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Effects of Egg White Protein Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Serum Free Amino Acid Concentrations
Azumi Hida,Yuko Hasegawa,Yuko Mekata,Mika Usuda,Yasunobu Masuda,Hitoshi Kawano,Yukari Kawano
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4101504
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM), one repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal) and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal). Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments ( i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press) increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength.
An online operational rainfall-monitoring resource for epidemic malaria early warning systems in Africa
Emily Grover-Kopec, Mika Kawano, Robert W Klaver, Benno Blumenthal, Pietro Ceccato, Stephen J Connor
Malaria Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-4-6
Abstract: Rainfall is one of the major factors triggering epidemics in warm semi-arid and desert-fringe areas. Explosive epidemics often occur in these regions after excessive rains and, where these follow periods of drought and poor food security, can be especially severe. Consequently, rainfall monitoring forms one of the essential elements for the development of integrated Malaria Early Warning Systems for sub-Saharan Africa, as outlined by the World Health Organization.The Roll Back Malaria Technical Resource Network on Prevention and Control of Epidemics recommended that a simple indicator of changes in epidemic risk in regions of marginal transmission, consisting primarily of rainfall anomaly maps, could provide immediate benefit to early warning efforts. In response to these recommendations, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network produced maps that combine information about dekadal rainfall anomalies, and epidemic malaria risk, available via their Africa Data Dissemination Service. These maps were later made available in a format that is directly compatible with HealthMapper, the mapping and surveillance software developed by the WHO's Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Department. A new monitoring interface has recently been developed at the International Research Institute for Climate Prediction (IRI) that enables the user to gain a more contextual perspective of the current rainfall estimates by comparing them to previous seasons and climatological averages. These resources are available at no cost to the user and are updated on a routine basis.It is estimated that more than 110 million Africans live in areas prone to epidemics of malaria. Populations in these areas are infrequently challenged by malaria and, therefore, do not fully develop acquired immunity. As a result, the disease remains life threatening to all age groups. The impact of malaria epidemics could be greatly reduced by timely detection or, ideally, by prediction and prevention through
Resistance coefficient during ice slurry flow through pipe sudden constriction
?. Mika
Archives of Foundry Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: Due to the adverse environmental effects of some commonly-used refrigerants, efforts are still underway to find new cooling mediumsthat would be safer to the ozone layer and would not increase the greenhouse effect. Ice slurry as a new ecological coolant suits theprocesses requiring the preservation of constant and equal temperature in the cooling process of the full section of the cooled solid. Thanks to that, ice slurry can find a wide potential application in such branches of industry, as heat treatment, materials engineering, or foundry. In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as diameter’s reductions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the slurry flow in which the flow qualities depend mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the resistance coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction. The volume fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The recommended and non-recommended range of the Reynolds number for the ice slurry flow through the pipe sudden constriction were presented in this paper. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common reductions of copper pipes. Further studies on the determination of the resistance coefficient in the remaining fittings elements of the pipeline were recommended in the paper as well as the further theoretical studies intended to determine the theoretical relations to calculate the resistance coefficient in all the fittings elements in the pipeline (on the basis of the experimental studies) and to elaborate the calculation pattern of the entire ice slurry system.
Pitfalls and Remedies in DEA Applications: How to Handle an Occurrence of Zero in Multipliers by Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions  [PDF]
Toshiyuki Sueyoshi, Mika Goto
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.55A005
Abstract: This study discusses a guideline on a proper use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) that has been widely used for performance analysis in public and private sectors. The use of DEA is equipped with Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions (SCSCs) in this study, but an application of DEA/SCSCs depends upon its careful use, as summarized in the guideline. The guideline consists of the five suggestions. First, a data set used in the DEA applications should not have a ratio variable (e.g., financial ratios) in an input(s) and/or an output(s). Second, radial DEA models under variable and constant Returns to Scale (RTS) need a special treatment on zero in a data set. Third, the DEA evaluation needs to drop an outlier. Fourth, an imprecise number (e.g., 1/3) may suffer from a round-off error because DEA needs to specify it in a precise expression to operate a computer code. Finally, when a large input or output variable may dominate other variables in DEA computation, it is necessary to normalize the data set or simply to divide each observation by its average. Such a simple treatment produces more reliable DEA results than the one without any data adjustment. This study also discusses how to handle an occurrence of zero in DEA multipliers by applying SCSCs. The DEA/SCSCs can serve for a multiplier restriction approach without any prior information. Thus, the propesed DEA/SCSCs can provide more reliable results than a straight use of DEA.
Uncovering Executive Prioritization: Evaluating Customer Value Propositions with the Pairwise Comparison Method  [PDF]
Mika Yrj?l?
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.81001
Abstract: Creating customer value is a managerial priority. The role of executives is to choose what type(s) of customer value to propose to customers in the form of a customer value proposition (CVP). The decision is a complex one, because executives have to compare and weigh concrete, measurable elements alongside abstract, subjective ones. The purpose of this paper is to identify themes relating to the use of the pairwise comparison method (PCM) as a tool for prioritizing customer value dimensions from the perspective of retail executives. As a result, this paper first highlights examples of PCM outputs, and second, identifies four themes that capture executive views of the PCM.
Mitochondrial Respiration Is Associated with Alloxan-Induced Mitochondrial Permeability Transition  [PDF]
Koichi Sakurai, Mika Itoh
Journal of Biophysical Chemistry (JBPC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbpc.2016.74008
Abstract: We previously showed that increased mitochondrial inner membrane permeability which is known as mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is triggered by adding succinate in the presence of the diabetogenic agent alloxan. Here, our aim was to investigate whether mitochondrial respiration is associated with alloxan-induced MPT. After mitochondria isolated from rat liver were incubated with alloxan at 37°C for 5 min, the addition of succinate immediately triggered the MPT in the presence of rotenone. However, little or no induction occurred at incubation temperatures below 25°C. Malate/glutamate also triggered MPT by alloxan in the absence of rotenone. In mitochondrial suspensions containing alloxan, succinate accelerated oxygen consumption that was completely inhibited by cyanide. These results suggest that mitochondrial respiration is associated with the alloxan-induced MPT. Alloxan radical production was investigated using ESR spectroscopy. Mitochondria incubated with succinate and alloxan elicited low signal intensity (radical formation) that increased significantly in the presence of cyanide. When the incubation of alloxan with mitochondria after the addition of succinate, a little intensity of the signal was observed, but it was remarkably increased after the addition of cyanide. Ubiquinone analogues inhibited the MPT induction. These results suggest that the initiation of MPT is associated with alloxan redox cycling via an electron transfer process at a quinone-binding site in respiratory mitochondria.
Regras locais e a solu??o de problemas envolvendo geodésicas
Kawano, Alexandre;
Rem: Revista Escola de Minas , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0370-44672001000100007
Abstract: the problem of finding geodesics of a surface is a topic of differential geometry and tensor calculus. traditionally, by means of analytical manipulation, the problem originally put in terms of length of a line is restated into a set of coupled partial differential equations of difficult solution. complexity theory proposes the reverse way of viewing nature, first stating simple local rules that elementary agents must follow, and then from the interactions at the local level, to predict the behavior of the whole. in this paper a local rule based on the huygens principle is proposed that can be used to find geodesics of any surface. by using the rule, problems once considered difficult can be solved in an intuitive way.
Prion-derived copper-binding peptide fragments catalyze the generation of superoxide anion in the presence of aromatic monoamines
Tomonori Kawano
International Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Objectives: Studies have proposed two opposing roles for copper-bound forms of prion protein (PrP) as an anti-oxidant supporting the neuronal functions and as a pro-oxidant leading to neurodegenerative process involving the generation of reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis in which putative copper-binding peptides derived from PrP function as possible catalysts for monoamine-dependent conversion of hydrogen peroxide to superoxide in vitro. Materials and methods: Four peptides corresponding to the copper (II)-binding motifs in PrP were synthesized and used for analysis of peptide-catalyzed generation of superoxide in the presence of Cu (II) and other factors naturally present in the neuronal tissues. Results: Among the Cu-binding peptides tested, the amino acid sequence corresponding to the Cu-binding site in the helical region was shown to be the most active for superoxide generation in the presence of Cu(II), hydrogen peroxide and aromatic monoamines, known precursors or intermediates of neurotransmitters. Among monoamines tested, three compounds namely phenylethylamine, tyramine and benzylamine were shown to be good substrates for superoxide-generating reactions by the Cu-bound helical peptide. Conclusions: Possible roles for these reactions in development of prion disease were suggested.
Regras locais e a solu o de problemas envolvendo geodésicas
Kawano Alexandre
Rem: Revista Escola de Minas , 2001,
Abstract: O problema de se determinarem as geodésicas de uma superfície é um tópico da Geometria Diferencial e Cálculo Tensorial. Tradicionalmente, o problema, posto em termos do comprimento de uma linha, é colocado, por meio de manipula es analíticas, em forma de uma solu o de um sistema de equa es diferenciais parciais acopladas de difícil solu o. A Teoria da Complexidade prop e uma maneira inversa de se interpretar a natureza, primeiro modelando regras locais simples, que agentes elementares devem seguir, e, a partir das intera es entre eles, chegar ao comportamento do todo. Nesse trabalho, uma regra local baseada no Princípio de Huygens é proposta, e com ela é possível se acharem geodésicas de uma superfície. Usando essa regra, problemas considerados difíceis podem ser resolvidos de maneira intuitiva.
Chaotic D-Term Inflation
Teruhiko Kawano
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1143/PTP.120.793
Abstract: A simple model for chaotic inflation in supergravity is proposed. The model is N=1 supersymmetric massive U(1) gauge theory via the Stuckelberg superfield and gives rise to D-term inflation with a quadratic term of inflaton in the potential. The Fayet-Iliopoulos field plays a role of the inflaton.
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