd per year. this economic assessment is an essential element to achieve a sustainable utilization of the ecosystem and, although it does not constitute the instrument to be taken into consideration for all decisions, it represents one of the aspects involved in the decision-making process, together with other important political, social and cultural considerations. the results confirm that silvopastoral systems are an alternative for the sustainable development of the livestock production sector.