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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 45401 matches for " Michael Baron "
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Change-Point Analysis of Survival Data with Application in Clinical Trials  [PDF]
Xuan Chen, Michael Baron
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.49062
Abstract: Effects of many medical procedures appear after a time lag, when a significant change occurs in subjects’ failure rate. This paper focuses on the detection and estimation of such changes which is important for the evaluation and comparison of treatments and prediction of their effects. Unlike the classical change-point model, measurements may still be identically distributed, and the change point is a parameter of their common survival function. Some of the classical change-point detection techniques can still be used but the results are different. Contrary to the classical model, the maximum likelihood estimator of a change point appears consistent, even in presence of nuisance parameters. However, a more efficient procedure can be derived from Kaplan-Meier estimation of the survival function followed by the least-squares estimation of the change point. Strong consistency of these estimation schemes is proved. The finite-sample properties are examined by a Monte Carlo study. Proposed methods are applied to a recent clinical trial of the treatment program for strong drug dependence.
The Nairovirus Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus/Ganjam Virus Induces the Translocation of Protein Disulphide Isomerase-Like Oxidoreductases from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Cell Surface and the Extracellular Space
Lidia Lasecka, Michael D. Baron
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094656
Abstract: Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of the genus Nairovirus causes a haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats with mortality up to 90%; the virus is found in East and Central Africa, and in India, where the virus is called Ganjam virus. NSDV is closely related to the human pathogen Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, which also causes a haemorrhagic disease. As with other nairoviruses, replication of NSDV takes place in the cytoplasm and the new virus particles bud into the Golgi apparatus; however, the effect of viral replication on cellular compartments has not been studied extensively. We have found that the overall structure of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and the Golgi were unaffected by infection with NSDV. However, we observed that NSDV infection led to the loss of protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), an oxidoreductase present in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and which assists during protein folding, from the ER. Further investigation showed that NSDV-infected cells have high levels of PDI at their surface, and PDI is also secreted into the culture medium of infected cells. Another chaperone from the PDI family, ERp57, was found to be similarly affected. Analysis of infected cells and expression of individual viral glycoproteins indicated that the NSDV PreGn glycoprotein is involved in redistribution of these soluble ER oxidoreductases. It has been suggested that extracellular PDI can activate integrins and tissue factor, which are involved respectively in pro-inflammatory responses and disseminated intravascular coagulation, both of which manifest in many viral haemorrhagic fevers. The discovery of enhanced PDI secretion from NSDV-infected cells may be an important finding for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of haemorrhagic nairoviruses.
Inhibition of Interferon Induction and Action by the Nairovirus Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus/Ganjam Virus
Barbara Holzer, Siddharth Bakshi, Anne Bridgen, Michael D. Baron
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028594
Abstract: The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV)). NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus). We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type 1 interferon, and also blocked the signalling pathways of both type 1 and type 2 interferons. Using transient expression of viral proteins or sections of viral proteins, these activities all mapped to the ovarian tumour-like protease domain (OTU) found in the viral RNA polymerase. Virus infection, or expression of this OTU domain in transfected cells, led to a great reduction in the incorporation of ubiquitin or ISG15 protein into host cell proteins. Point mutations in the OTU that inhibited the protease activity also prevented it from antagonising interferon induction and action. Interestingly, a mutation at a peripheral site, which had little apparent effect on the ability of the OTU to inhibit ubiquitination and ISG15ylation, removed the ability of the OTU to block the induction of type 1 and the action of type 2 interferons, but had a lesser effect on the ability to block type 1 interferon action, suggesting that targets other than ubiquitin and ISG15 may be involved in the actions of the viral OTU.
Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep
bin Tarif Abid,Lasecka Lidia,Holzer Barbara,Baron Michael D
Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-43-71
Abstract: Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.
Morbillivirus V Proteins Exhibit Multiple Mechanisms to Block Type 1 and Type 2 Interferon Signalling Pathways
Senthil K. Chinnakannan, Sambit K. Nanda, Michael D. Baron
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057063
Abstract: Morbilliviruses form a closely related group of pathogenic viruses which encode three non-structural proteins V, W and C in their P gene. Previous studies with rinderpest virus (RPV) and measles virus (MeV) have demonstrated that these non-structural proteins play a crucial role in blocking type I (IFNα/β) and type II (IFNγ) interferon action, and various mechanisms have been proposed for these effects. We have directly compared four important morbilliviruses, rinderpest (RPV), measles virus (MeV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and canine distemper virus (CDV). These viruses and their V proteins could all block type I IFN action. However, the viruses and their V proteins had varying abilities to block type II IFN action. The ability to block type II IFN-induced gene transcription correlated with co-precipitation of STAT1 with the respective V protein, but there was no correlation between co-precipitation of either STAT1 or STAT2 and the abilities of the V proteins to block type I IFN-induced gene transcription or the creation of the antiviral state. Further study revealed that the V proteins of RPV, MeV, PPRV and CDV could all interfere with phosphorylation of the interferon-receptor-associated kinase Tyk2, and the V protein of highly virulent RPV could also block the phosphorylation of another such kinase, Jak1. Co-precipitation studies showed that morbillivirus V proteins all form a complex containing Tyk2 and Jak1. This study highlights the ability of morbillivirus V proteins to target multiple components of the IFN signalling pathways to control both type I and type II IFN action.
Disruption of Drug Effects (Dopamine, Nicotine, Pilocarpine, κ-Opioid) in Planarians by UV Light  [PDF]
Robert B. Raffa, Christopher S. Tallarida, Aruj Choudhry, Nadia Sanni-Adam, Sean McGonigle, Michael Baron, Zhuo L. Chen, Scott M. Rawls, Ronald J. Tallarida
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.33048
Abstract: Based on previous work, it has been hypothesized that the energetics of ultraviolet (UV) light disrupts effects induced by receptor-binding ligands. If this hypothesis is true, then UV light should (i) disrupt a broad variety of endpoints and (ii) disrupt effects produced by ligands that bind to diverse receptor types. This was tested directly in the present study by using ligands selective for four different receptors (one ionotropic, three metabotropic) and three different behavioral endpoints. The selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (–)sulpiride (0.1 uM) dose-relatedly decreased spontaneous locomotor velocity, the selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist nicotine (1, 3, 5 mM) and the selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist pilocarpine (20, 30, 50 mM) induced seizure-like activity, and the selective-opioid receptor agonist U-50,488H (10 uM) produced physical dependence (manifested as abstinence-induced withdrawal) in planarian models. Each of these diverse ligand and receptor-mediated effects were attenuated by UV light (254 nm = 7.83 × 10–19 J = 4.89 eV). These findings provide further evidence that UV light disrupts ligand-receptor mediated interactions and that UV light might provide a useful tool for examining drug-receptor interactions.
Analysis of a simulated microarray dataset: Comparison of methods for data normalisation and detection of differential expression (Open Access publication)
Watson Michael,Pérez-Alegre Mónica,Baron Michael,Delmas Céline
Genetics Selection Evolution , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-39-6-669
Abstract: Microarrays allow researchers to measure the expression of thousands of genes in a single experiment. Before statistical comparisons can be made, the data must be assessed for quality and normalisation procedures must be applied, of which many have been proposed. Methods of comparing the normalised data are also abundant, and no clear consensus has yet been reached. The purpose of this paper was to compare those methods used by the EADGENE network on a very noisy simulated data set. With the a priori knowledge of which genes are differentially expressed, it is possible to compare the success of each approach quantitatively. Use of an intensity-dependent normalisation procedure was common, as was correction for multiple testing. Most variety in performance resulted from differing approaches to data quality and the use of different statistical tests. Very few of the methods used any kind of background correction. A number of approaches achieved a success rate of 95% or above, with relatively small numbers of false positives and negatives. Applying stringent spot selection criteria and elimination of data did not improve the false positive rate and greatly increased the false negative rate. However, most approaches performed well, and it is encouraging that widely available techniques can achieve such good results on a very noisy data set.
Self-Referential Cognition and Empathy in Autism
Michael V. Lombardo, Jennifer L. Barnes, Sally J. Wheelwright, Simon Baron-Cohen
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000883
Abstract: Background Individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have profound impairments in the interpersonal social domain, but it is unclear if individuals with ASC also have impairments in the intrapersonal self-referential domain. We aimed to evaluate across several well validated measures in both domains, whether both self-referential cognition and empathy are impaired in ASC and whether these two domains are related to each other. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty adults aged 19-45, with Asperger Syndrome or high-functioning autism and 30 age, sex, and IQ matched controls participated in the self-reference effect (SRE) paradigm. In the SRE paradigm, participants judged adjectives in relation to the self, a similar close other, a dissimilar non-close other, or for linguistic content. Recognition memory was later tested. After the SRE paradigm, several other complimentary self-referential cognitive measures were taken. Alexithymia and private self-consciousness were measured via self-report. Self-focused attention was measured on the Self-Focus Sentence Completion task. Empathy was measured with 3 self-report instruments and 1 performance measure of mentalizing (Eyes test). Self-reported autistic traits were also measured with the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Although individuals with ASC showed a significant SRE in memory, this bias was decreased compared to controls. Individuals with ASC also showed reduced memory for the self and a similar close other and also had concurrent impairments on measures of alexithymia, self-focused attention, and on all 4 empathy measures. Individual differences in self-referential cognition predicted mentalizing ability and self-reported autistic traits. More alexithymia and less self memory was predictive of larger mentalizing impairments and AQ scores regardless of diagnosis. In ASC, more self-focused attention is associated with better mentalizing ability and lower AQ scores, while in controls, more self-focused attention is associated with decreased mentalizing ability and higher AQ scores. Increasing private self-consciousness also predicted better mentalizing ability, but only for individuals with ASC. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that individuals with ASC have broad impairments in both self-referential cognition and empathy. These two domains are also intrinsically linked and support predictions made by simulation theory. Our results also highlight a specific dysfunction in ASC within cortical midlines structures of the brain such as the medial prefrontal cortex.
Why Are Autism Spectrum Conditions More Prevalent in Males?
Simon Baron-Cohen,Michael V. Lombardo,Bonnie Auyeung,Emma Ashwin,Bhismadev Chakrabarti,Rebecca Knickmeyer
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001081
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are much more common in males, a bias that may offer clues to the etiology of this condition. Although the cause of this bias remains a mystery, we argue that it occurs because ASC is an extreme manifestation of the male brain. The extreme male brain (EMB) theory, first proposed in 1997, is an extension of the Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) theory of typical sex differences that proposes that females on average have a stronger drive to empathize while males on average have a stronger drive to systemize. In this first major update since 2005, we describe some of the evidence relating to the EMB theory of ASC and consider how typical sex differences in brain structure may be relevant to ASC. One possible biological mechanism to account for the male bias is the effect of fetal testosterone (fT). We also consider alternative biological theories, the X and Y chromosome theories, and the reduced autosomal penetrance theory. None of these theories has yet been fully confirmed or refuted, though the weight of evidence in favor of the fT theory is growing from converging sources (longitudinal amniocentesis studies from pregnancy to age 10 years old, current hormone studies, and genetic association studies of SNPs in the sex steroid pathways). Ultimately, as these theories are not mutually exclusive and ASC is multi-factorial, they may help explain the male prevalence of ASC.
Rescue of recombinant peste des petits ruminants virus: creation of a GFP-expressing virus and application in rapid virus neutralization test
Qianqian Hu, Weiye Chen, Kehe Huang, Michael D Baron, Zhigao Bu
Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-43-48
Abstract:
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