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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 110 matches for " Merja Raade "
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Helical computerized tomography and NT-proBNP for screening of right ventricular overload on admission and at long term follow-up of acute pulmonary embolism
Mia K Laiho, Veli-Pekka Harjola, Marit Graner, Anneli Piilonen, Merja Raade, Pirjo Mustonen
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1757-7241-20-33
Abstract: Sixty-three non-high risk APE patients were studied. RVD was assessed at admission in the emergency department by CT and TTE, and both NT-proBNP and TnT samples were taken. These, excepting CT, were repeated seven months later.At admission RVD was detected by CT in 37 (59 %) patients. RVD in CT correlated strongly with RVD in TTE (p < 0.0001). NT-proBNP was elevated (≥ 350 ng/l) in 32 (86 %) patients with RVD but in only seven (27 %) patients without RVD (p < 0.0001). All the patients survived until the 7-month follow-up. TTE showed persistent RVD in 6 of 63 (10 %) patients who all had RVD in CT at admission. All of them had elevated NT-proBNP levels in the follow-up compared with 5 (9 %) of patients without RVD (p < 0.0001).TTE does not confer further benefit when helical CT is used for screening for RVD in non-high risk APE. All the patients who were found to have RVD in TTE at seven months follow-up had had RVD in the acute phase CT as well. Thus, patients without RVD in diagnostic CT do not seem to require further routine follow-up to screen for RVD later. On the other hand, persistent RVD and thus need for TTE control can be ruled out by assessment of NT-proBNP at follow-up. A follow-up protocol based on these findings is suggested.
Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonographic Detection and Dual-Phase Computed Tomographic Angiography in a 5-Year-Old Boxer with Pancreatic Insulinoma
—Case Report

Vilma Reunanen, Merja Laitinen
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2015.57024
Abstract: This case report describes the findings in a canine histopathologically confirmed pancreatic insulinoma using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and dual-phase computed tomographic angiography (CTA). The insulinoma was better demarcated in CEUS and CTA compared with conventional B-mode ultrasound. On the other hand, only one of two nodules visible in CTA was detected in CEUS. In this case, the insulinoma had an atypical non-contrast-enhancing appearance in both CEUS and CTA. Lack of enhancement in CEUS and CTA has previously been reported in human and canine studies, but this was the first report using both CEUS and CTA for detecting canine insulinoma.
Corpora and historical linguistics
Kyt?, Merja;
Revista Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-63982011000200007
Abstract: the present article aims to survey and assess the current state of electronic historical corpora and corpus methodology, and attempts to look into possible future developments. it highlights the fact that within the wide spectrum of corpus linguistic methodology, historical corpus linguistics has emerged as a vibrant field that has significantly added to the appeal felt for the study of language history and change. in fact, according to a historical linguist with more than fifty years of experience, "[w]e could even go as far as to say that without the support and new impetus provided by corpora, evidence-based historical linguistics would have been close to the end of its life-span in these days of rapid-changing life and research, increasing competition on the academic career track and the methodological attractions offered to young scholars" (rissanen, forthcoming). historical corpora and other electronic resources have also made the study of language history attractive: working on them engages students in an individual and interactive way that they find appealing (curzan 2000, p. 81).
Radiographic and Ultrasonographic Findings in Three Surgically Confirmed Cases of Small Intestinal Ischemia Related to Mesenteric Volvulus or Intestinal Torsion in Dogs  [PDF]
Elina Rautala, Pia Bj?rkenheim, Merja Laitinen
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2017.79010
Abstract: This case report describes the radiographic and ultrasonographic findings of three surgically confirmed cases of mesenteric volvulus or intestinal torsion in dogs. In all three cases, ultrasonographic findings included segmental ileus and absent or markedly reduced peristalsis of the affected small intestine, and partial loss of wall layering with increased overall echogenicity of the intestinal wall, but with normal to mildly increased wall thickening. No blood flow was detected in the affected small intestinal wall when assessed with colour Doppler. A moderate amount of peritoneal effusion was also detected with hyperechoic omental and mesenteric fat tissue throughout the peritoneal cavity. Few reports describe ultrasonographic findings of small intestinal ischemia in small animals. In all three cases presented here, ultrasound was helpful in demonstrating typical intestinal wall changes and helped to obtain the correct diagnosis of ischemic disease of the small intestine.
Changing International ‘Subjectivity’ and Rights and Obligations under International Law – Status of Corporations
Merja Pentik?inen
Utrecht Law Review , 2012,
Abstract: Globalisation, liberation of trade supported by institutions such as the WTO, the unprecedented internationalisation of companies' activities in the global market, the creation of even larger company entities (including multinational corporations) and the ensuing growth of business power have radically restructured the equilibrium of companies' relations with state and society. In the contemporary world many companies are de facto stronger and more influential actors than states, and their activities have concrete effects on political, cultural and societal aspects in the countries where they operate or to which they have other business links. These developments have created new kinds of challenges, e.g. for the protection of human rights which may be undermined by business activities. In this situation corporations are increasingly expected to pay due regard to avoiding activities contributing to human rights violations. The doctrine of subjects of international law (international 'subjectivity') considers states as the primary subjects, in addition to which also some other actors have been granted the status as a subject, including even corporations. This article sheds light on the shifts that have taken place in the doctrine of international 'subjectivity' and the paradigm of rights and obligations under international law linked to this 'subjectivity'. Particular attention is paid to the position of corporations, and the exploration is conducted through the prism of the development of rights and obligations in the area of international human rights law.
Novel Technique of Multislice CT Angiography for Diagnosis of Portosystemic Shunts in Sedated Dogs  [PDF]
Merja R. Laitinen, Jodi S. Matheson, Robert T. O’Brien
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.32019

Diagnosing portosystemic shunts (PSS) can be challenging in veterinary patients. Multiple imaging techniques have been described to diagnose PSS. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a novel multi-slice computed tomography (CT) angiographic protocol could be used for diagnosis of PSS in dogs utilizing only patient sedation and without the need of test injection. Independent, blinded reviewers evaluated CT studies in a randomized order for study quality, shunt presence, number, and location of shunt origin and termination. Twenty two confirmed dogs were included in the study including 16 dogs with single extrahepatic congenital PSS, one dog with single intrahepatic congenital PSS, and two dogs with multiple acquired PSS. Three of the dogs (3/22) were surgically and histologically confirmed free of shunts. Final diagnosis was confirmed by surgery or necropsy. The new CT angiography protocol was shown to be diagnostic in dogs with PSS with no need for general anesthesia, test injections, delay times or timing determinations. Specificity and sensitivity were good (100%). The quality of the studies was considered good in the majority of cases (20/22). The amount of motion artifact in the CT scans was minimal, and had no effect on the diagnostic quality. The CT protocol was found to be a useful, fast, and accurate tool for diagnosing portosystemic shunts with a 16-slice system.

Screening for PPAR Responsive Regulatory Modules in Cancer
Merja Hein niemi,Carsten Carlberg
PPAR Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/749073
Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have via their large set of target genes a critical impact on numerous diseases including cancer. Cancer development involves numerous regulatory cascades that drive the progression of the malignancy of the cells. On a genomic level, these pathways converge on regulatory modules, some of which contain colocalizing PPAR binding sites (PPREs). We developed an in silico screening method that incorporates experiment- and informatics-derived evidence for a more reliable prediction of PPREs and PPAR target genes. This method is based on DNA-binding data of PPAR subtypes to a panel of DR1-type PPREs and tracking the enrichment of binding sites from multiple species. The ability of PPAR to induce cellular differentiation and the existence of FDA-approved PPAR agonists encourage the exploration of possibilities to activate or inactivate PPRE containing modules to arrest cancer progression. Recent advances in genomic techniques combined with computational analysis of binding modules are discussed in the review with the example of our recent screen for PPREs on human chromosome 19.
Organic-Inorganic RF Composites with Enhanced Permittivity by Nanoparticle Additions
Merja Teirikangas;Jari Juuti;Heli Jantunen
PIER , 2011, DOI: 10.2528/PIER11022105
Abstract: Organic-inorganic thermoplastic composites offer a cost-effective material choice with tuneable dielectric properties for various telecom components and applications. Typically such composites require substantial loading of inorganics to obtain a feasible level of permittivity at RF frequencies dramatically decreasing mechanical ruggedness and increasing losses. In this paper we demonstrate utilization of nanoparticle phase in BaSrTiO-polypropylene-graft-poly (styrene-stat-divenylbenzene) composite to enhance the high frequency properties and overcome the problems associated with high filler loading. The effect of nanosize silicon, silver and AlO additives with different volume fractions in complex permittivity was investigated up to 1 GHz. Significant increase in the effective permittivity of the composites with all the additives was observe, especially in the case of the nanosized silver particles where only 2 vol.% addition was able to enhance ε by 52% without increasing the dielectric losses when compared to the reference sample.
At the Roots of Finnish Elementary Education – How Were Children Raised in the First Finnish Elementary Schools?
International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education , 2013,
Abstract: This study dissects the history of Finnish elementary education and the way children were raised during the initial phase of Finnish education in the 18th century. The development of Finnish education was studied through contemporary decrees and laws and studies of Finnish school history. The preliminary aim was to focus on the principles and practices of raising children in Finnish schools. This study focuses on (1) describing the birth, goals, and practices of Finnish elementary education and development toward compulsory education, (2) describing the way children were raised toward the contemporary goals, and (3) dissecting the connection between teacher training and the goals of raising children in Finnish schools. All these viewpoints are discussed from the viewpoint of how the aspirations and objectives were realized and implemented in practice in raising children. As a conclusion, we discuss the influence of the past in today’s educational practices.
Changes in Teacher Profession in Finland during the War Years 1939-1945
Satu Uusiautti,Merja Paksuniemi,Kaarina Maatta
Review of European Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/res.v5n1p88
Abstract: What happened in the Finnish society affected Finnish teacher training significantly. Teacher training was seen as the means and channel of influencing the whole nation. This study makes an interesting example of how macro level processes and procedures influence on a singular profession and how it was performed in practice. Simultaneously, it functions as an example of a national importance of professions. This study focused on teacher training during the war years in Finland and the change that took place in teacher training and consequently in teacher profession. This was a historical research aiming at drawing as a picture of the contemporary reality in the light of various data: archival sources and former student teachers’ (N=9) interviews and memoirs who were student teachers of the teacher training college of Tornio during the Second World War. As results, a practical description of the change is described and discussed. What makes teachers’ profession interesting, is that teachers were seen the professional educators of the whole nation, the future workforce, and by setting the example, they educated families, too. How the national purposes influenced teacher training and the contents of teachers’ professionalism are discussed.
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