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Search Results: 1 - 3 of 3 matches for " Merje Adrat "
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Awareness of Lung Cancer Symptoms and Risk Factors in General Population  [PDF]
Hanna Maria Hanson, Mait Raag, Merje Adrat, Tanel Laisaar
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.71001
Abstract: Introduction: Lung cancer is often diagnosed in a late stage, which might be related to lack of risk factors and symptoms awareness. Aim of this study was to evaluate these factors. Methods: A survey was conducted to assess the awareness of lung cancer risk factors and symptoms. Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher and chi-square tests were used to compare the groups. Results: Altogether 403 participants (108 male; median age 29 (range 13 to 74) years; 98 smokers, 90 ex-smokers and 212 non-smokers) completed the survey (321 filled in online questionnaire, 82 were interviewed face-to-face). Three per cent of the respondents were unable to name any lung cancer risk factor, 36% named one and 61% named two or more. Smoking was mentioned most commonly, others far less often. When presented with a list of lung cancer risk factors, 99.7% of respondents recognised two or more; most commonly smoking (99%) and second-hand smoking (95%). Concerning symptoms, 17% were unable to name any, 21% named one and 62% named two or more. Prolonged cough was mentioned most often (59%), followed by dyspnea (45%) and chest pain (30%). When presented with a list, 99% of respondents recognised two or more symptoms; most often prolonged cough (86%), weakness (85%) and chest pain (82%). There were no statistical differences in lung cancer symptom, risk factor or prognosis awareness among smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers. There were some differences related to age, sex, education and type of used questionnaire. Conclusions: Awareness of lung cancer risks and symptoms is moderate in general population without major differences between smokers and non-smokers.
Iterative Source-Channel Decoding: Improved System Design Using EXIT Charts
Adrat Marc,Vary Peter
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2005,
Abstract: The error robustness of digital communication systems using source and channel coding can be improved by iterative source-channel decoding (ISCD). The turbo-like evaluation of natural residual source redundancy and of artificial channel coding redundancy makes step-wise quality gains possible by several iterations. The maximum number of profitable iterations is predictable by an EXIT chart analysis. In this contribution, we exploit the EXIT chart representation to improve the error correcting/concealing capabilities of ISCD schemes. We propose new design guidelines to select appropriate bit mappings and to design the channel coding component. A parametric source coding scheme with some residual redundancy is assumed. Applying both innovations, the new EXIT-optimized index assignment as well as the appropriately designed recursive nonsystematic convolutional (RNSC) code, allows to outperform known approaches to ISCD by far in the most relevant channel conditions.
Efficient And Portable SDR Waveform Development: The Nucleus Concept
Venkatesh Ramakrishnan,Ernst M. Witte,Torsten Kempf,David Kammler,Gerd Ascheid,Heinrich Meyr,Marc Adrat,Markus Antweiler
Mathematics , 2009, DOI: 10.1109/MILCOM.2009.5379897
Abstract: Future wireless communication systems should be flexible to support different waveforms (WFs) and be cognitive to sense the environment and tune themselves. This has lead to tremendous interest in software defined radios (SDRs). Constraints like throughput, latency and low energy demand high implementation efficiency. The tradeoff of going for a highly efficient implementation is the increase of porting effort to a new hardware (HW) platform. In this paper, we propose a novel concept for WF development, the Nucleus concept, that exploits the common structure in various wireless signal processing algorithms and provides a way for efficient and portable implementation. Tool assisted WF mapping and exploration is done efficiently by propagating the implementation and interface properties of Nuclei. The Nucleus concept aims at providing software flexibility with high level programmability, but at the same time limiting HW flexibility to maximize area and energy efficiency.
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