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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 113 matches for " Merja Rastas "
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Exercise training with dietary counselling increases mitochondrial chaperone expression in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance
Mika Venoj?rvi, Sirkka Aunola, Raivo Puhke, Jukka Marniemi, Helena H?m?l?inen, Jukka-Pekka Halonen, Jaana Lindstr?m, Merja Rastas, Kirsti H?llsten, Pirjo Nuutila, Osmo H?nninen, Mustafa Atalay
BMC Endocrine Disorders , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6823-8-3
Abstract: Exercise training, combined with dietary counselling, increased the expression of mitochondrial chaperones HSP60 and glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75) in the vastus lateralis muscle in the IGTslow group and that of HSP60 in the IGTfast group. In cytoplasmic chaperones HSP72 or HSP90 no changes took place. In the IGTslow group, a significant positive correlation between the increased muscle content of HSP60 and the oxygen radical absorbing capacity values and, in the IGTfast group, between the improved VO2max value and the increased protein expression of GRP75 were found. Serum uric acid concentrations decreased in both sub-groups and serum protein carbonyl concentrations decreased in the IGTfast group.The 2-year intervention up-regulated mitochondrial HSP expressions in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. These improvements, however, were not correlated directly with enhanced glucose tolerance.Diabetes and its complications are increasing as major causes of mortality and morbidity in the developed countries [1]. Insulin resistance and diabetes are associated with increased oxidative stresmpaired cellular defence systems [2-4]. We have recently shown in rats that streptozotocin-induced diabetes (SID) increase oxidative stress and resulted in impaired heat shock protein (HSP) responses in liver and skeletal muscle tissue [2]. HSPs are a family of proteins that promote cell survival after a wide variety of environmental stresses. The most widely studied HSP family is the 70-kDA family, which contains the constitutive HSP73 and inducible HSP72 forms. HSP72 plays a central role in protein synthesis, translocation, folding and assembly/disassembly of multimetric protein complexes as molecular chaperones [5]. In type 2 diabetic subjects, insulin resistance correlates with decreased expression of HSP72 in skeletal muscle [6]. HSP60 and glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75) are located in the mitochondria, where they are involved in the trafficking and pr
Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonographic Detection and Dual-Phase Computed Tomographic Angiography in a 5-Year-Old Boxer with Pancreatic Insulinoma
—Case Report
 [PDF]

Vilma Reunanen, Merja Laitinen
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2015.57024
Abstract: This case report describes the findings in a canine histopathologically confirmed pancreatic insulinoma using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and dual-phase computed tomographic angiography (CTA). The insulinoma was better demarcated in CEUS and CTA compared with conventional B-mode ultrasound. On the other hand, only one of two nodules visible in CTA was detected in CEUS. In this case, the insulinoma had an atypical non-contrast-enhancing appearance in both CEUS and CTA. Lack of enhancement in CEUS and CTA has previously been reported in human and canine studies, but this was the first report using both CEUS and CTA for detecting canine insulinoma.
Corpora and historical linguistics
Kyt?, Merja;
Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-63982011000200007
Abstract: the present article aims to survey and assess the current state of electronic historical corpora and corpus methodology, and attempts to look into possible future developments. it highlights the fact that within the wide spectrum of corpus linguistic methodology, historical corpus linguistics has emerged as a vibrant field that has significantly added to the appeal felt for the study of language history and change. in fact, according to a historical linguist with more than fifty years of experience, "[w]e could even go as far as to say that without the support and new impetus provided by corpora, evidence-based historical linguistics would have been close to the end of its life-span in these days of rapid-changing life and research, increasing competition on the academic career track and the methodological attractions offered to young scholars" (rissanen, forthcoming). historical corpora and other electronic resources have also made the study of language history attractive: working on them engages students in an individual and interactive way that they find appealing (curzan 2000, p. 81).
Radiographic and Ultrasonographic Findings in Three Surgically Confirmed Cases of Small Intestinal Ischemia Related to Mesenteric Volvulus or Intestinal Torsion in Dogs  [PDF]
Elina Rautala, Pia Bj?rkenheim, Merja Laitinen
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2017.79010
Abstract: This case report describes the radiographic and ultrasonographic findings of three surgically confirmed cases of mesenteric volvulus or intestinal torsion in dogs. In all three cases, ultrasonographic findings included segmental ileus and absent or markedly reduced peristalsis of the affected small intestine, and partial loss of wall layering with increased overall echogenicity of the intestinal wall, but with normal to mildly increased wall thickening. No blood flow was detected in the affected small intestinal wall when assessed with colour Doppler. A moderate amount of peritoneal effusion was also detected with hyperechoic omental and mesenteric fat tissue throughout the peritoneal cavity. Few reports describe ultrasonographic findings of small intestinal ischemia in small animals. In all three cases presented here, ultrasound was helpful in demonstrating typical intestinal wall changes and helped to obtain the correct diagnosis of ischemic disease of the small intestine.
Association of apolipoprotein E genotypes, blood pressure, blood lipids and ECG abnormalities in a general population aged 85+
Rastas Sari,Mattila Kimmo,Verkkoniemi Auli,Niinist? Leena
BMC Geriatrics , 2004,
Abstract: Background Several studies have linked apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 allele with elevated cholesterol and blood pressure levels. Data on the association of APOE genotypes with blood pressure, lipids, atrial fibrillation and ECG abnormalities in individuals aged 85 years and over is sparse. Methods This cross sectional study consisted of all residents of the city of Vantaa (N = 601) aged 85 years or over of whom 505 participated in the study. Blood pressure was measured by using mercury sphygmomanometer. 12-Lead ECG, short ambulatory ECG, or both were taken from all study subjects to diagnose atrial fibrillation (AF). Ambulatory ECG was carried out home or in the institute. APOE genotyping was performed using a combination of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and solid-phase minisequencing technique. Statistical analysis was made by using Kruskall-Wallis-test (continuous data) and χ2-test (rates and proportions). Results In these very elderly individuals, APOE 4 allele was significantly associated with elevated cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. Blood pressure or cardiac arrhythmias did not differ between APOE genotypes. Conclusions These observations suggest that the important role of APOE genotype still influences cardiovascular risk profile even among the very elderly people.
Changing International ‘Subjectivity’ and Rights and Obligations under International Law – Status of Corporations
Merja Pentik?inen
Utrecht Law Review , 2012,
Abstract: Globalisation, liberation of trade supported by institutions such as the WTO, the unprecedented internationalisation of companies' activities in the global market, the creation of even larger company entities (including multinational corporations) and the ensuing growth of business power have radically restructured the equilibrium of companies' relations with state and society. In the contemporary world many companies are de facto stronger and more influential actors than states, and their activities have concrete effects on political, cultural and societal aspects in the countries where they operate or to which they have other business links. These developments have created new kinds of challenges, e.g. for the protection of human rights which may be undermined by business activities. In this situation corporations are increasingly expected to pay due regard to avoiding activities contributing to human rights violations. The doctrine of subjects of international law (international 'subjectivity') considers states as the primary subjects, in addition to which also some other actors have been granted the status as a subject, including even corporations. This article sheds light on the shifts that have taken place in the doctrine of international 'subjectivity' and the paradigm of rights and obligations under international law linked to this 'subjectivity'. Particular attention is paid to the position of corporations, and the exploration is conducted through the prism of the development of rights and obligations in the area of international human rights law.
Novel Technique of Multislice CT Angiography for Diagnosis of Portosystemic Shunts in Sedated Dogs  [PDF]
Merja R. Laitinen, Jodi S. Matheson, Robert T. O’Brien
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.32019
Abstract:

Diagnosing portosystemic shunts (PSS) can be challenging in veterinary patients. Multiple imaging techniques have been described to diagnose PSS. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a novel multi-slice computed tomography (CT) angiographic protocol could be used for diagnosis of PSS in dogs utilizing only patient sedation and without the need of test injection. Independent, blinded reviewers evaluated CT studies in a randomized order for study quality, shunt presence, number, and location of shunt origin and termination. Twenty two confirmed dogs were included in the study including 16 dogs with single extrahepatic congenital PSS, one dog with single intrahepatic congenital PSS, and two dogs with multiple acquired PSS. Three of the dogs (3/22) were surgically and histologically confirmed free of shunts. Final diagnosis was confirmed by surgery or necropsy. The new CT angiography protocol was shown to be diagnostic in dogs with PSS with no need for general anesthesia, test injections, delay times or timing determinations. Specificity and sensitivity were good (100%). The quality of the studies was considered good in the majority of cases (20/22). The amount of motion artifact in the CT scans was minimal, and had no effect on the diagnostic quality. The CT protocol was found to be a useful, fast, and accurate tool for diagnosing portosystemic shunts with a 16-slice system.

Screening for PPAR Responsive Regulatory Modules in Cancer
Merja Hein niemi,Carsten Carlberg
PPAR Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/749073
Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have via their large set of target genes a critical impact on numerous diseases including cancer. Cancer development involves numerous regulatory cascades that drive the progression of the malignancy of the cells. On a genomic level, these pathways converge on regulatory modules, some of which contain colocalizing PPAR binding sites (PPREs). We developed an in silico screening method that incorporates experiment- and informatics-derived evidence for a more reliable prediction of PPREs and PPAR target genes. This method is based on DNA-binding data of PPAR subtypes to a panel of DR1-type PPREs and tracking the enrichment of binding sites from multiple species. The ability of PPAR to induce cellular differentiation and the existence of FDA-approved PPAR agonists encourage the exploration of possibilities to activate or inactivate PPRE containing modules to arrest cancer progression. Recent advances in genomic techniques combined with computational analysis of binding modules are discussed in the review with the example of our recent screen for PPREs on human chromosome 19.
Rule-based induction method for haplotype comparison and identification of candidate disease loci
Sirkku Karinen, Silva Saarinen, Rainer Lehtonen, Pasi Rastas, Pia Vahteristo, Lauri A Aaltonen, Sampsa Hautaniemi
Genome Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/gm320
Abstract: One of the most important goals in biomedical research is to identify genes that predispose humans to diseases, such as cancer. To facilitate the identification of these genes, a number of genome-wide approaches have been suggested, such as genetic linkage and genome-wide association (GWA) methods [1]. The linkage methods have revealed several high penetrance disease susceptibility loci [1], whereas GWA studies have been useful in the 'common disease - common allele' model [2]. However, neither approach is well suited to tackle moderate penetrance susceptibility because such a condition rarely results in large pedigrees, with few or no phenocopies, convenient for linkage analysis. As the GWA approaches cannot detect these presumably rare alleles, there is clearly a need for methods that are able to identify loci where such variants could be located. Evolutionarily recent, and thus rare, mutations are usually conveyed in a pedigree by a shared haplotype. Therefore, detection of such haplotypes can lead to the identification of rare or moderate penetrance variants behind disease susceptibility.We introduce here Haplous, a novel computational approach that uses phased genotype data, such as genome-wide SNPs, to identify and prioritize genomic regions likely to be inherited from a common ancestor. The central idea of our approach is to use haplotypes, instead of single alleles, and rank them based on expert-defined rules that determine the haplotypes shared in heterozygous and homozygous forms. As the identification of haplotypes has been recognized as useful for revealing disease predisposing genes, several haplotype association methods have been developed [3-10]. These methods include detection of haplotype diversity and statistical association tests. Haplotypes can be detected with fixed or variable length sliding window [7,11,12], haplotype blocks [13], haplotype clustering [9], a cladistic approach [10] or considering non-contiguous haplotypes [5,8]. Some haplotype
Association of apolipoprotein E genotypes, blood pressure, blood lipids and ECG abnormalities in a general population aged 85+
Sari Rastas, Kimmo Mattila, Auli Verkkoniemi, Leena Niinist?, Kati Juva, Raimo Sulkava, Esko L?nsimies
BMC Geriatrics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-4-1
Abstract: This cross sectional study consisted of all residents of the city of Vantaa (N = 601) aged 85 years or over of whom 505 participated in the study. Blood pressure was measured by using mercury sphygmomanometer. 12-Lead ECG, short ambulatory ECG, or both were taken from all study subjects to diagnose atrial fibrillation (AF). Ambulatory ECG was carried out home or in the institute. APOE genotyping was performed using a combination of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and solid-phase minisequencing technique. Statistical analysis was made by using Kruskall-Wallis-test (continuous data) and χ2-test (rates and proportions).In these very elderly individuals, APOE 4 allele was significantly associated with elevated cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. Blood pressure or cardiac arrhythmias did not differ between APOE genotypes.These observations suggest that the important role of APOE genotype still influences cardiovascular risk profile even among the very elderly people.Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has an important role in the regulation of plasma cholesterol concentration. It also mediates the receptor uptake of triglyceride rich lipoproteins and may participate in reverse cholesterol transport [1,2]. ApoE is polymorphic and exists in three protein isoforms designated E2, E3, and E4, [1,2] encoded by three alleles ε2, ε3 and ε4 [3]. Genotypes ε4/ε4 and ε4/ε3 are associated with a high cholesterol concentration [4,5]. Thus ApoE polymorphism may influence the risk of atherosclerosis [4]. An association between the APOE ε4 and ε2 alleles with high blood pressure, and especially, with high systolic blood pressure has been observed [6,7]. However, lack of association with high blood pressure has also been reported [8-10].The Vantaa 85+ Study is a longitudinal population based study examining all residents of Vantaa, a city in Southern Finland, aged 85 years or over (N = 601) on April the first 1991. All persons whether living home or in institutions was asked to
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