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The 96 h acute toxic effects of nano-CuO (N-CuO), micro-CuO (M-CuO) and 2+ on Chlorella sp. were investigated in this paper. The results showed that toxicities decreased in an order of Cu2+＞N-CuO＞M-CuO. The 96 h EC50 of Cu2+ on Chlorella sp. was 1.06 mg /L, and of N-CuO it was 74.61 mg /L, while no pronounced toxicity was observed when the concentration of M-CuO was lower than 160 mg/L. Further experiments were carried out in order to study the toxicity mechanism of nano-CuO on Chlorella sp.. The results of Cu2+ release from N-CuO showed less than 0.2 mg/L Cu2+ were released, so the release of Cu2+ was not responsible for the toxicity. Further experiments showed N-CuO inhibited formation of Chlorophyll A. Content of Chlorophyll A in the control group was 4.75 mg/108 cells, while it declined to 2.89 mg/108 cells for 160 mg/L N-CuO after 96 h, which indicated that N-CuO could inhibit photosynthesis of Chlorella sp.. Moreover, N-CuO condensed with algal cells. It affected the activity of SOD and POD, indicating that N-CuO could cause oxidant stress to Chlorella sp.. These may be the toxicity mechanism.
In the knowledge economy, the
innovation already became the motivation of foundation for organization growth,
especially for E-commerce organizations. Business organizations should
consider how their organizational innovations for all aspects of resource
optimization to increase efficiency. The purpose of this study is to build some
conceptual models in transformational leadership, innovation atmosphere and E-commerce
organization innovation. Through the questionnaire survey procedure in some
E-commerce corporations in Zhe Jiang, this research takes correlation analysis
and regression analysis. We discovered: both transformational leadership and
innovation atmosphere have the remarkable influence on E-commerce organization
innovation. We also find the differences of effects and their interactions
directly between the transformational leadership, innovation climate and the
dimension degrees on E-commerce organization innovation.