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Modifications of sexual activity during uncomplicated pregnancy: A prospective investigation of Spanish women  [PDF]
Raquel Escudero-Rivas, Pilar Carretero, áfrica Ca?o, Milagros Cruz, Jesús Florido
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58175
Abstract:

Introduction: Pregnancy is a time of profound changes in a woman’s life. These changes can influence her sexual behaviour and the relationship with her partner. The purpose of this article is to study sexual behaviour modification before and during pregnancy in a cohort of healthy Spanish pregnant women. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study in which 111 pregnant women took part. They completed a questionnaire about their sexual habits before pregnancy and at 20, 30 and 38 weeks (frequency of intercourse and orgasm, satisfaction with their relationships and pain or discomfort). Results: Intercourse frequency decreased progressively during pregnancy at all times studied relative to pre-regnancy periods, to a significant degree (p < 0.0001), accompanied by a reduction in sexual satisfaction. The incidence of orgasm was lightly modified, except in the weeks before parturition in which it underwent a notable decrease (p < 0.0001) with an increase in the rate of hypoorgasmia/ anorgasmia from 19% pre-pregnancy to 43% at 38th week. Conclusions: The longitudinal monitoring of this cohort permits the conclusion that during pregnancy, sexual behaviour undergoes a general decline with respect to prepregnancy levels. The differences vary depending on the sexual parameter considered, with intercourse frequency being the most affected variable in contrast to dyspareunia, which is the least affected.

Envejecimiento poblacional e incidencia de hemopatias primarias adquiridas en un area de la Comunidad Autonoma de Aragon
Giraldo Castellano Pilar,Franco García Esther,Bernal Pérez Milagros,Huelin Domeco de Jarauta José
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 1998,
Abstract: FUNDAMENTO: El envejecimiento constituye probablemente uno de los factores más importantes que contribuyen a la aparición de hemopatías primarias adquiridas (HPA), la mayoría de carácter crónico. El propósito de este trabajo ha sido el estudiar la tasa de incidencia (TI) de HPA en una población de 522.621 habitantes (V: 252.721; M: 269.900), con un crecimiento vegetativo negativo (-1,4/10(5) habitantes/a o), considerando por separado dicha incidencia en la población menor y la mayor de 60 a os. MéTODOS: Durante el periodo enero-diciembre de 1994, se realizó una estimación de las tasas de consulta y las tasas de incidencia de HPA en los pacientes procedentes del área, considerando separadamente los menores y los mayores de 60 a os. Las categorías diagnósticas aplicadas fueron: gammapatías monoclonales de significado indeterminado (GMSI), según criterios de Kyle; mieloma múltiple (MM) y leucemia linfática crónica (LLC) según criterios del Myeloma Task Force, linfoma no Hodgkin (LNH) y enfermedad de Hodgkin (EH) siguiendo la clasificación REAL, síndromes mielodisplásicos (SMD) y leucemia aguda (LA) según la clasificación FAB, síndromes mieloproliferativos crónicos (SMPC), según el PVSG. Para el cálculo de las tasas de incidencia se utilizaron los métodos epidemiológicos descriptivos. RESULTADOS: La mayor tasa de consultas hematológicas por sospecha de HPA procedía de los mayores de 60 a os (p<0,0001). En el periodo analizado se diagnosticaron un total de 302 HPA (<60/3 60 a os: 100/202, p<0,0001), destacando: 84 GMSI; 21 MM; 57 LNH; 26 LLC; 33 SMD; 24 SMPC; 11 LA y 14 EH. La distribución por sexos: V: 177; M: 125. Edad media 63,54 a os (extremos 19-92). Las tasas de incidencia (casos/10(5)hab/a o) fueron (<60/3 60 a os): global: 31,31 / 178, 86; GMSI 7,37 / 52,87; MM: 1,84 / 13,21; LNH: 5,53 / 34,36; LLC: 1,53 / 18,50 ; SMD: 0,62 / 27,31; SMPC: 5,52 / 16,74; LA: 1,53 / 5,29; EH: 3,68 / 1,76. CONCLUSIONES: La mayor tasa de consultas por sospecha de HPA se dio entre mayores de 60 a os. La incidencia global de HPA es significativamente más elevada en mayores de 60 a os que en menores, así como para cada tipo de HPA considerada, excepto para LA y EH. La mayor tasa de incidencia corresponde a las GMSI, LNH y SMD, especialmente en varones.
Identification of a new trypsin from Spodoptera frugiperda involved in a defensive mechanism against the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca1 toxin
Rodríguez,Lianet; Borrás,Orlando; Téllez,Pilar; Morán,Ivis; Ponce,Milagros; Fernández,Yanileysis; Ayra,Camilo;
Biotecnolog?-a Aplicada , 2011,
Abstract: both, insecticidal formulations based on the entomopathogenic bacterium bacillus thuringiensis (bt) and transgenic plants expressing bt cry toxins, have been threatened by the potential appearance of insect resistance in major crop pests. with the aim of identifying genes and mechanisms triggered against a bt cry1-class toxin in the midgut of fall armyworm spodoptera frugiperda, the major pest of maize in cuba, subtractive cdna libraries of the molecular interaction insect-bt cry1ca1 toxin were constructed. among those genes specifically regulated in response to the intoxication, one coding for a new trypsin-like serin proteinase (sft6) was identified. gene function analysis using rna interference showed sft6 plays a crucial role for the cry1ca1 toxicity against s. frugiperda; gene expression suppression caused a reduction of the proteolytic processing of cry1ca1 by the larval midgut juice and a reduced susceptibility of insects in bioassays. our study represents the first report on s. frugiperda midgut genes differentially-expressed in response to cry1ca1 intoxication. besides, we have identified and cloned the full-length cdna sequence of a novel serine proteinase whose regulation is linked to the natural process of insect adaptation to bt in order to survive the pathogenic process.
Updated check-list of iberian-balearic Aphidini (Hemiptera, Aphididae)
García Prieto, Francisca,Pérez Hidalgo, Nicolás,Mier Durante, Milagros Pilar,Nieto Nafría, Juan Manuel
Graellsia , 2004,
Abstract: The check-list of species in the Tribe Aphidini (Hemiptera, Aphididae: Aphidinae) recorded to date from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Isles is presented, 139 species are listed. A list of the countries (Andorra, Spain and Portugal) and provinces (Spanish) or districts (Portuguese) where each species and subspecies is known is also included. Five species are mentioned for the first time in Iberian-Balearic territory: Aphis callunae Theobald, A. comosa (B rner), A. lantanae Koch (with the subspecies A. lantanae coriaria B rner), A. erigerontis Holman and Schizaphis longicaudata Hille Ris Lambers. Nine species have been removed from the check-list: Aphis euphorbiae Kaltenbach, A. genistae Scopoli, A. pilosellae (B rner), A. salsolae (B rner), A. striata Hille Ris Lambers, Brachyunguis zygophylli (Nevsky), B. suaedus (Paik), Protaphis centaurea (Gómez-Menor) and Schizaphis pilipes (Ossiannilsson). Aphis ruborum B rner & Schilder, 1931 is recognized as the valid name for Aphis ruborum B rner, 1932 syn. nov. and Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae (Schrank) for Rhopalosiphum insertum (Walker). Two new combinations are established: Xerobion blascoi comb. nov. for Aphis blascoi García Prieto & Sanchís Segovia and Xerobion brutii comb. nov. for Absinthaphis brutii Barbagallo. Five binomens have been re-established: A. althaeae (Nevsky), A. ballotae Passerini, A. longirostris (B rner), A. ononidis (Schouteden) and A. picridis (B rner) to replace A. davletshinae Hille Ris Lambers, A. balloticola Szelegiewicz, A. longirostrata Hille Ris Lambers, A. kaltenbachi Hille Ris Lambers and A. stroyani Szelegiewicz, respectively. The life cycle of Aphis stachydis Mordvilko is given and its males and oviparous females are described. Taxonomic, faunistics and nomenclatural data of other taxa are also given. Se presenta el catálogo de las especies de la tribu Aphidini (Hemiptera, Aphididae: Aphidinae) citadas hasta este momento en la península Ibérica e islas Baleares, con 139 especies. Se relacionan los países (Andorra, Espa a y Portugal) y las provincias (espa olas) o distritos (portugueses) en los que se han citado cada una de las especies y en su caso subespecies. Cinco especies se citan por primera vez en territorios íbero-baleares: Aphis callunae Theobald, A. comosa (B rner), A. lantanae Koch (con la subespecie A. lantanae coriaria B rner), A. erigerontis Holman y Schizaphis longicaudata Hille Ris Lambers. Nueve especies se suprimen del catálogo íbero-balear de la tribu: Aphis euphorbiae Kaltenbach, A. genistae Scopoli, A. pilosellae (B rner), A. salsolae (B rner), A. striata
Diferenciales de salud y una aproximación mediante el empleo del coeficiente de Gini y el índice de concentración en las provincias cubanas, 2002-2008 Health's differentials and a approaching to use of Gini's coefficient and the rate of concentration in the Cuban provinces, 2002-2008
Adolfo Gerardo álvarez Pérez,Milagros Alegret Rodríguez,Isabel Pilar Luis Gonzálvez,ángela Leyva León
Revista Cubana de Higiene y Epidemiología , 2011,
Abstract: INTRODUCCIóN: No existen muchas publicaciones científicas que aborden los diferenciales de salud entre las provincias de Cuba, ni que documenten los principales factores que impactaron en los resultados de salud de la población durante el período 1989 - 2000. En el a o 2002 Fidel Castro destacó la existencia de una serie de errores de conducción y organización durante ese periodo, que a su criterio debilitaron el sistema de salud cubano y propiciaron la aparición de "determinadas desigualdades". OBJETIVO: Describir los principales diferenciales de salud existentes entre los distintos territorios de Cuba (factores determinantes de la salud de los cubanos) durante el período estudiado (2002-2008). MéTODOS: Se utilizó como unidad geográfica a la provincia. Las catorce provincias cubanas fueron estratificadas sobre la base de tres ejes fundamentales: demográfico, económico y condiciones de vida, con vista a identificar posibles diferenciales de salud (inequidades en salud y en servicios de salud) mediante el empleo de la técnica del coeficiente de Gini y del índice de concentración. RESULTADOS: Se muestran los principales factores o variables con diferenciales de salud presentes en el país por provincias durante el período estudiado, se identificaron los factores o variables que mayores diferenciales exhibieron por cada uno de los ejes demográfico (densidad poblacional), económico (producción mercantil) y condiciones de vida (cobertura sanitaria). Se definen las diferencias existentes entre cada una de las provincias y por regiones y las características muy particulares de la capital cubana como provincia. CONCLUSIONES: Se confirma la hipótesis de que a pesar de la férrea voluntad política del estado de evitar inequidades en salud, aún se observan diferenciales no importantes en el comportamiento de las variables estudiadas por cada uno de los ejes de análisis entre provincias. No obstante, existen diferencias entre el comportamiento de esos diferenciales de acuerdo con los ejes de análisis, aspectos que deben ser y fueron considerados durante el proceso de dise o de políticas sanitarias, de reorganización de los servicios de salud, de formación de capital humano y de abordaje intersectorial de los determinantes no médicos de la salud durante los a os más duros del período especial, lo que viene a confirmar el modelo teórico desarrollado previamente por los autores. INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of scientific publications approaching the health differentials among the Cuban provinces and of to document the leading factors with impact on the health results in
Eficacia de la tromboprofilaxis obstétrica
Ana María Fernández Alonso,Milagros Cruz Martínez,Pilar Carretero Lucena,Isabel Rodríguez García
Revista de Obstetricia y Ginecología de Venezuela , 2008,
Abstract: Objetivo: Valorar la incidencia de enfermedad tromboembólica durante el embarazo, parto y puerperio en gestantes con riesgo y la efectividad de las tromboprofilaxis. Métodos: Seguimiento de 2 727 gestantes con parto durante un a o. Se realiza análisis descriptivo de nuestra población, de los factores de riesgo y de la duración de la tromboprofilaxis, analizando su relación con la incidencia de eventos tromboembólicos. Ambiente: Hospital Universitario San Cecilio de Granada, Espa a. Resultados: Nuestras gestantes tienen pocos factores de riesgo: cesárea, anemia posquirúrgica, tabaquismo, hipertensión inducida por el embarazo o previa, diabetes, cardiopatía y trombofilia, siendo la cesárea y la anemia los más frecuentes. La tromboprofilaxis postcesárea con nadroparina cálcica 0,4 diaria durante su hospitalización ha sido efectiva. No hubo ningún tromboembolismo. Conclusiones: En nuestra población, con un adecuado control obstétrico y profilaxis con antiagregantes plaquetarios y/o heparinas de bajo peso molecular, se han evitado eventos tromboembólicos relacionados con el embarazo, parto y puerperio. Objective: To value the incidence of thromboembolic disease during pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium and how effective thromboembolic prophylaxis is. Methods: A prospectivy study of 2 727 pregnant women with childbirth in one year. A descriptive study of thromboembolic risk factors, period of prophylaxis, and the relation of all these factors with the incidence of thromboembolic disease has been made. Setting: Hospital Universitario San Cecilio de Granada, Espa a. Results: Our population of pregnant women shows a low rate of risk factors: cesarean section, anemia, preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, Mellitus Diabetes, cardiopathies and thrombophilia. Cesarean section and anemia are the most prevalent risk factors. Thromboprophylaxis with 0,4 nadroparin daily for hospitalization period is useful to avoid thromboembolic disease. There was not thromboembolic event. Conclusion: In our poblation, it′s proved that with adequate obstetric care and using antithrombotic agents and/or low-molecular-weight heparin as a prophylaxis, the thromboembolic events can be avoided.
Rese as críticas
Huerta Martínez, ángel,Casta?eda de la Paz, María,Ciudad Suárez, Milagros,Hernández Aparicio, Pilar
Anuario de Estudios Americanos , 1997,
Abstract:
Collective Action in Common Pool Resource Management, Including Heterogeneity of Opportunities and Exit Options  [PDF]
Pilar Useche
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.48059
Abstract:

The mechanism through which exit options and outside opportunities affect cooperation outcomes has not been well studied in the resource management literature, since a deep analysis of the concepts of exit options and outside opportunitiesis missing. This article analyzes these concepts across the common pool resource management literature, investigates the factors that underlie opting out decisions, and reviews potential ways to operationalize these concepts for empirical analysis. It also explores how the relationship of cooperation and exit options may be influenced by broad economic processes, such as economic integration.

Postcesarean Thromboprophylaxis with Two Different Regimens of Bemiparin
Milagros Cruz,Ana M. Fernández-Alonso,Isabel Rodríguez,Loreto Garrigosa,Africa Ca?o,Pilar Carretero,Amelia Vizcaíno,Amanda Rocío Gonzalez-Ramirez
Obstetrics and Gynecology International , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/548327
Abstract: Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of postcesarean thromboprophylaxis with two different regimens of bemiparin. Material and Methods. The study included 646 women with cesarean delivery in our hospital within a 1-year period, randomly assigned to one of two groups for prophylaxis with 3500?IU bemiparin once daily for 5 days or 3500?IU bemiparin once daily for 10 days. Results. There was one case of pulmonary embolism (first day following cesarean). An additional risk factor was present in 98.52% of the women, most frequently emergency cesarean, anemia, or obesity. The only risk factors for thromboembolic disease significantly related to pulmonary thromboembolism were placental abruption and prematurity. There were no differences in thromboembolic events among the two thromboprophylaxis regimens. Conclusions. Cesarean-related thromboembolic events were reduced in our study population due to the thromboprophylactic measures taken. Thromboprophylaxis with 3500?IU bemiparin once daily for 5 days following cesarean was sufficient to avoid thromboembolic events. 1. Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains one of the main direct causes of maternal mortality in developed countries [1–4], largely due to pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) [5–7] which is responsible for around 20% of maternal deaths [8]. Epidemiologic studies estimate the annual frequency of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the general population to be from 0.16‰ [7] to 1‰ [9], of which 2% are pregnancy related [5]. There is an increased risk of thromboembolic event, either DVT or PE, during pregnancy and puerperium [5, 10], and it has been estimated that the risk of VTE is 10-fold higher [11–15], reaching up to 2‰ [16]. Puerperium is the period with highest VTE risk [12–14, 17, 18] which was reported to be up to 25-fold higher than that in nonpregnant women [12–14]. It has been reported that 43–60% of pregnancy-related PE episodes take place during puerperium [11, 13]. The incidence of pregnancy-related VTE is estimated at 0.76 to 1.72‰ [11, 18]. The incidence is likely to be underestimated, since women are often asymptomatic [19] or present nonspecific signs or symptoms [20], and VTE during puerperium is often diagnosed or treated in a different hospital from where the delivery took place [20, 21]. The incidence of puerperium-related VTE is 0.65‰ [11]. Established risk factors for VTE during pregnancy include [9, 22] maternal age (1/800 for age >35 years; 1/1600 for age <35 years) [12, 13, 18, 23], obesity (body mass index (BMI) >30) [24, 25], preeclampsia/hypertension, parity ≥3 [16],
Envejecimiento poblacional e incidencia de hemopatias primarias adquiridas en un area de la Comunidad Autonoma de Aragon
Giraldo Castellano,Pilar; Franco García,Esther; Bernal Pérez,Milagros; Huelin Domeco de Jarauta,José; Rubio-Félix,Daniel; Giralt Raichs,Manuel;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57271998000600009
Abstract: background: aging probably comprises one of the major factors contributing to the onset of acquired primary blood diseases (apbd?s), most of which are of a chronic type. the purpose of this study is that to analyze the rate of occurrence (ro) of hpa in a population of 522,621 inhabitants (males: 252,721; females: 269,900) showing a negative vegetative growth (-1.4/ 105 inhabitants/year), said occurrence being dealt with separately for the population under age 60 and the population over age 60. methods: in january-december, 1994, a estimate was made of the hpa rate of occurrence and rate of analyses among the patients from the area in question, dealing separately with those under age 60 and over age 60. the diagnostic criteria applied were monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (mgus?s) in keeping with kyle?s criteria. multiple myeloma (mm) and chronic lymphatic leukemia (cll) in keeping with the myeloma task force criteria, non-hodgkin?s lymphoma (nhl) and hodgkin?s disease (hd) in keeping with the real classification, myelodisplasic syndromes (ms?s) and acute leukemia (al) in keeping with the fab classification, chronic myeloproliferative syndromes (cms?s) in keeping with the pvsg. for calculating the rates of occurrence, descriptive epidemiological methods were used. results: the highest rates of blood analyses as the result of suspected aph?s fell within the over 60 age group ( p<0.0001). during the length of time analyzed, a total of 302 aph?s (<60/> years: 100/202, p<0.0001) were diagnosis, being worthy of special mention: 84 mgus?s; 21 mm?s; 57 nhl?s; 26 cll?s; 33 cms?s; 11 al?s and 14 hd?s. the spread by gender was: males: 177; females 125. average age: 63.54 years (age range 19-92). the rates of occurrence (cases/105 inhabitants/year) were ( age 60): overall: 31.31 / 178.86; mgus: 7.37 / 52.87; mm: 1.84 / 13.21; nhl: 5.53 / 34.36; cll: 1.53 / 18.50; ms: 0.62 / 27.31; cms: 5.52 / 16.74 ; al: 1.53 / 5.29; hd: 3.68 / 1.76. conclusions: th
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