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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3445 matches for " Mexico "
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Groundwater Origin and Its Hydrogeochemistry through GIS Maps in Linares Region, Mexico  [PDF]
René Alberto Dávila Pórcel, Héctor de León-Gómez
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.58A001

The North-East region of Mexican Republic has a semi-arid weather condition; this area covers partially Tamaulipas, Nuevo León and Coahuila states. Pablillo River Basin (PRB) is located close to Nuevo León south border and its catchment area involves Linares City (LC), Hualahuises City (HC) and Cerro-Prieto dam (CP). This reservoir captures drinking water to Monterrey Metropolitan Zone (MMZ) the major urban center on the north-east Mexican region. More than 50% of the potable water for LC comes from groundwater stockpiles. A combination of GIS maps and major ion chemistry analysis has been assessed, to know the origin, geochemical evolution, and hydraulic interconnection of groundwater. During 2008-2009, 46 groundwater samples were taken and analyzed around LC and HC. GIS technology was use to analyze the spatial distribution of the constituents of groundwater through thematic maps. The major ion analysis and its results suggest the presences of two aquifers; shallow porous aquifer on the top and fractured aquifer on the bottom. General water mineralization was discovered, including dissolution of halite, dolomites and carbonates through the aquifers. Water quality varies widely through the aquifers, and the general pathways go from southwest to northeast direction. The overexploitation of groundwater increases the water mixing of groundwater between shallow and deeper aquifers. Natural origin of groundwater and groundwater pollution by anthropogenic activities should be considered in the groundwater quality analysis for drinking water purpose.

Effect of Solid Wastes Composition and Confinement Time on Methane Production in a Dump  [PDF]
Carlos González, Otoniel Buenrostro, Liliana Marquez, Consuelo Hernández, Edgar Moreno, Fabián Robles
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.210151
Abstract: In developing countries, illegal dump structures or even some landfills do not include methane collecting systems, even if local environmental laws exist. In this condition, the greenhouse gas escapes to the atmosphere uncontrolled and practical solutions to tackle this problem are not obvious. To make a solution approachable, first-hand reliable data from dump emissions are required as starting point. The methane production is not homogeneous throughout the dump, therefore to estimate its global methane emissions, various representative gas monitoring sites distributed along the dump becomes necessary. This research work presents the measures of biogas emissions collected in the final disposal site located at Morelia (Mexico), along with an evaluation of the organic fraction and confinement time participation on biogas production. Biogas emission data were taken with a portable analyzer from 49 ventilation pipes for 52 weeks. For the composition and degradability analysis of solid wastes, the required samples have been collected from 16 sites. The results show a heterogeneous composition of solid wastes: 38 separate components are present, from those, 19 belong to organic categories and 28 of total components accounts for almost 99% of the waste. The mean biogas concentration detected was: 45.5% CH4, 32.4% CO2, 3.1% O2, and 18.9% balance gas (i.e., N2, CO or H2S). The ANOVA procedure clearly corroborated the influence of composition, biodegradability and time of confinement of solid wastes on the production of methane, despite the deficiencies in the final soil layer cover in these sites.
Occurrence and Distribution of the Genus Jania J. V. Lamouroux (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in the Pacific Coast of Baja California and Gulf of California, Mexico  [PDF]
Luz Elena Mateo-Cid, A. Catalina Mendoza-González, Luis E. Aguilar-Rosas, Raúl Aguilar-Rosas
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412A2001

This paper provides a description of the articulated species of the Tribe Janieae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in the Pacific coast of Baja California and Gulf of California, Mexico. This taxonomic report is based on newly collected data in the study area and material currently housed at several herbaria. As a result of the present study, the record of the tribe Janieae is represented at the Pacific coast of Mexico for one genus: Jania J. V. Lamouroux with nine species. Morphological, reproductive and anatomical descriptions are provided in detail. In addition, keys for determination are included, as well as habitat, nomenclature, comparisons with other species and information on distribution. Instead of eleven species of Jania currently recorded for the study area, we recognize only nine. Jania verrucosa is restricted to the occidental coast from the Peninsula of Baja California. The remainder of the species commonly occurs in the Gulf of California and the Pacific coast of Baja California’s Peninsula. On the other hand, the gametangial thalli of J. adhaerens and tetrasporangial conceptacle in J. longiarthra are reported for the first time in Mexico.

Higher Education Policies and Employment in Mexico  [PDF]
Ernesto Rangel, Antonina Ivanova
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.57075

The paper shows the situation on higher education and employment policies in Mexico based on the opinion of key persons related to the issue. Scholars, government officers and entrepreneurs participated with their opinions in a survey designed for collecting information. It is very important to know not only from the society but also from the specific policy makers that what is going vs official version in order to get some more objective information about this interesting topic. In conclusion, Mexico’s higher education policies must provide a strategic vision based on the development of a coordinated industrial policy. It is imperative to improve the balance between supply and demand for professionals, whose studies are based on policies designed to improve Mexico’s productive structure and its integration into the international economy.

The Dragon vs. the Eagle & Serpent: The Economic Impact of China in Mexico  [PDF]
Paul A. Escajadillo
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2014.44024
Abstract: Although China has become, over the past three decades, an unprecedented case of economic growth accompanied by a voracious appetite for natural resources, China has been increasingly engaging with Latin America. However, as Sino-Latin American relationships have improved Latin American countries’ economies through their supply of primary products and through the region’s growing importance to China as a market, Mexico has not benefited from this increased engagement. This paper will show that as the balance of trade of selected Latin American countries has grown with China and benefited their economies, it has not been the case with Mexico in particular.
Environmental Approaches during Planning and Construction Stages of Hydropower Projects in Mexico  [PDF]
María Antonieta Gómez-Balandra, María del Pilar Salda?a-Fabela, Rosa Dina Llerandi-Juárez
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.610106
Abstract: During the Environmental Impact Assessment procedure (EIA) for hydropower projects, apart from the compliance with environmental standards and regulations, important environmental and ecosystem changes are foreseen from planning and construction stages. In Mexico, the EIA and environmental standards are being systematically applied and fulfilled at planning and construction stages for hydropower projects. These are mainly related to control air emissions, solid and hazardous wastes, water discharges and deal with protected species. In addition, due to land use changes, forestry compensation procedures have already been established. To comply with project approval conditions, an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is carried out during construction; it includes mitigation measures, standards, regulations and approval conditions resulting of project review and in some cases requests from the public audience. Monitoring is carried out in the area of influence that is in the works and where it is expected that natural processes are modified. However, indicators to track these changes are minimal. This paper analyzes the regulatory and organizational frameworks to address environmental management during the planning and construction of hydropower facilities in Mexico and gives recommendations to expand the scope of the supervision and management of ecosystem changes.
Niveles de riesgo social frente a desastres naturales en la Riviera Mexicana
Juárez Gutiérrez, María del Carmen;I?iguez Rojas, Luisa;Sánchez Celada, Miguel ángel;
Investigaciones geográficas , 2006,
Abstract: this paper presents the levels of social risk in the mexican riviera, looking at the natural and socio-economic characteristics prevalent in the area. in this paper, the concept of level is indicative of the hierarchical-territorial differentiation of risk. the mexican riviera is a hotspot of tourist activity in the conuntry, thus a major destination for both foreign and national tourists. at the same time, this portion of the mexican coastal lands witnesses the ocurrence of extreme natural disasters, such as earthquakes and flooding. the methology used is a spatial matrix correlation, which classify natural extreme events and population socioeconomics index.
Urban Violence in Northern Border of Mexico: A Study from Nuevo León State  [PDF]
Arun kumar Acharya
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.14023
Abstract: Urban violence has reached record level in many nations, and having devastating impact on people’s health and livelihood as well as economic prospects. Today, for millions of people around the world, violence, or the fear of violence, is a daily reality. In Mexico since the year 2006 the northern border states are become more violent due to fight against the drug trafficking. In this study, we have taken Nuevo León state as area of study, and we have seen from the result; that urban violence in Nuevo León has increased in an unprecedented manner during last few years. Much of this urban violence is a consequence of rural-to-urban migration and exponential urbanization. We have also seen in the study that urban violence is a multi-factorial phenomena and main reason behind this is inequality among city dwellers. This is a potential source of frustration which increasing risk of urban violence, especially if certain groups are underprivileged and suffers from social exclusion.
Determination of Optimal Zones for Forest Plantations in the State of Mexico Using Multi-Criteria Spatial Analysis and GIS  [PDF]
Noel Bonfilio Pineda Jaimes, Joaquín Bosque Sendra, Montserrat Gómez Delgado, Roberto Franco Plata, Xanat Antonio Némiga, Luis Ricardo Manzano Solís
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2012.43025
Abstract: This work aims to develop simulation models that allow locating adequate areas for forest plantations in the state of Mexico. It combines multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) techniques and geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze and simulate future scenarios for forest plantations under three major objectives: commercial production, restoration and protection, and agroforestry. Results demonstrate the potential of this method to integrate different variables of social, economic and environmental nature, and for solve some problems of forest activities and management by locating the most suitable areas for this forestal activity.
Darunavir Resistance in HIV Infecting Protease Inhibitor-Experienced Mexican Patients  [PDF]
Carlos A. Agudelo, Luis E. Soto-Ramírez, Abraham Katime-Zú?iga, Lorena Cabrera-Ruíz, Hugo Lara-Sánchez, Juan J. Calva
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.33035

Background: Darunavir (DRV) is a useful antiretroviral treatment in the salvage therapy of multiclass-resistant HIV-infected patients. This study’s aim was to determine the frequency and risk factors for DRV resistance-associated mutations (DRV-RAM) among DRV-naive Mexican patients with virologic failure after extensive antiretroviral treatment and exposure to at least one protease inhibitor (PI). Methods: HIV-infected patients with a history of at least 2 failed regimes were included and their clinical histories and genotype resistance tests were analyzed. Major PI resistance-associated mutations (PI-RAM), DRV-RAM and resistance to DRV were defined according to the IAS-USA criteria. Previous exposure to PI was compared between patients with DRV-resistant HIV and DRV-susceptible HIV-infected controls. Results: The median number of major PI-RAM was 2 (IQR = 0 - 3). In 54.7% (95% CI = 50.0% - 59.4%) of 631 subjects, no DRV-RAM were found on viral genotyping and 6.7% (95% CI = 4.8% - 8.6%) had 3 or more DRV-RAM. The two most frequently found DRV-RAM were in codons I84V (in 22.7% of cases) and L33F (in 20% of cases) in the viral protease gene. The number of major PI-RAM (as a surrogate marker of duration and number of PI used) and previous exposure to (fos) amprenavir or tipranavir were independently associated with DRV-resistant HIV infection. Conclusions: In this Mexican population, despite a high prior PI exposure, HIV-DRV resistance rate is relatively low and successful viral control with DRV-containing combined salvage therapy is expected in most patients.

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