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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 298209 matches for " Mercy J. Newman "
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Neonatal intensive care unit: Reservoirs of Nosocomial pathogens
Mercy J Newman
West African Journal of Medicine , 2002,
Abstract: Improvement in the care and treatment of neonates had contributed to their increased survival. Nosocomial infection remains an important problem in intensive care units. Hospital wards had been shown to act as reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms associated with infection. To assess the prevalence of pathogenic organisms in the environment of the neonatal unit, 92 swabs were randomly collected from cots, incubators and various equipments in the unit and were cultured on Blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. Air contamination was detected by exposing the same types of agar plates for 3 hours in several areas of the unit. After 48 hours incubation, isolates were identified biochemically. There is marked congestion in the unit. Ninety one percent of swabs yielded growth, with coagulase negative Staphylococcus being the predominant organism (44%), followed by Bacillus species (20%), E. coli (12.5%), and Klebsiella (8.5%), Pseudomonas species (3.6%) and moulds (3.6%). Sedimentation plates had colony counts of from 10 - 100 per plate and the majority of the cultures were polymicrobial cultures. The presence of various Gram-negative bacili including known neonatal pathogens (like E. Coli and Pseudomonas) especially on ward equipment and congestion in the ward has the potential to cause nosocomial infection.
Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profile of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Accra, Ghana
Stephen T. Odonkor,Mercy J. Newman,Kennedy K. Addo
Microbiology Research , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/mr.2012.e20
Abstract: Over the last four decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has spread throughout the world and become highly endemic in many geographical areas. This pathogen causes severe morbidity and mortality in hospitals worldwide. MRSA is also considered a major community acquired pathogen throughout the world. MRSA is implicated in serious clinical conditions such as bacteremia, pneumonia, and intra-abdominal infection. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MRSA in Accra, Ghana, and also to determine its antibiotic susceptibility profile. Two hundred and fifty Staphylococcus aureus isolates from routine microbiological specimens were collected from five hospitals in Accra. MRSA screening assay was used to screen for MRSA. Disc diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer) was used to determine the susceptibility of the MRSA. The MRSA screening assay, which is very close to the polymerase chain reaction in terms of specificity and sensitivity, showed that 84 of the 250 isolates were MRSA, giving a prevalence rate of 33.6%. MRSA strains were susceptible to erythromycin; 63 out of the 84 MRSA isolates were susceptible representing 75%. This was followed by gentamicin 46 (54.7%), cotrimoxazole 35 (49%), cefuroxime 33 (38%), flucloxacillin 24 (28.6%), and ampicillin 13 (15.5%). Penicillin 4 (4.8%) and tetracycline 6 (7.1%) were the least susceptible. The findings from this study emphasize the need for continual surveillance of MRSA and of antibiotic resistance in general.
First Nationwide Survey on the Resistance to First Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Ghana  [PDF]
Kennedy K. Addo, Richard Owusu, Christian Bonsu, Kwaku Owusu-Darko, Samuel O. Addo, Gloria I. Mensah, Mercy J. Newman, David Ofori-Adjei, Frank A. Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.61007
Abstract: Background/objective: A nationwide survey on the resistance to first line anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs was conducted in Ghana from 2007-2008 by Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research in collaboration with the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. We aimed to characterize mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and determine the resistance pattern to first line anti-TB drugs among newly diagnosed and previously treated PTB patients in Ghana. Methods: Two sputum samples from consented new smear positive PTB patients who had never been treated for TB or had been on anti-TB treatment for less than a month and patients who had been treated for TB previously for more than a month in selected diagnostic centres nationwide were collected for culture, identification and drug susceptibility test. Culture positive isolates were tested against streptomycin (S), isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R) and ethambutol (E) using the simplified proportion method and line probe assay (LPA). The LPA was performed in mid-2017. Results: Among 410 samples, 345 positive cultures were obtained and identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Of the 345 isolates, 133 were further differentiated by GenoType MTBC® as M. tuberculosis, 126 (94.7%) and M. africanum 7 (5.3%). The overall drug resistance patterns were as follows: 43/345 (12.5%), 6/345 (1.7%), 9/345 (2.6%) and 71/345 (20.6%) were resistant to H, R, E and S respectively and 5/345 (1.4%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Conclusion: The results indicate high levels of resistance to S and H among new and previously treated TB patients. We recommend adequate surveillance systems including periodic national anti-TB drug resistance surveys.
Quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli from Accra, Ghana
Sreela S Namboodiri, Japheth A Opintan, Rebeccah S Lijek, Mercy J Newman, Iruka N Okeke
BMC Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-44
Abstract: Forty (13.7%) of 293 E. coli isolates evaluated were nalidixic acid-resistant. Thirteen (52%) of 2006 and 2007 isolates and 10 (66.7%) of 2008 isolates were also resistant to ciprofloxacin. All but one of the quinolone-resistant isolates were resistant to three or more other antimicrobial classes. Sequencing the quinolone-resistance determining regions of gyrA and parC, which encode quinolone targets, revealed that 28 quinolone-resistant E. coli harboured a substitution at position 83 of the gyrA gene product and 20 of these isolates had other gyrA and/or parC substitutions. Horizontally-acquired quinolone-resistance genes qnrB1, qnrB2, qnrS1 or qepA were detected in 12 of the isolates. In spite of considerable overall diversity among E. coli from Ghana, as evaluated by multilocus sequence typing, 15 quinolone-resistant E. coli belonged to sequence type complex 10. Five of these isolates carried qnrS1 alleles.Quinolone-resistant E. coli are commonly present in the faecal flora of Accra residents. The isolates have evolved resistance through multiple mechanisms and belong to very few lineages, suggesting clonal expansion. Containment strategies to limit the spread of quinolone-resistant E. coli need to be deployed to conserve quinolone effectiveness and promote alternatives to their use.Following emergence of resistance to inexpensive broad-spectrum antimicrobials across much of Africa, quinolone antibacterials have recently been introduced and are widely used. West African studies that sought quinolone resistance in commensal or diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli before 2004 reported no or very low incidences of resistance to nalidixic acid and the fluoroquinolones [1-4]. Thus, available data suggests that resistance to the quinolones was rare in West Africa until the first decade of the 21st century. More recent anecdotal reports and surveillance studies point to emergence of quinolone resistance among enteric pathogens and faecal enteric bacteria in Ghana and elsewhe
Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Vibrio cholerae isolates in Ghana
Mercy J Newman, Patience Mensah, O Adjei, A Asamoah-Adu, Y Adu-Sarkodie, F Apeagyei
Ghana Medical Journal , 2004,
Abstract:
Regional Dissemination of a Trimethoprim-Resistance Gene Cassette via a Successful Transposable Element
Amy S. Labar, Jennifer S. Millman, Ellen Ruebush, Japheth A. Opintan, Rima A. Bishar, A. Oladipo Aboderin, Mercy J. Newman, Adebayo Lamikanra, Iruka N. Okeke
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038142
Abstract: Background Antimicrobial resistance is a growing international problem. We observed a 50% increase in the prevalence of trimethoprim resistance among fecal Escherichia coli from healthy Nigerian students between 1998 and 2005, a trend to increase that continued in 2009. Methods and Findings A PCR-based screen revealed that 131 (43.1%) of isolates obtained in Nigeria in 2005 and 2009 carried integron-borne dfrA cassettes. In the case of 67 (51.1%) of these isolates, the cassette was a class 1-integron-borne dfrA7 gene, which has been reported at high prevalence from E. coli isolates from other parts of Africa. Complete sequencing of a 27 Kb dfrA7-bearing plasmid from one isolate located the dfrA7 gene within a Tn21-type transposon. The transposon also contained an IS26-derived bla/sul/str element, encoding resistance to β-lactams, sulphonamides and streptomycin, and mercury resistance genes. Although the plasmid backbone was only found in 12 (5.8%) of trimethoprim-resistant isolates, dfrA7 and other transposon-borne genes were detected in 14 (16.3%) and 32 (26.3%) of trimethoprim resistant isolates collected in Nigeria in 2005 and 2009, respectively. Additionally, 37 (19.3%) of trimethoprim-resistant E. coli isolates collected between 2006 and 2008 from Ghana were positive for the dfrA7 and a transposon marker, but only 4 (2.1%) harbored the plasmid backbone. Conclusions Our data point to transposition as a principal mechanism for disseminating dfrA7 among E. coli from Nigeria and Ghana. On-going intensive use of the affordable broad-spectrum antibacterials is likely to promote selective success of a highly prevalent transposable element in West Africa.
Mini Mental Status Examination and the Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination: Effect of education and norms for a multicultural population
Newman J
Neurology India , 2007,
Abstract:
The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious HIV Prevention Interventions  [PDF]
Josefina J. Card, Emily N. Newman, Emily N. Newman, Rachel E. Golden, Tamara Kuhn, Carmela Lomonaco
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.31007
Abstract:

This paper describes the development, content, and capabilities of the online Global HIV Archive (GHA). With the goal of facilitating widespread adaptation and appropriate use of efficacious HIV prevention programs throughout the globe, GHA has: 1) expanded and updated the search for HIV prevention programs originating in low-resource countries; 2) identified those meritorious HIV prevention programs meeting established efficacy criteria of technical merit, replicability, and positive outcomes; 3) prepared both implementation and evaluation materials from the efficacious programs for public use; 4) developed interactive wizards or capacity-building tools to facilitate appropriate program selection, implementation, and adaptation; 5) made the efficacious programs and accompanying wizards available to health practitioners throughout the globe in both printed and online formats.

Nosocomial and Community Acquired Infections in Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra
M.J Newman
West African Journal of Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Nosocomial or hospital acquired infection has been recognized as a serious public health problem in the last twenty years. In most hospitals in Africa-South of the Sahara, although the types of community acquired infections are known, neither the magnitude, nor the common types of nosocomial infections has been documented. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to find the prevalence of hospital and community acquired infections in hospitals, and to estimate the overall prevalence of HAI and CAI in Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. METHODS: A one-day prevalence survey of nosocomial and community acquired infection in a tertiary-care hospital in Accra was performed using the 1980 British national protocol and the result was analyzed using computerized gargets. RESULTS: Of the 907 patients on admission (on the day of the study), 61 (6.7%) had hospital-acquired infection and 287 (31.6%) had community acquired infection. The commonest hospital acquired infection was wound infection followed by skin and lower respiratory infections. Of the community infections, the most common cases were lower respiratory and skin infections. Fifty-three percent of all patients were on antimicrobial treatment. Patients on metronidazole were 212 (44%), ampicillin/amoxicillin 199 (41.6%), cloxacillin 163 (34%) and gentamicin 135 (28%). Approximately 20% of patients were on three or more drugs. CONCLUSION: This study has shown that the prevalence of community acquired infections in our hospital is much higher than that from nosocomial infections and that the British national survey protocol can be used in countries with limited resources. WAJM 2009; 28(5): 300–303.
Metals releases and disinfection byproduct formation in domestic wells following shock chlorination
M. Walker ,J. Newman
Drinking Water Engineering and Science (DWES) & Discussions (DWESD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/dwes-4-1-2011
Abstract: Shock chlorination is used for rapid disinfection to control pathogens and nuisance bacteria in domestic wells. A typical shock chlorination procedure involves adding sodium hypochlorite in liquid bleach solutions to achieve concentrations of free chlorine of up to 200 mg L 1 in the standing water of a well. The change in pH and oxidation potential may bring trace metals from aquifer materials into solution and chlorine may react with dissolved organic carbon to form disinfection byproducts. We carried out experiments with four wells to observe and determine the persistence of increased concentrations of metals and disinfection byproducts. Water samples from shock chlorinated wells were analyzed for Pb, Cu, As, radionuclides and disinfection byproducts (haloacetic acids and trihalomethanes), immediately prior to treatment, after sufficient treatment time with chlorine had elapsed, and at intervals determined by the number of casing volumes purged, for up to four times the well casing volume. Elevated concentrations of lead and copper dissipated in proportion to free chlorine (measured semi-quantitatively) during the purging process. Trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids were formed in wells during disinfection. In one of two wells tested, disinfection byproducts dissipated in proportion to free chlorine during purging. However, one well retained disinfection byproducts and free chlorine after 4 WV had been purged. Although metals returned to background concentrations in this well, disinfection byproducts remained elevated, though below the MCL. This may have been due to well construction characteristics and interactions with aquifer materials. Simple chlorine test strips may be a useful method for indicating when purging is adequate to remove metals and disinfection by-products mobilized and formed by shock chlorination.
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