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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 207826 matches for " Michael E Ullian "
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Proteinuria in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Shirley J. Dopson,Michael E. Ullian
Nephrology Reviews , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/nr.2011.e1
Abstract: The kidney is a target organ in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), but the pattern of proteinuria has been poorly described. We retrospectively analyzed proteinuria in all 59 patients with a diagnosis of TTP on their discharge summary from 2000 to 2009. Urinalysis was obtained in 89% of cases; in those, proteinuria was detected by urine dipstick in 85%. In patients with dipstick proteinuria, quantification (grams per day or grams per gram creatinine) was performed in only 34% and ranged from 0.16 grams to 8.0 grams. Patients with larger amounts of proteinuria had more severe acute renal failure, were more likely to receive a renal biopsy, and were more likely to undergo dialysis. When analysis was restricted to patients with highly depressed activity levels of the metalloprotease ADAMST13, proteinuria tended to be low grade and transient, and renal insufficiency was mild. Proteinuria is common in thrombotic microangiopathies and may be nephrotic-range, but TTP with depressed ADAMST13 activity is characterized by less proteinuria and less severe renal dysfunction. Although this study presents the largest sample of proteinuria quantification ever reported for TTP, quantification was performed in only one-third of cases.
The missense mutation in Abcg5 gene in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) segregates with phytosterolemia but not hypertension
Jianliang Chen, Ashok Batta, Shuqin Zheng, Wayne R Fitzgibbon, Michael E Ullian, Hongwei Yu, Patrick Tso, Gerald Salen, Shailendra B Patel
BMC Genetics , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-6-40
Abstract: To investigate whether the missense change in Abcg5 is responsible for the sitosterolemia we performed a segregation analysis in 103 F2 rats from a SHR × SD cross. Additionally, we measured tail-cuff blood pressure and measured intestinal lipid transport to identify possible mechanisms whereby this mutation causes sitosterolemia.Segregation analysis showed that the inheritance of the Gly583Cys mutation Abcg5 segregated with elevated plant sterols and this pattern was recessive, proving that this genetic change is responsible for the sitosterolemia in these rat strains. Tail-cuff monitoring of blood pressure in conscious animals showed no significant differences between wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous mutant F2 rats, suggesting that this alteration may not be a significant determinant of hypertension in these rats on a chow diet.This study shows that the previously identified Gly583Cys change in Abcg5 in three hypertension-susceptible rats is responsible for the sitosterolemia, but may not be a major determinant of blood pressure in these rats.Sitosterolemia is an autosomal recessive disease, characterized by significantly increased plasma levels of plant sterols (such as sitosterol, campesterol), and is associated with premature atherosclerotic disease [1]. This disease has been mapped to a single locus, STSL, on human chromosome 2p21 [2,3]. Mutations in both alleles of one of two genes, ABCG5 or ABCG8, that comprise this locus, are now known to cause this disease [4-6]. No phytosterolemic patient with a single mutant ABCG5 allele and a mutant ABCG8 allele has been reported, suggesting these genes are not only linked physically, but their protein products may act as obligate heterodimers. ABCG5 and ABCG8 encode for sterolin-1 and sterolin-2 respectively. These genes are expressed in the liver, gall bladder and intestine and are implicated in determining biliary sterol excretion and selectivity of sterol absorption at the apical surfaces of the enterocytes [7-
A cellular star atlas: using astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells for disease studies
Robert Krencik,Erik M. Ullian
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2013.00025
Abstract: What roles do astrocytes play in human disease? This question remains unanswered for nearly every human neurological disorder. Yet, because of their abundance and complexity astrocytes can impact neurological function in many ways. The differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into neuronal and glial subtypes, including astrocytes, is becoming routine, thus their use as tools for modeling neurodevelopment and disease will provide one important approach to answer this question. When designing experiments, careful consideration must be given to choosing paradigms for differentiation, maturation, and functional analysis of these temporally asynchronous cellular populations in culture. In the case of astrocytes, they display heterogeneous characteristics depending upon species of origin, brain region, developmental stage, environmental factors, and disease states, all of which may render experimental results highly variable. In this review, challenges and future directions are discussed for using hPSC-derived astroglial progenitors and mature astrocytes for neurodevelopmental studies with a focus on exploring human astrocyte effects upon neuronal function. As new technologies emerge to measure the functions of astrocytes in vitro and in vivo, there is also a need for a standardized source of human astrocytes that are most relevant to the diseases of interest.
Robust Pre-Attentive Attention Direction Using Chaos Theory for Video Surveillance  [PDF]
Michael E. Farmer
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.49A007
Abstract:

Attention direction for active vision systems has been of substantial interest in the image processing and computer vision communities for video surveillance. Biological vision systems have been shown to possess a hierarchical structure where a pre-attentive processing function directs the visual attention to regions of interest which are then possibly further processed by higher-level vision functions. Biological neural systems are also highly responsive to signals which appear to be chaotic in nature. In this paper we explore applying measures from chaos theory and fractal analysis to provide a robust pre-attentive processing engine for vision. The approach is applied to two standard data sets related to video surveillance for detecting bags left suspiciously in public places. Results compare quite favorably in terms of probability of detection versus false detection rate shown through Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves against two traditional methods for low-level change detection, namely Mutual Information, Sum of Absolute Differences, and Gaussian Mixture Models.

Fair Plan 9: Engineering Human Population to Help Safeguard Earth’s Climate  [PDF]
Michael E. Schlesinger
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2016.62026
Abstract: Our Fair Plan to Safeguard Earth’s Climate reduces the emission of greenhouse gases to zero over the 80-year time period 2020 to 2100. To accomplish this, humanity must reduce its carbon intensity—the amount of CO2 emitted per unit of energy—and its energy intensity—the amount of energy needed to generate a unit of Gross World Product. As shown in our Fair Plan 8 paper, reducing the future growth of the human population can also contribute to the reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions. Here, we explore this further. We project the historical decrease in Total Fertility Rate (TFR) across the 21st century toward its logistical asymptotic Reference value of 2.04 Births Per Woman (BPW). We then engineer the asymptotic TFR beginning in 2020 to 1.95, 1.85, 1.75, 1.65 & 1.55 BPW. We project the population across the 21st century for the Reference and engineered TFRs. We do so using the results of Basten, Lutz and Scherbov (2013) for the population evolution across the 21st century for 8 constant TFR values (=2.50, 2.25, 2.00, 1.75, 1.50, 1.25, 1.00 & 0.75 BPW). We find that purposefully engineering the asymptotic TFR can significantly contribute to achieving the reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions needed to transition to our Fair Plan to Safeguard Earth’s Climate.
2016 Evaluation of Fair Plan 3: Outlook for Global Temperature Change throughout the 21st Century  [PDF]
Michael E. Schlesinger
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.84031
Abstract: In 2013, the author and colleagues made a projection of temperature departures (from the 1961-1990 average) throughout the remainder of the 21st century due both to Humanity and Nature. Two scenarios of human-caused emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosol precursors were examined: (1) A reference scenario with no emissions reductions, and (2) our Fair Plan to Safeguard Earth’s Climate which zeroes emissions from 2020 through 2100. Human-caused temperature changes from 1756 were calculated using an engineering-type Simple Climate Model. Temperature changes due to Nature were projected from our analyses of the observed temperature departures from 1850 through 2012. These natural changes were due to: (1) Three quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), each of which we fit with a sine wave to project into the future on a year-by-year basis; (2) Other QPOs that are too irregular to predict yearly, and (3) stochastic noise. We projected natural variations (2) and (3) by the 90% confidence interval of a Normal (Gaussian) probability density function, with zero mean and standard deviation of 0.08°C. Here we add four more years of observed temperature departures to compare with our projections made in 2013. Each of the additional four temperature departure observations for 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 fits within the 90% envelop of temperature departures, thereby rendering our projection accurate to date. Most of the temperature changes during the 2012-2016 period were due to the annually unpredictable natural variability. This evaluation will be repeated quadrennially for the remainder of the author’s life.
Bayesian Learning of Climate Sensitivity I: Synthetic Observations  [PDF]
Michael J. Ring, Michael E. Schlesinger
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2012.24040
Abstract: The instrumental temperature records are affected by both external climate forcings—in particular, the increase of long-lived greenhouse gas emissions—and natural, internal variability. Estimates of the value of equilibrium climate sensitivity—the change in global-mean equilibrium near-surface temperature due to a doubling of the pre-industrial CO2 concentration—and other climate parameters using these observational records are affected by the presence of the internal variability. A different realization of the natural variability will result in different estimates of the values of these climate parameters. In this study we apply Bayesian estimation to simulated temperature and ocean heat-uptake records generated by our Climate Research Group’s Simple Climate Model for known values of equilibrium climate sensitivity, T2x direct sulfate aerosol forcing in reference year 2000, FASA, and oceanic heat diffusivity, ΔT2x. We choose the simulated records for one choice of values of the climate parameters to serve as the synthetic observations. To each of the simulated temperature records we add a number of draws of the quasi-periodic oscillations and stochastic noise, determined from the observed temperature record. For cases considering only values of ΔT2x and/or κ, the Bayesian estimation converges to the value(s) of ΔT2x and/or κ used to generate the synthetic observations. However, for cases studying FASA, the Bayesian analysis does not converge to the “true” value used to generate the synthetic observations. We show that this is a problem of low signal-to-noise ratio: by substituting an artificial, continuously increasing sulfate record, we greatly improve the value obtained through Bayesian estimation. Our results indicate Bayesian learning techniques will be useful tools in constraining the values of ΔT2x and κ but not FASA In our Group’s future work we will extend the methods used here to the observed, instrumental records of global-mean temperature increase and ocean heat uptake.
Fair Plan 6: Quo Vadis the 80%-Emission-Reduction-By-2050 Plan?  [PDF]
Michael E. Schlesinger, Michael Ring, Emily Cross
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2015.52009
Abstract: In our Fair Plan 5 paper, we compared the CO2 emissions of the 80%-Emission-Reduction-By-2050 (80/50) Plan with the CO2 emissions of our Fair Plan to Safeguard Earth’s Climate. We found that the 80/50 Plan reduced CO2 emissions more rapidly than necessary to achieve the principal objective of the Fair Plan: to keep Global Warming (GW) within the 2 (3.6) limit adopted by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) “to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”. Here, we ask the “What If” question: “What would the GW of the 80/50 Plan be post 2100 if its CO2 emissions post 2100 were kept at their 2100 value?” We find that although the GW of the 80/50 Plan decreases slightly over part of the 21st century, it does not remain constant thereafter. Rather, the GW of the 80/50 Plan begins to increase in 2088, exceeds that of the Fair Plan beginning in 2230, exceeds the 2 (3.6) limit of the UNFCCC in 2596, and ends the millennium at 2.7 (4.8). Thus, not only does the 80/50 Plan phase out humanity’s CO2 emissions faster than necessary to fulfill the UNFCCC constraint, it also fails that constraint if its CO2 emissions post 2100 are kept at their 2100 value. Accordingly, we believe that the Fair Plan to Safeguard Earth’s Climate is superior to the 80/50 Plan.
Effect of antibodies to intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 on the protection of distant organs during reperfusion syndrome in rats
Souza-Moraes, M.R.;David-Filho, R.;Baptista-Silva, J.C.C.;Ullian, M.;Franco, M.F.;Gabriel Jr., A.;Smith, B.;Burihan, E.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2003000500007
Abstract: we investigated kidney and lung alterations caused by intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (icam-1) blockade after ischemia and reperfusion of hind limb skeletal muscles. rats were submitted to ligature of the infrarenal aorta for 6 h. the animals were randomized into three groups of 6 rats each: group i, sacrificed after ischemia; group ii, reperfusion for 24 h, and group iii, reperfusion for 24 h after receiving monoclonal anti-icam-1 antibodies. at the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine phosphokinase, potassium, ph and leukocyte counts. samples were taken from the muscles of the hind limbs and from the kidneys and lungs for histological analysis and measurement of the neutrophil infiltrate by myeloperoxidase staining. the groups did not differ significantly with regard to the laboratory tests. there were no major histological alterations in the kidneys. an intense neutrophil infiltrate in the lungs, similar in all groups, was detected. myeloperoxidase determination showed that after reperfusion there was significantly less retention of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the muscles (352 ± 70 vs 1451 ± 235 × 102 neutrophils/mg; p<0.01) and in the kidneys (526 ± 89 vs 852 ± 73 × 102 neutrophils/mg; p<0.01) of the animals that received anti-icam-1 before perfusion compared to the group that did not. the use of anti-icam-1 antibodies in this experimental model minimized neutrophil influx, thus reducing the inflammatory process, in the muscles and kidneys after ischemia and reperfusion of the hind limbs.
Peak Power Effect on Skin Rejuvenation Using IPL: Lumecca IPL Evaluation  [PDF]
E. V. Ross, Michael Kreindel
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2016.53008
Abstract: A high peak power IPL system (Lumecca) was tested to determine the correlation between a high peak power and the successful treatment of pigmented and vascular lesions. Short pulse duration in the millisecond range and high peak power of 3.3 kW/cm2 enabled selective and effective destruction, not only of pigment, but also of vessels in a comparable manner to a pulsed dye laser. Only one treatment session at a low fluence (8 - 16 J/cm2) was sufficient to achieve the desired results.
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