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Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Guatemala: infection rate of Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma nitida and Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) with Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae)
Monroy Carlota,Rodas Antonieta,Mejía Mildred,Rosales Regina
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003,
Abstract: A five-year domiciliary collection in the 22 departments of Guatemala showed that out of 4,128 triatomines collected, 1,675 were Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811), 2,344 were Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1859, and only 109 were T. nitida Usinger 1939. The Chagas disease parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, was found in all three species. Their natural infection rates were similar in the first two species (20.6%; 19.1%) and slightly lower in T. nitida(13.8%). However there was no significant difference in the infection rates in the three species (p = 0.131). T. dimidiata males have higher infection rates than females (p = 0.030), whereas for R. prolixus there is no difference in infection rates between males and females (p = 0.114). The sex ratios for all three species were significantly skewed. More males than females were found inside houses for T. dimidiata (p < 0.0001) and T. nitida (p = 0.011); a different pattern was seen for R. prolixus (p = 0.037) where more females were found. Sex ratio is proposed as an index to show the mobility of T. dimidiata in different populations. T. dimidiata is widely distributed in the country, and is also the main vector in at least ten departments, but R. prolixus with higher vectorial capacity is an important vector in at least two departments.
Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in Guatemala
Monroy, Carlota;Bustamante, Dulce María;Rodas, Antonieta;Rosales, Regina;Mejía, Mildred;Tabaru, Yuichiro;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762003000100006
Abstract: triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4%) out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. compared to previous information, the distribution of t. nitida in guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. fourteen percent of the intradomestic t. nitida were infected with trypanosoma cruzi. the species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (t. dimidiata and rhodnius prolixus). the domestic and peridomestic presence of t. nitida in guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. t. nitida appears to have a low importance as chagas disease vector in guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. however, it clearly has potential to become a chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of t. nitida following the control programs in guatemala. morphometric analysis of 47 t. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of t. nitida populations.
Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Guatemala: infection rate of Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma nitida and Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) with Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae)
Monroy, Carlota;Rodas, Antonieta;Mejía, Mildred;Rosales, Regina;Tabaru, Yuichiro;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762003000300003
Abstract: a five-year domiciliary collection in the 22 departments of guatemala showed that out of 4,128 triatomines collected, 1,675 were triatoma dimidiata (latreille, 1811), 2,344 were rhodnius prolixus stal 1859, and only 109 were t. nitida usinger 1939. the chagas disease parasite, trypanosoma cruzi, was found in all three species. their natural infection rates were similar in the first two species (20.6%; 19.1%) and slightly lower in t. nitida(13.8%). however there was no significant difference in the infection rates in the three species (p = 0.131). t. dimidiata males have higher infection rates than females (p = 0.030), whereas for r. prolixus there is no difference in infection rates between males and females (p = 0.114). the sex ratios for all three species were significantly skewed. more males than females were found inside houses for t. dimidiata (p < 0.0001) and t. nitida (p = 0.011); a different pattern was seen for r. prolixus (p = 0.037) where more females were found. sex ratio is proposed as an index to show the mobility of t. dimidiata in different populations. t. dimidiata is widely distributed in the country, and is also the main vector in at least ten departments, but r. prolixus with higher vectorial capacity is an important vector in at least two departments.
Cumplimiento de la norma técnica de atención del recién nacido en hospitales del nivel I y III de Barranquilla y Soledad
Mildred Rosales Amarís,Katty álvarez Manduca,Lady Delgado Rivero,María Auxiliadora Hemer Narváez
Revista Salud Uninorte , 2007,
Abstract: Objetivo: Valorar cumplimiento de la normativa 0412 de 2000 para la atención del recién nacido en instituciones hospitalarias de Barranquilla y Soledad. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo evaluativo. Se evaluaron 210 partos institucionales mediante cuestionario estructurado para valorar cumplimiento de la norma de atención del recién nacido; cuestionario estructurado dirigido a personal de sala de partos y maternidad para valorar trabajo en equipo; cuestionario institucional para medir capacidad resolutiva y encuesta estructurada con preguntas de chequeo a la madre para valorar atención humanizada. Para análisis se utilizó EpiInfo versión 6.04d. Resultados: Participación en la atención del parto: auxiliares de enfermería (98.6%), médico general (58.1%), gineco-obstetra (17.6%) y pediatra (17.1%). El Apgar se valoró a los cinco minutos en el 64.3% y a los diez minutos en el 28.6%. Se identificó oportunamente al 49.5 % de recién nacidos. Se observó poca actitud para trabajar en equipo en el 48.3% del personal de Sala de Partos y Maternidad y ninguna actitud en el 46.7%; 50% de los recién nacidos hospitalizados y 23.3% de los no hospitalizados fueron atendidos con alguna disposición hacia la atención humanizada. Las instituciones de primero y tercer nivel estudiadas presentaron mediana capacidad resolutiva. Una institución del primer nivel y otra del tercero presentaron alto grado de conocimiento de la norma. Conclusiones: El conocer la norma no se refleja en los procesos de atención. Trabajo en equipo, atención humanizada y capacidad resolutiva no fueron satisfactorios.
Cumplimiento de la norma técnica de atención del recién nacido en hospitales del nivel i y iii de Barranquilla y Soledad
Rosales Amarís,Mildred; álvarez Manduca,Katty; Delgado Rivero,Lady; Hemer Narváez,María Auxiliadora; Madero Reales,Javier; Silva Henao,Diana;
Revista Salud Uninorte , 2007,
Abstract: objectives: to value the execution of the norm 0412 of 2000 for the appropiate atention of a newborn in the clinical institutions of barranquilla and soledad, jun-dic 2005. materials and methods: a descriptive study of 210 childbirths was observed and a questionnaire was applied in order to assess the observance of the norm for the childbirth and the newborn care. one questionnaire was implemented for each institution to judge the resolution capacity. the 210 events were observed to assess the condition of the humanized care through the observation and the response to one survey by the mother. the tabulation and analysis of the data were computerized by using the epiinfo software version 6.04d. results: in the results, the nurse assistant participated in the care up to a 98.6%, the surgeon attended 58.1% of the childbirths, and the gynecologist/obstetrician (17.6%) and the pediatrician (17.1%). the apgar evaluation 5 minutes after birth was applied in 64.3% of the newborns and the 10 minutes 28.6% of the newborn. the newborn was identified timely only in 49.5% of the cases. it was found that poor attitude occurs during teamwork in 48.3% of the service staff in the childbirth and maternity ward, and 46.7% of them had no attitude for teamwork. the evidences showed lack of humanization in the following institutions. little resolution capacity was found in the institutions. conclusions: although the evidences showed certain knowledge of the norm, many of its activities are not being implemented. the context in which is applied isn't satisfactory.
Because It's There: Morals, Medicine and Masturbation in the Nineteenth Century
Mildred Wong
University of Toronto Medical Journal , 2002, DOI: 10.5015/utmj.v79i3.879
Abstract:
Geographical Analysis of Smoking in Leeds: A GIS-Based Location-Allocation Technique for the Optimal Location of Smoking Cessation Services  [PDF]
Mildred Oiza Ajebon, Monday Ohi Asikhia
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2013.53026
Abstract:

Smoking is associated with several illnesses in the UK. Smoking rate in Leeds is higher than the national average. Finding optimal locations for stop-smoking services will be a good place to start in reducing smoking rates. The study utilizes a GIS-Based location-allocation method for the optimal distribution of smoking cessation centres in relation to the spatial distribution of the smoking population in Leeds. The demand for the smoking cessation clinics was estimated based on the 2009 General Life Style (GLS) statistics on age and social class stratification of smoking rates for the UK. Leeds specific rates were then obtained from the 2001 census key statistics data on socioeconomic status and age structure for output areas via Census Area Statistics Website (CASWEB). The research findings show that spatial inequalities in smoking rate exist in output areas of Leeds. Poorer and non-skilled populations are demonstrated to have higher smoking rates compared with wealthier neighbourhoods. The study confirms the capability of GIS-Based location-allocation techniques to be useful modelling tools for determining the best locations for health facilities. The model allocates services in relation to the spatial patterns of demand in a fashion that minimises average travel distance.

Energizing Social Interactions at Work: An Exploration of Relationships that Generate Employee and Organizational Thriving  [PDF]
Robert M. Rosales
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.49004
Abstract:
A company’s greatest asset is its people provided they are fully engaged. In our increa-singly service-based economies, social relationships and swift coordination among employees are the means by which a lot of work gets done. Thus, whether organiza-tions and their employees flourish or languish largely depends on the quality of the so-cial connections they nurture. The quality of the workplace connections can be defined as life giving (high quality) or life depleting (low quality). Positive social interactions facilitate organizational learning, cooperation, effectiveness, and employee loyalty, among many other desirable outcomes. High-quality connections are brief, mutually beneficial, and dynamic dyadic interactions, which have the power to energize people with vital resources to do their work well. Positive psychology and positive organizational scholarship—the science of how people and organizations flourish—provides us with tools that can help bring about high-quality connections. This paper defines high-quality connections at work, examines the benefits of high- quality connections, and provides a framework for building high-quality connections. The paper shows that high-quality connections are a pathway to build individual and organizational flourishing.
Translating genomics into the clinic: moving to the post-Mendelian world
Mildred K Cho
Genome Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/gm7
Abstract: The main issue currently facing the translation of genomics research into clinical practice is that it will require researchers, clinicians and patients to make a significant conceptual shift from Mendelian ways of thinking to a post-Mendelian world. Ironically, in this new world, genes have a lesser role as we study ever more complex diseases and traits and begin to understand the interplay of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions and epigenetics. It is nearly 100 years since Wilhelm Johanssen first coined the word 'gene' and posited a relationship between genotype and phenotype. Since then, we have learned that there is a lot more to this relationship than we initially envisaged.Currently, genome-wide association studies increasingly identify the contribution of multiple genetic loci to phenotypes by providing clues as to the biological pathways and interactions involved. However, we are far from knowing how the results of these studies are clinically relevant. As a result, we also do not yet know how to explain these results in a meaningful way to patients.The shift to post-Mendelian genomics will require different ways of thinking about the validation, interpretation and explanation of genomic studies, especially with respect to their application to clinical practice. Recent comprehensive, large-scale studies such as that by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium [1] have been very valuable at connecting biochemical pathways with diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration [2]. The challenge of establishing and replicating genotype-phenotype associations remains, however [3,4], leading to cautions about how to design and interpret genome-wide association studies [5-7].Validation of genotype-phenotype associations is of course critical to the successful translation of genomic data to clinical practice. Basic issues of analytical validity must be addressed, especially as new analytical platforms are developed, such as array comparative genomic hyb
Factores determinantes en la gestión de recursos humanos en empresas de servicios que incorporan de manera sistemática nuevas tecnologías: Un estudio de caso en la comunidad valenciana
Domínguez Santiago,Mildred;
Pensamiento & Gestión , 2008,
Abstract: the new technologies incorporation supposes the reduction of the current technologies&' life cycle and brings transformations in people&'s life stiles, consumption practices, interpersonal relations and, consequently, changes in survivor conditions and enterprises competitiveness. modern entrepreneurial organizations have brought profound changes in development and survivors conditions. in these changes processes and technologies have been taking into considerations. it is here when emerge different proposals (empowerment, engineering, process management, and competences management) to face those circumstances. face to this new scenario the competence management can be understood as one of the major contributions to integral management. in this work, we pretend to talk about how from the human resources management the politics that contribute to ameliorate in technology and innovations in services sector enterprises have been established.
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