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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3127 matches for " Methodology "
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Teachers’ Attitudes and Perceptions: Association of Teachers’ Attitudes toward Traditional and Modern Teaching Methodology According to RWCT as Well as Teachers’ Perceptions for Teaching as a Profession  [PDF]
Xhevahire Karanezi, Edmond Rapti
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.66061
Abstract: Teaching methodologies that are chosen to be used by teachers in their daily work are highly impacted by their attitudes and perceptions. According to Schoenfeld (1992) attitudes and perceptions influence teachers not only how, but what, he or she teaches. The data collection for this study was conducted using quantitative and qualitative method. There were 473 school teachers throughout Kosovo that participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to collect all quantitative data, which were compiled and adjusted in accordance with the study objectives. Focus groups discussions were conducted for the purpose of collecting the qualitative data. The data showed significant negative association between teachers’ attitudes toward traditional teaching methodologies and modern teaching methodologies according to RWCT (r = 0.446, sig = 0.000). The data also showed that there was a significant negative association between attitudes toward traditional teaching methodology and teachers’ perceptions for teaching as a profession (r = 0.092, sig = 0.046). The quantitative results were in the same line with the qualitative findings of the study.
A Novel Methodology to Design Miniaturized Regular Planar Inverted-F Antennas Based on Parametric Simulations  [PDF]
Abdelhakim Elouadih, Ahmed Oulad-Said, Moha Mrabet Hassani
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2013.57047
Abstract:

This paper describes a novel methodology to design PIFA (Planar Inverted-F Antenna) antennas based on parametric simulations. The parameters considered in the parametric design are ground plan dimensions, height of radiating plate, feeding point position, shorting plate width and position. The choice of the parameters that must be varied independently or simultanously is important to design optimized antenna. The author studied two scenarios in precedent works [1,2]. He exposes here a third scenario of varing antenna parameters to design and simulate by HFSS (High Frequency Simulator Structure) simulator a probe-fed dual band PIFA for the use in GSM 850 band (824 MHz - 894 MHz) and PCS 1900 band (1850 MHz - 1990 MHz). The author compares the three scenarios and establishes a novel methodology to design optimized and miniaturized antennas mounted on mobile handsets.

Comparative Methodology and Pluralism in Legal Comparison in a Global Age  [PDF]
Roberto Scarciglia
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.61006
Abstract: This article grew to look deeper into the relationship between different methodological tools in comparative law enquiries. There are several factors that currently affect these enquiries, such as the emergence of new spheres of normativity and transnational actors determining a new configuration of the relationship between centre and periphery. Different forms and visions of legal pluralism could characterise a cultural tradition and different ways, in which existing nations, which have a pluralistic legal system, interact. Furthermore, one might add the consideration that the presence of different forms of pluralism—a pluralism of pluralisms—implies a constant and urgent need to reconsider the adequacy of the methodologies in comparative law. Hence, we can use different approaches because there are different purposes that the comparison pursues. Though the horizontal comparison is certainly a widespread tendency for comparative analyses, from a methodological point of view, we need to consider the importance of forms of vertical comparison, both a top-down and bottom-up approach.
Digital Micrometer Used in Thickness Measurement of Plastic Film Compared to Standardized Instrument  [PDF]
Carlos Eugênio Fortes Teixeira, Ingrid de Almeida Rebechi, Renato Serena Fontaneli
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2017.87040
Abstract: Different types of plastic films are used in agriculture to cover silos storing silage. The most important characteristics of a tarpaulin for sealing the silage are: thickness, color and polymer used in the manufacture of the film. The objective of this study is to measure and compare the thickness, the use of two instruments (digital micrometer and digital thickness gauge) in plastic films (polyethylene, polyester and polyester/vinyl). This methodological analysis for the use of micrometer digital, for future use (Agronomy and Veterinary sciences). In comparison the thickness of the three factors. 5% by Tukey test revealed that for polyethylene, there was no significant difference between factors. This methodology is satisfactory for the types of films and range of thicknesses studied.
The Social Costs of Crime and Crime Control  [PDF]
Klara Kerezsi, József Kó, Szilvia Antal
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2011.22008
Abstract: There is currently no generally accepted method of estimating the costs of crime. After presenting the most commonly used methods of estimating crime, the authors attempt to explore the situation in Hungary. Taking 2009 as a base year, they recon the crime-related social expenditure accounts. The authors, with the help of other Hungarian research data and databases, have also taken into account the costs of the secondary social effects. The results of the calculations depend on the applied approach to crime and the interpretations of the social impacts of the delinquency. According to the authors calculations the social cost caused by crime was about 2.17 billion USA dollar: ($) (1.6 billion euro (EUR) in 2009. The authors deduct the sum that was drawn by the offenders as a benefit/profit from committing crime; therefore the crime caused 1.17 billion $ as a net social damage in 2009 in Hungary. The amount of 1.63 billion $ was spent on the crime control (e.g. law enforcement, judiciary, prison and crime prevention) in 2009. The results show that delinquency caused a total of 3.8 billion $ as a damage, or as an expenditure spent by the government in 2009. The cost of crime control was about 500 million $ higher (1.63 billion $) than the amount of damage caused by crime (1.17 billion $). The offenders benefit/profit from committing crime (= 1 billion $) was only 15% less than the damage they caused to the state and to the citizens (= 1.17 billion $). In other words, the half of the criminal damage shall never be repaid: it will remain at the criminals!
Information Systems Development Methodolgies in Developing Higher Education  [PDF]
Adam Marks
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.31019
Abstract: Studies concerned with the status of Information Systems Development Methodologies usage in many developing countries including the factors that influence and motivate their use, current trends, difficulties, and barriers to adoption are lacking, especially within the higher education sector. This paper examines these identified gaps in a developing country, namely the United Arab Emirates. The initial findings reveal that there is limited knowledge and understanding of the concept of ISDM in federal higher education institutions in the UAE. This is reflected in the quality of the software products being developed and released. However, the analysed data also reveals a trend whereby federal higher education institutions in the UAE are gradually moving towards increased ISDM adoption and deployment.
Interactivity and Information- Communication Technologies in Chemical Engineering Classes  [PDF]
A. J. Santiago, C. E. da Silva, A. F. Machado, M. G. Muniz Washington
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.32002
Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new contextualization of the so-called scientific method in teaching practices in science and engineering education. We report an objectification in information and communication technologies (ICT) for simulate the reaction rates during an class and its inclusion in the above-mentioned pedagogical purpose, that, in tune with the current realities of schools, rehearses reflections of a future with another horizon for teaching/learning engineering and other sciences.

Social Vulnerability Index: A Methodological Proposal for Application in the Cities of Barra do Garcas—MT, Pontal Do Araguaia—MT and Aragarcas—GO, Brazil  [PDF]
Greyce Bernardes de Mello Rezende
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.412004
Abstract: The concept of vulnerability is intrinsically attached to the risks that can affect the balance of life in countless ways. Thus, this paper aimed to determine the sites that present social vulnerability levels in the urban context of the municipalities of Barra do Garcas—MT, Pontal do Araguaia—MT and Aragarcas—GO. The social vulnerability index was calculated using a set of 23 indicators, arranged in 05 subjects: Conditions of breadwinners, family conditions, housing conditions, urban infrastructure and economic dimension. Then these results were inserted in the geographic information system through ARCGIS program for spatial representation of social vulnerability levels. It was found that the social vulnerability indices found for the study area were very low, low and medium, which did not show a very critical situation. In Pontal do Araguaia—MT was found low level of vulnerability. In contrast, in Barra do Garcas—MT, the sectors with greater social vulnerability are located in the western part of the city, which includes neighborhoods with lower family income, and lack of infrastructure. Regarding the Aragarcas city was noted that the socio-territorial segregation of vulnerability is more evident, and the sectors with medium index of vulnerability are located more on the outskirts of the city. The proposed methodology was effective and the socio-economic dimension has been well addressed, which is a diagnostic path that can be used to search for a more efficient urban development through specific public policies, which in turn will increase the resilience of the population involved.
Teaching Methodology for the Training of a Laparoscopic Technique: Intestinal Anastomosis  [PDF]
José Luis Ruiz-Gómez, Roberto Fernández Santiago, Antonio López Useros, Carlos Redondo-Figuero, José C. Manuel-Palazuelos
Surgical Science (SS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2017.88042
Abstract: Traditionally surgeons learned surgical techniques by training them directly in the patient by imitating the actions of the surgeon with more experience. Today this methodology is difficult to apply, since there are multiple factors that hinder its use. The limited time of training systems, scarcity of resources, patient safety or the need to learn new techniques of minimally invasive surgery, make the training of surgeons require a different learning methodology. This study has designed a new methodology for the learning of surgical techniques that minimizes the impact of all the previous factors on the training of surgeons. Its effectiveness in the teaching of laparoscopic manual intestinal anastomosis is analyzed. It has been asked a group of 24 expert surgeons teaching in intestinal anastomoses, which are the steps that must include the teaching of the technique. The phases evaluated with the highest score were included in the methodology. Once the steps of the methodology were designed, 25 general surgeons were chosen and divided into three groups according to their level of experience (experts, trained and beginners). Each participant performed five training sessions following the new methodology. The technical quality of the anastomosis, the overall development of the operation, as well as the feedback developed between the participants and the instructor was analyzed. After analyzing the results it was observed that structured feedback between the instructor and the participant increases the involvement of the participant in the learning process and reduces the time needed to acquire the competence. With this methodology the inexperienced participants perform the fifth anastomosis with quality parameters close to those obtained by the expert participants. In addition, this methodology allows to individualize the learning according to the needs of each participant.
Setting the Objectives and Hypotheses in Randomized Clinical Trials: Notices for Clinicians and Pharmacologists
H. Sadeghi-Bazargani,M.R. Sedghipour
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2012,
Abstract: Contrary to the sufficient availability of hundreds of papers on how to report randomized clinical trials, less attention is paid on details in design of randomized clinical trials specially on setting the objectives and hypotheses. This study aimed to discuss some aspects of setting objectives and hypotheses in randomized clinical trials. Interactively referring to several examples in literature, this study have discussed different details of setting objectives and hypotheses in randomized clinical trials and provided recommendations on how to do it the best it can be.
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