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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 248142 matches for " Michael L. Crichton "
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Evaluation of a rehabilitation support service after acute stroke: Feasibility and patient/carer benefit  [PDF]
Joanna J. McAdam, Michael J. Leathley, Margaret S. Crichton, Julie Dickens, Cathy I. A. Jack, Caroline L. Watkins
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.57152
Abstract:

Background: Stroke survivors returning home after discharge from hospital and their carers require support to meet their rehabilitation needs (independence in Activities of Daily Living, exercise, psychosocial support). Voluntary or charitable care providers may be able to address some of these needs. Objective: To explore the feasibility of delivering and evaluating enhanced support to stroke survivors and their carers, with a Rehabilitation Support Worker (RSW). Methods: 16 consecutive stroke survivors and their carers were included. All participants received usual hospital care. Seven of these patients and their carers were also allocated an RSW from a charitable care provider. The RSW accompanied therapy training sessions with the patient, carer and therapist in hospital. On discharge, the RSW visited the patient and carer at home over the initial 6 week post-discharge period to support them in practising rehabilitation skills. Patient function (Barthel Index) and patient/carer confidence were independently assessed at discharge (Week 0). The above assessments and patient/carer mood (GHQ-12) and Carer Giver Strain were also assessed at Weeks 1, 6 and 12. RSWs were interviewed for their views about the service. Results: Participants’ functional ability at Week 1 post-discharge was significantly higher in the RSW group. At 6 and 12 weeks post-discharge, functional ability was not significantly different between groups. Carers in the intervention group were less confident at all time points, however, this was not significant. There was no significant effect on carer strain or well-being. Interviews with RSWs highlighted areas of their training that could be enhanced and the need for greater clarity as to their role. Conclusions: The results showed that a definitive trial of rehabilitation support is feasible. A number of obstacles however would need to be overcome including: difficulty in identifying suitable patients, clarity of the RSW role, and appropriate training content.

Observation of the Sb2S3-type post-post-GdFeO3-perovskite: A model structure for high density ABX3 and A2X3 phases
Wilson A. Crichton,Fabian L. M. Bernal,Jérémy Guignard,Michael Hanfland,Serena Margadonna
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Ten years have passed since the description of the perovskite to post-perovskite transition in MgSiO3 and its' impact on the mineralogy and rheology of the D" region at the base of the Earth's mantle. Much work has explored the mechanisms operating during this transformation and their influence on seismic response. In parallel, calculations in ABX3 systems have identified potential structures for a denser post-post-perovskite phase occurring at higher pressures. However, experiments have yet to elucidate any higher pressure form, beyond the CaIrO3-type. Here we describe the structures and transformations that lead to the crystallisation of a post-post-perovskite of Sb2S3-type in a GdFeO3-type fluoroperovskite at high pressure conditions. The use of single-crystal techniques gives unique access to the relative crystallographic orientations of all polymorphs. We use this information to extend this description to include other calculated and observed forms that are competitive in ABX3 and A2X3 stoichiometries (e.g. Sb2S3, a-Gd2S3, Be3N2) and provide substantial information on inter-relationships between these structures, which is critical to the interpretation of transition mechanisms, predicting transition sequences, to the expression of directional properties in those transformed structures when assessing their suitability to modelling e.g. their rheological response in deep-Earth and exoplanet interiors.
Potent Immunity to Low Doses of Influenza Vaccine by Probabilistic Guided Micro-Targeted Skin Delivery in a Mouse Model
Germain J. P. Fernando,Xianfeng Chen,Tarl W. Prow,Michael L. Crichton,Emily J. Fairmaid,Michael S. Roberts,Ian H. Frazer,Lorena E. Brown,Mark A. F. Kendall
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010266
Abstract: Over 14 million people die each year from infectious diseases despite extensive vaccine use [1]. The needle and syringe—first invented in 1853—is still the primary delivery device, injecting liquid vaccine into muscle. Vaccines could be far more effective if they were precisely delivered into the narrow layer just beneath the skin surface that contains a much higher density of potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) essential to generate a protective immune response. We hypothesized that successful vaccination could be achieved this way with far lower antigen doses than required by the needle and syringe.
Dry-Coated Live Viral Vector Vaccines Delivered by Nanopatch Microprojections Retain Long-Term Thermostability and Induce Transgene-Specific T Cell Responses in Mice
Frances E. Pearson, Celia L. McNeilly, Michael L. Crichton, Clare A. Primiero, Sally R. Yukiko, Germain J. P. Fernando, Xianfeng Chen, Sarah C. Gilbert, Adrian V. S. Hill, Mark A. F. Kendall
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067888
Abstract: The disadvantages of needle-based immunisation motivate the development of simple, low cost, needle-free alternatives. Vaccine delivery to cutaneous environments rich in specialised antigen-presenting cells using microprojection patches has practical and immunological advantages over conventional needle delivery. Additionally, stable coating of vaccine onto microprojections removes logistical obstacles presented by the strict requirement for cold-chain storage and distribution of liquid vaccine, or lyophilised vaccine plus diluent. These attributes make these technologies particularly suitable for delivery of vaccines against diseases such as malaria, which exerts its worst effects in countries with poorly-resourced healthcare systems. Live viral vectors including adenoviruses and poxviruses encoding exogenous antigens have shown significant clinical promise as vaccines, due to their ability to generate high numbers of antigen-specific T cells. Here, the simian adenovirus serotype 63 and the poxvirus modified vaccinia Ankara – two vectors under evaluation for the delivery of malaria antigens to humans – were formulated for coating onto Nanopatch microprojections and applied to murine skin. Co-formulation with the stabilising disaccharides trehalose and sucrose protected virions during the dry-coating process. Transgene-specific CD8+ T cell responses following Nanopatch delivery of both vectors were similar to intradermal injection controls after a single immunisation (despite a much lower delivered dose), though MVA boosting of pre-primed responses with Nanopatch was found to be less effective than the ID route. Importantly, disaccharide-stabilised ChAd63 could be stored for 10 weeks at 37°C with less than 1 log10 loss of viability, and retained single-dose immunogenicity after storage. These data support the further development of microprojection patches for the deployment of live vaccines in hot climates.
The measurable distinction between the spin and orbital angular momenta of electromagnetic radiation
James H. Crichton,Philip L. Marston
Electronic Journal of Differential Equations , 2000,
Abstract: We show how the angular momentum of electromagnetic radiation may be decomposed into spin and orbital parts, of which the spin part is measurable in terms of Stokes parameters, thereby providing an unambiguous, gauge-invariant, distinction between the two parts.
Evidence for the Thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Associated with Quasar Feedback
Devin Crichton,Megan B. Gralla,Kirsten Hall,Tobias A. Marriage,Nadia L. Zakamska,Nick Battaglia,J. Richard Bond,Mark J. Devlin,J. Colin Hill,Matt Hilton,Adam D. Hincks,Kevin M. Huffenberger,John P. Hughes,Arthur Kosowsky,Kavilan Moodley,Michael D. Niemack,Lyman A. Page,Bruce Partridge,Jonathan L. Sievers,Cristobal Sifon,Suzanne T. Staggs,Marco P. Viero,Edward J. Wollack
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Using a radio-quiet subsample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic quasar catalog, spanning redshifts 0.5-3.5, we derive the mean millimetre and far-infrared quasar spectral energy densities via a stacking analysis of Atacama Cosmology Telescope and Herschel-SPIRE data. We constrain the form and evolution of the far-infrared emission finding 3-4$\sigma$ evidence for the presence of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in the millimetre bands. We find this signal to be characteristic of a hot ionized gas component with thermal energy $(6.2 \pm 1.7) \times 10^{60}$erg. This amount of thermal energy is an order of magnitude greater than would be expected assuming only hot gas in virial equilibrium with the dark matter haloes of $(1-5)\times 10^{12}h^{-1}$M$_\odot$ that these systems are expected to occupy, though the highest quasar mass estimates found in the literature could explain a large fraction of this energy. We find that our measurements are consistent with a scenario in which quasars deposit up to $(14.5 \pm 3.3)~\tau_8^{-1}$ per cent of their radiative energy into their circumgalactic environment if their typical period of quasar activity is $\tau_8\times 10^8$ years. If quasar host masses are high ($\sim10^{13}h^{-1}$M$_\odot$), then this percentage will be reduced significantly. Furthermore, the uncertainty quoted for this percentage is only statistical and additional systematic uncertainties (e.g., on quasar bolometric luminosity) enter at the 40 per cent level. Finally, emission from thermal dust is significant in these systems, with infrared luminosities of $\log_{10}(L_{\rm ir}/{\rm L}_\odot)=11.4-12.2$, increasing to higher redshift. We consider various models for dust emission. While sufficiently complex dust models can obviate the SZ effect, the SZ interpretation remains favoured at the 3-4$\sigma$ level for most models.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Physical Properties of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Clusters on the Celestial Equator
Felipe Menanteau,Cristóbal Sifón,L. Felipe Barrientos,Nicholas Battaglia,J. Richard Bond,Devin Crichton,Sudeep Das,Mark J. Devlin,Rolando Dünner,Megan Gralla,Amir Hajian,Matthew Hasselfield,Matt Hilton,Adam D. Hincks,John P. Hughes,Leopoldo Infante,Arthur Kosowsky,Tobias A. Marriage,Danica Marsden,Kavilan Moodley,Michael D. Niemack,Michael R. Nolta,Lyman A. Page,Bruce Partridge,Erik D. Reese,Benjamin L. Schmitt,Jon Sievers,David N. Spergel,Suzanne T. Staggs,Eric Switzer,Edward J. Wollack
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/765/1/67
Abstract: We present the optical and X-ray properties of 68 galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect at 148 GHz by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). Our sample, from an area of 504 square degrees centered on the celestial equator, is divided into two regions. The main region uses 270 square degrees of the ACT survey that overlaps with the co-added ugriz imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over Stripe 82 plus additional near-infrared pointed observations with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope. We confirm a total of 49 clusters to z~1.3, of which 22 (all at z>0.55) are new discoveries. For the second region the regular-depth SDSS imaging allows us to confirm 19 more clusters up to z~0.7, of which 10 systems are new. We present the optical richness, photometric redshifts, and separation between the SZ position and the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We find no significant offset between the cluster SZ centroid and BCG location and a weak correlation between optical richness and SZ-derived mass. We also present X-ray fluxes and luminosities from the ROSAT All Sky Survey which confirm that this is a massive sample. One of the newly discovered clusters, ACT-CL J0044.4+0113 at z=1.1 (photometric), has an integrated XMM-Newton X-ray temperature of kT_x=7.9+/-1.0 keV and combined mass of M_200a=8.2(-2.5,+3.3)x10^14 M_sun/h70 placing it among the most massive and X-ray-hot clusters known at redshifts beyond z=1. We also highlight the optically-rich cluster ACT-CL J2327.4-0204 (RCS2 2327) at z=0.705 (spectroscopic) as the most significant detection of the whole equatorial sample with a Chandra-derived mass of M_200a=1.9(-0.4,+0.6)x10^15 M_sun/h70, comparable to some of the most massive known clusters like "El Gordo" and the Bullet Cluster.
Filtrations of simplicial functors and the Novikov Conjecture
Crichton Ogle
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We show that the Strong Novikov Conjecture for the maximal C*-algebra C*(G) of a discrete group G is equivalent to a statement in topological K-theory for which the corresponding statement in algebraic K-theory is always true. We also show that for any group G, rational injectivity of the full assembly map for the topological K-theory of C*(G) follows from rational injectivity of the restricted assembly map.
Polynomially bounded cohomology and discrete groups
Crichton Ogle
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We establish the homological foundations for studying polynomially bounded group cohomology, and show that the natural map from PH^*(G;Q) to H^*(G;Q) is an isomorphism for a certain class of groups.
Fundamental theorems for the K-theory of ${\bf S}$-algebras, I: the connective case
Crichton Ogle
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We extend the Bass-Quillen Fundamental Theorem of Algebraic K-theory to the Waldhausen K-theory of connective ${\bf S}$-algebras. The same technique used in this extension also yields two localization theorems for the relative K-theory of a 1-connected morphism of connective ${\bf S}$-algebras.
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