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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10067 matches for " Microbial Pollution Problems "
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Study on Quality and Safety Risk Factors of Edible Fungi and Preventive Measures: Take China as an Example  [PDF]
Fengjuan Jia, Yueming Wang, Zhiqing Gong, Wenjia Cui, Yansheng Wang, Wenliang Wang
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103154
Abstract:
Agricultural product quality and safety are local and international research hotspots. China was the world’s largest producer of edible fungi, but quality and safety problems restricted the sustainable development of this industry, which is the sixth largest class of agricultural products in China. Consumers have become increasingly concerned with the quality and safety of edible fungi because they can be easily contaminated with heavy metals, chemical pesticide residues, chemical additives, and microbes. This study summarized the safety problems of edible fungi to develop control measures for ensuring their quality and safety.
Effect of crude oil pollution on heavy metal contents, microbial population in soil, and maize and cowpea growth  [PDF]
Gabriel Olulakin Adesina, Kasali Amofe Adelasoye
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.51004
Abstract:

The effect of crude oil pollution on heavy metal content in the soil, microbial population, and growth performance of maize and cowpea was investigated. The heavy metals determined were lead, cadmium, iron, nickel, zinc and copper. Microbial population and growth performance of maize and cowpea in both polluted and unpolluted soils samples were evaluated. Results showed that higher concentration of heavy metals was observed in all crops planted in polluted soil, polluted site vegetation and soils. The total heterotrophic bacteria was 89% lower in the polluted soil than in the unpolluted soil while fungi was 78% lower in the polluted soil when compared to the unpolluted soil. However, hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi was 22% and 24% higher in the polluted soil than in the unpolluted soil respectively. Maize and Cowpea performed poorly in polluted soil when compared with unpolluted soil as evidenced in the growth parameters measured for both crops.

Assessment of Indoor Microbial Quality of Library’s Premise: Case of Central Library of the University of Yaoundé I  [PDF]
Kengne Gounmadje Landry, Nyegue Maximillienne Ascension, Djuidje Chatue Ide Armelle, Gonsu Kamga Hortense, Etoa Fran?ois-Xavier
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2018.84011
Abstract: Background: Good indoor air quality is important for human health and comfort, because people spend a most of their time within buildings. Microbial pollution is a key element of indoor air pollution. Bacteria and fungi growing indoors when sufficient moisture is available usually cause indoor air pollution. Methods: This study was conducted to assess the microbial concentration and to identify the main bacteria and fungi in the indoor environment of Central Library of the University of Yaoundé I. A total of 76 samples were taken from indoor air, surfaces and mouldy books. Bioaerosol sampling and air concentration were made by passive air sampling technique using petri dishes containing different culture media and exposed for 30, 60 and 90 min in the morning and afternoon. Sampling of surfaces and mouldy books were made by rubbing using sterile swab. The identification of the isolated microorganisms was based on macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical characters. Results: The concentrations of bacteria and fungi in the indoor environment of Central Library of the University of Yaoundé I ranged between 747 and 2324 CFU/m for the air and 40 and 500 CFU/cm2 for surfaces. In the examined area, the predominant culturable species of microflora were members of the following bacteria genera; Bacillus spp, Staphylococcus spp, Micrococcus spp, Pseudomonas spp, Rhodococcus spp, Enterobacter spp, Klebsiella spp and Escherichia spp and fungi; Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp, Curvularia spp, Mucor spp, Cladosporium spp, Candida spp Rhodotorula spp, Fusarium spp, Trichophyton spp, Acremonium spp, Aureobasidium spp, Rhizopus spp and Chrysonilia spp. Conclusion: High concentrations of bacteria and fungi were observed in the central library of the University of Yaoundé I. Precautions and safety measures should be taken to reduce microbial pollution at universities libraries by improving libraries ventilation and disinfection.
Toxicity of Heavy Metals and Microbial Analysis of Soil Samples Collected from the Area around Zliten Cement Factory  [PDF]
Abdulmajeed Bashir Mlitan, Adel Imhemed Alajtal, Abdullah Mohamed Alsadawy
Open Journal of Air Pollution (OJAP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2013.21004
Abstract: Soil samples were collected from and around Zliten cement factory, Zliten town, Libya. Soil metals and microbial contents were determined. The results obtained for the examined physiochemical characteristics of soil in the area studied prove that cement dust from the Zliten cement factory inLibyahas had a significant impact on the soil. The affected soil properties are pH and total calcium content. These characteristics were found to be higher than those in similar soils from the same area (unpolluted). The increment of soil pH in the same area may be a result of precipitation of cement dust over the years. Metal uptake from cement to plants and soil then affects organisms’ bodies, a fact that seems to be reflected in this study. Different responses were found in each site. For instance, the dominance of fungi of soil was lowest at100 mfrom the factory and the evenness and diversity increased at this site compared to300 mfrom the factory and the control area.
The Importance and Place of Family in The Precautions of Enviromental Pollution
Ate? BAYAZIT HAYTA
Journal of Kirsehir Education Faculty , 2006,
Abstract: The century we belong besides serving a lot of technological opportunities to man, it has also taken affluences which it can’t or is impossible to bring back and which are the common property of man. The concern we name as environmental problem means the perishing of the bases of life as air, soil, plant, and animal. Emerging by destructive effect on air, soil and water which are the physical elements of nature and all of the environmental problems which negatively effect the pertaining of life of the living beings brings about the environmental pollution. Unless protective precautions are taken for the place we live, the world would end as being a life area.
Approximate Analytical Expressions for the Concentrations of Acetate and Methane in the Microbial Electrochemical Cell  [PDF]
Sivasamy Pavithra, Lakshmanan Rajendran, Raghavan Ashokan
Natural Science (NS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2016.84023
Abstract: Mathematical modeling of microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs) for both microbial fuel cell and microbial electrolysis cell is discussed. The model is based on the system of reaction diffusion of reaction-diffusion equation containing a non-linear term related to substrate consumption rates by electrogeneic and methanogenic microorganism in the bioflim. This paper presents the approximate analytical method to solve the non-linear differential equation that describes the diffusion coupled with acetate (substrate) consumption rates. Simple analytical expressions for the concentrations of acetate and methane have been derived for all experimental values of bulk concentration, distributions of microbial volume fraction, local potential in the biofilm and biofilm thickness. In addition, sensitivity of the parameters on concentrations is also discussed. Our analytical results are also validated with the numerical results and limiting cases results. Further, a graphical procedure for estimating the kinetic parameters is also suggested.
Encapsulating the Role of Solution Response Space Roughness on Global Optimal Solution: Application in Identification of Unknown Groundwater Pollution Sources  [PDF]
Om Prakash, Bithin Datta
Open Journal of Optimization (OJOp) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojop.2014.33004
Abstract: A major challenge of any optimization problem is to find the global optimum solution. In a multi-dimensional solution space which is highly non-linear, often the optimization algorithm gets trapped around some local optima. Optimal Identification of unknown groundwater pollution sources poses similar challenges. Optimization based methodology is often applied to identify the unknown source characteristics such as location and flux release history over time, in a polluted aquifer. Optimization based models for identification of these characteristics of unknown ground-water pollution sources rely on comparing the simulated effects of candidate solutions to the observed effects in terms of pollutant concentration at specified sparse spatiotemporal locations. The optimization model minimizes the difference between the observed pollutant concentration measurements and simulated pollutant concentration measurements. This essentially constitutes the objective function of the optimization model. However, the mathematical formulation of the objective function can significantly affect the accuracy of the results by altering the response contour of the solution space. In this study, two separate mathematical formulations of the objective function are compared for accuracy, by incorporating different scenarios of unknown groundwater pollution source identification problem. Simulated Annealing (SA) is used as the solution algorithm for the optimization model. Different mathematical formulations of the objective function for minimizing the difference between the observed and simulated pollutant concentration measurements show different levels of accuracy in source identification results. These evaluation results demonstrate the impact of objective function formulation on the optimal identification, and provide a basis for choosing an appropriate mathematical formulation for unknown pollution source identification in contaminated aquifers.
LIVING IN HARMONY WITH THE EARTH AND WITH EACH OTHER
John M. LAST
TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin , 2007,
Abstract: Environmental deterioration and violent armed conflict are both massive public health problems. They are often associated with each other, and they are also interconnected in complex ways with physical, biological, social, demographic, economic and cultural factors that can be described as addiction to carbon-based fuels. Collectively the combination threatens the earth s life-support systems and human survival. This is the most serious public health problem of modern times. Tackling this problem will challenge all public health workers, and there is much that public health can do to help. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(1): 1-8]
Remediation of Pb-Resistant Bacteria to Pb Polluted Soil  [PDF]
Bao Chen, Jia-nan Liu, Zheng Wang, Lei Dong, Jing-hua Fan, Juan-juan Qu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.22015
Abstract: To show the remediation of Pb-resistant bacteria to Pb polluted soil, several indices including microbial counts, soil enzyme activity, microbial community diversity and soil Pb concentration were investigated. Two Pb-resistant bacteria were filtrated and identified by previous study as Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (GeneBank Accession No. FJ402988 and GU017676) and inoculated to soil planted with cabbages. Soil with different Pb application rates were incubated for a period of 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 days in greenhouse. Results indicated the count of bacteria in 1000 mg/kg Pb treated soil greatly affected by inoculating Pb-resistant bacteria, which was raised about 237% and 347% compared with control. Soil urease and invertase were intensified 37.9% and 65.6% after inoculation compared with control. Phosphatase activity was inhibited by inoculation of Bacillus pumilus. Catalase activity was intensified about 64.2% in 24 days incubation but decrease in the following days. Microbial community diversity analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) also proved that the samples inoculated with Pb-resistant bacteria exhibited more bands and intensity in DGGE patterns compared with uninoculated ones. For Pb-resistant bacteria inoculated samples, the reduction of Pb concentration in rhizospheric soil was 15 mg/kg at least and 42 mg/kg at most, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed a better tolerance to high Pb concentration and stronger remediation ability. It was concluded that remediation of Pb polluted soil can be promoted by the two Pb-resistant bacteria.
铅污染及其微生物修复技术的研究进展
Research Progress of Lead Pollution and Bioremediation Technology
 [PDF]

张泰然, 王维
Advances in Microbiology (AMB) , 2014, DOI: 10.12677/AMB.2014.31001
Abstract:

铅污染是现代人类社会的一个日趋严重的环境问题,而传统上对于铅污染治理的物理化学方法存在着不少的弊端。所以对于铅污染的生物修复技术成为近几年来研究的热点。本文首先综述了铅的污染及其危害,然后主要从耐铅微生物对铅的吸附条件和机理上,总结了近几年来对于铅污染微生物修复技术的研究进展。最后根据国内铅污染微生物修复技术的发展状况,提出了几点基于其应用的发展建议。
In modern society, lead pollution is an increasingly serious environmental problem and there exist many maladies for treating the lead pollution by chemical and physical solutions. Therefore, bioremediation of lead contamination has become a hot research field in recent years. This paper reviews the lead pollution and the harm of lead, and then summarizes the research progress of lead pollution in microbial remediation technology mainly from the perspective of lead resistant microorganisms on lead adsorption conditions and mechanism. Finally, this paper puts forward some suggestions on the development of its application according to the development status of domestic lead pollution and bioremediation technology.

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