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Without using confederates, Mori and Arai (2010) replicated the Asch
results with 40 male and 64 female Japanese undergraduates in same-sex groups
of four. One from each foursome wore a different type of polarizing sunglasses
so that he/she observed the standard lines differently form the other three
participants, who played the same role as the majority in the Asch experiments.
As expected, the minority participants tended to conform to the majority. There
was a gender difference: the female minority participants conformed, but the
males did not. The present study reported the qualitative findings from
analysis of the responses on a questionnaire administered in the Mori and Arai
experiments. It revealed that female participants who conformed more than the
males were less confident and felt more isolated and anxious than the males.
Antimicrobial activity is one of the well-known biological characteristics of catechins, the main extract of green tea leaves. It is thought that catechins intercalate into the bacterial cell membrane and damage the lipid bilayer. However, the association between catechins and lipopolysaccharides, which consist of an O side chain, core oligosaccharide, and lipid A, has not been previously investigated. In this study, we evaluated the catechin sensitivity of Salmonella enterica mutants that lack the O side chain and have core oligosaccharides of different lengths. These rough mutants were more sensitive to catechins than a bacterial strain with intact lipopolysaccharide. We conclude that the O side chain and core oligosaccharide play an important role in protecting Gram-negative bacteria against the antimicrobial activity of catechins.