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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 259474 matches for " Michael C Montana "
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mGlu2 metabotropic glutamate receptors restrain inflammatory pain and mediate the analgesic activity of dual mGlu2/mGlu3 receptor agonists
Magda Zammataro, Santina Chiechio, Michael C Montana, Anna Traficante, Agata Copani, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Robert W Gereau
Molecular Pain , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-7-6
Abstract: In this study we used mGlu2 or mGlu3 knock-out mice to dissect the specific role for these two receptors in the endogenous control of inflammatory pain and their specific contribution to the analgesic activity of mixed mGlu2/3 receptor agonists.Our results showed that mGlu2-/- mice display a significantly greater pain response compared to their wild type littermates. Interestingly the increased pain sensitivity in mGlu2-/- mice occurred only in the second phase of the formalin test. No differences were observed in the first phase. In contrast, mGlu3-/- mice did not significantly differ from their wild type littermates in either phase of the formalin test.When systemically injected, a single administration of the mGlu2/3 agonist, LY379268 (3 mg/kg, ip), showed a significant reduction of both phases in wild-type mice and in mGlu3-/- but not in mGlu2-/- mice. However tolerance to the analgesic effect of LY379268 (3 mg/kg, ip) in mGlu3-/- mice developed following 5 consecutive days of injection.Taken together, these results demonstrate that: (i) mGlu2 receptors play a predominant role over mGlu3 receptors in the control of inflammatory pain in mice; (ii) the analgesic activity of mixed mGlu2/3 agonists is entirely mediated by the activation of the mGlu2 subtype and (iii) the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of mGlu2/3 agonists develops despite the lack of mGlu3 receptors.Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are considered promising targets in the treatment of chronic pain. All mGlu receptor subtypes (mGlu1-8), except mGlu6, are widely distributed along the pain neuraxis, and modulate cellular mechanisms of nociceptive sensitization that underlie the development of chronic pain [1-3]. We and others have focused on the role of group-II mGlu receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3), which are coupled to Gi proteins and depress pain transmission at synapses between primary afferent fibers and second order sensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord [4,5]. mG
Cutaneous nociception evoked by 15-delta PGJ2 via activation of ion channel TRPA1
Lillian Cruz-Orengo, Ajay Dhaka, Robert J Heuermann, Timothy J Young, Michael C Montana, Eric J Cavanaugh, Donghee Kim, Gina M Story
Molecular Pain , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-4-30
Abstract: Our search for endogenous chemical activators utilizing a bioactive lipid library screen identified a cyclopentane PGD2 metabolite, 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), as a TRPA1 agonist. Similar to CA and AITC, this electrophilic molecule is known to modify cysteines of cellular target proteins. Electophysiological recordings verified that 15d-PGJ2 specifically activates TRPA1 and not TRPV1 or TRPM8 (thermoTRPs also enriched in DRG). Accordingly, we identified a population of mouse DRG neurons responsive to 15d-PGJ2 and AITC that is absent in cultures derived from TRPA1 knockout mice. The irritant molecules that activate TRPA1 evoke nociceptive responses. However, 15d-PGJ2 has not been correlated with painful sensations; rather, it is considered to mediate anti-inflammatory processes via binding to the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Our in vivo studies revealed that 15d-PGJ2 induced acute nociceptive responses when administered cutaneously. Moreover, mice deficient in the TRPA1 channel failed to exhibit such behaviors.In conclusion, we show that 15d-PGJ2 induces acute nociception when administered cutaneously and does so via a TRPA1-specific mechanism.The prostaglandins (PGs) are a class of biomolecules derived from arachidonic acid (AA) that are involved in a variety of signaling processes including inflammation. For example, PGE2 and PGI2 are produced during inflammation and contribute to the direct sensitization of nociceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Downstream of binding to its G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), PGE2 sensitizes nociceptive neurons to thermal stimuli via PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the heat- and capsaicin-gated Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channel TRPV1 [1]. TRPV1 is the founding mammalian member of a subfamily of TRP channels gated by temperature (dubbed thermoTRPs)[2].TRPA1, first characterized as a thermoTRP channel gated by noxious cold (although this finding is con
Longitudinal analysis of gene expression profiles using functional mixed-effects models
Maurice Berk,Cheryl Hemingway,Michael Levin,Giovanni Montana
Statistics , 2013,
Abstract: In many longitudinal microarray studies, the gene expression levels in a random sample are observed repeatedly over time under two or more conditions. The resulting time courses are generally very short, high-dimensional, and may have missing values. Moreover, for every gene, a certain amount of variability in the temporal profiles, among biological replicates, is generally observed. We propose a functional mixed-effects model for estimating the temporal pattern of each gene, which is assumed to be a smooth function. A statistical test based on the distance between the fitted curves is then carried out to detect differential expression. A simulation procedure for assessing the statistical power of our model is also suggested. We evaluate the model performance using both simulations and a real data set investigating the human host response to BCG exposure.
Valsalva retinopathy in pregnancy: a case report
Abdullah S Al-Mujaini, Carolina C Montana
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-2-101
Abstract: A 23-year-old woman in her seventh month of pregnancy presented with a history of decreased vision in her left eye of one-week duration. Examination of the affected eye showed best corrected visual acuity of 20/50, and fundus examination revealed a pre-retinal hemorrhage located in the macula. Based on clinical findings, the diagnosis of Valsalva retinopathy was made.Retinal hemorrhages can be generated by Valsalva maneuvers. Pregnancy is a known risk factor for Valsalva retinopathy; however, the diagnosis should be made only after excluding other causes of retinal hemorrhages. It is a self-limited event. We report a case of Valsalva retinopathy complicating normal pregnancy and confirm that, to date, there is no evidence to indicate that there is a risk of recurrence following spontaneous vaginal delivery.Valsalva retinopathy is a unilateral or bilateral condition that occurs when increased intra-thoracic or intra-abdominal pressure transmitted to the eye causes a sharp rise in the intra-ocular venous pressure, and rupture of superficial retinal capillaries [1]. The patient often gives a history of a recent strenuous physical act, which could have increased the intra-thoracic pressure. Pregnancy is known to be a risk factor for Valsalva retinopathy [2]. We hereby report a case of Valsalva retinopathy in a woman in her seventh month of pregnancy.A 23-year-old woman in her seventh month of pregnancy presented with a history of decreased vision in her left eye of one week duration. Her previous medical history was unremarkable but for constipation. She was not on medications. Ophthalmic examination showed best corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in the right eye (OD) and 20/50 in the left eye (OS). The anterior segment was unremarkable and intra-ocular pressure was 10 mm Hg in both eyes. Fundus examination was normal OD, and revealed a pre-retinal hemorrhage located in the macula OS (Figure 1).Since the patient was pregnant, fluorescein angiography was not performed. Blo
Processo Internacional pelos danos socioambientais causados a Equador pelo uso do Glifosato no combate de cultivos ilícitos na Amaz nia Colombiana
Mónica Montana
Revista Eletr?nica do Curso de Direito da UFSM , 2013, DOI: 10.5902/198136948333
Abstract: A produ o de cultivos ilícitos e o tráfico de drogas no ambito amaz nico tem se convertido numa dinamica local e regional preocupante, por afetar n o apenas as rela es societais, mas também por estimular impactos hidroambientais negativos na popula o e na ambiência. As aspers es aéreas realizadas pelo Estado colombiano na área de fronteira com Equador, para combater o narcotráfico e os plantios ilícitos, resultou num processo jurídico inédito na América do Sul. O Estado equatoriano instaurou demanda na Corte de Haia contra Col mbia, em 2008, devido ao uso de herbicidas tóxicos, entre eles o glifosato. Esse processo trouxe à tona a importancia do tema ambiental e colocou em relevo a necessária participa o das organiza es n o governamentais na luta pelos direitos das popula es amaz nicas na área do conflito. Este artigo sintetiza as circunstancias em que a demanda se produziu e os argumentos apresentados pelos dois países andino-amaz nicos.
Mónica Montana
Revista Eletr?nica do Curso de Direito da UFSM , 2013, DOI: 10.5902/198136948365
Abstract: No princípio 11 da Conferência de Rio-92 foi destacado que as políticas ambientais de todos os Estados devem fortalecer e n o afetar de maneira adversa o potencial de desenvolvimento presente e futuro dos países. Uma quest o sensível no marco das preocupa es internacionais e das discuss es locais, regionais e globais envolve temas como o desenvolvimento e a preserva o ambiental na Amaz nia Continental e a gest o integrada da Bacia Amaz nica. Este artigo, resultado de pesquisa doutoral sobre hidropolítica amaz nica, aborda alguns dos empreendimentos que pretendem o desenvolvimento regional sul-americano e explana acerca das altera es hidro-ambientais no contexto amaz nico proveniente de tais iniciativas.
élégie, image et rhétorique dans les Héro des d’Ovide
Jean-Marie Montana
Babel : Littératures Plurielles , 2012,
Abstract: Sans voir inventé l’élégie amoureuse romaine, Ovide, dans les Héro des, en renouvelle l’esprit en imaginant une correspondance entre des héros et des héro nes hérités de la mythologie grecque, ce qui relève du genre épique, mais pour leur prêter des sentiments de souffrance ou de deuil qui renvoient au lyrisme intime, à grand renfort d’images pathétiques. De telles plaintes, loin de faire appel à des sentiments personnels, mettent en scène des émotions conformes aux codes des arts plastiques et de la rhétorique de l’époque, comme aux attentes du public romain.
Community detection in multiplex networks using locally adaptive random walks
Zhana Kuncheva,Giovanni Montana
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Multiplex networks, a special type of multilayer networks, are increasingly applied in many domains ranging from social media analytics to biology. A common task in these applications concerns the detection of community structures. Many existing algorithms for community detection in multiplexes attempt to detect communities which are shared by all layers. In this article we propose a community detection algorithm, LART (Locally Adaptive Random Transitions), for the detection of communities that are shared by either some or all the layers in the multiplex. The algorithm is based on a random walk on the multiplex, and the transition probabilities defining the random walk are allowed to depend on the local topological similarity between layers at any given node so as to facilitate the exploration of communities across layers. Based on this random walk, a node dissimilarity measure is derived and nodes are clustered based on this distance in a hierarchical fashion. We present experimental results using networks simulated under various scenarios to showcase the performance of LART in comparison to related community detection algorithms.
Predicting Alzheimer's disease: a neuroimaging study with 3D convolutional neural networks
Adrien Payan,Giovanni Montana
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Pattern recognition methods using neuroimaging data for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease have been the subject of extensive research in recent years. In this paper, we use deep learning methods, and in particular sparse autoencoders and 3D convolutional neural networks, to build an algorithm that can predict the disease status of a patient, based on an MRI scan of the brain. We report on experiments using the ADNI data set involving 2,265 historical scans. We demonstrate that 3D convolutional neural networks outperform several other classifiers reported in the literature and produce state-of-art results.
Fast estimation of multivariate stochastic volatility
Kostas Triantafyllopoulos,Giovanni Montana
Quantitative Finance , 2007,
Abstract: In this paper we develop a Bayesian procedure for estimating multivariate stochastic volatility (MSV) using state space models. A multiplicative model based on inverted Wishart and multivariate singular beta distributions is proposed for the evolution of the volatility, and a flexible sequential volatility updating is employed. Being computationally fast, the resulting estimation procedure is particularly suitable for on-line forecasting. Three performance measures are discussed in the context of model selection: the log-likelihood criterion, the mean of standardized one-step forecast errors, and sequential Bayes factors. Finally, the proposed methods are applied to a data set comprising eight exchange rates vis-a-vis the US dollar.
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