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Physiotherapy in Treating Sexual Pain Disorders in Women: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Mercedes Blanquet Rochera
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2016.63004
Abstract: Importance: A lot of women suffer from sexual disfunctions, which most of the times cause pain and discomfort. Many genito-pelvic pain disorders appear in the form of contractions or pelvic floor muscle tension, which makes any type of penetration (sexual, tampons, gynaecological examination tools) impossible. In this condition, a woman cannot control these muscle contractions and experiences moderate to intense pain. Objectives: To summarise published evidence on efficacy of physiotherapy for treating female sexual pain disorders, ways to evaluate the condition of a patient and to find the correct treatment. Evidence review: A literature search of Cochrane, PubMed, Journal of Sexual Medicine and Urogynecology Journal databases, SciELO, Google Scholar, Wiley Online Library and University of Barcelona Library was conducted. Findings: Physiotherapy techniques are used to strengthen pelvic floor muscles and relieve pain. Kegel exercises improve the symptoms of sexual pain disorders as they deal with weakened muscles. Vaginal cones exercises are used to strengthen the muscles by means of introduction of gradually increasing weights in the vagina. Biofeedback helps to increase muscle awareness and auto-evaluation of performed exercises. Thermotherapy relaxes muscles and increases elasticity of tissues which helps to reduce pain. Electro-stimulation improves the functionality of muscles. Myofascial therapy consists mainly in manual therapy and in liberating painful trigger points. Conclusions: The role of pelvic physiotherapy is to solve the problems related to sexual pain, recovering the pelvic floor by increasing muscle awareness and proprioception, improving muscle relaxation, toning the muscles and increasing the elasticity of the tissues in order to eliminate or reduce pain. Different exercise techniques, biofeedback, manual therapy and insertion techniques, as well as electro-stimulation and thermotherapy are used to achieve positive results.
Attitudes of University Students to Some Verbal Anti-Sexist Forms  [PDF]
Mercedes Bengoechea, José Simón
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.41008

After more than two decades of non-sexist linguistic policies in Spain, a survey was carried out to evaluate the positive or negative attitude of almost 500 students from two Madrid universities to the most controversial verbal forms advocated in Spanish non-sexist linguistic policies: 1) the use of @ (as in alumn@s [students]); 2) the use of dual gender (as in alumnos y alumnas [students- masc and students-fem]); 3) the use of feminine terms for some women’s professional titles and occupations (i.e. ingeniera [engineer-fem], bedela [caretaker-fem], arquitecta [architect-fem], médica [physician-fem], aparejadora [quantity surveyor-fem], gerenta [manager-fem], perita [ex- pert-fem], cancillera* [chancellor-fem]); 4) the use of non-sexed collective nouns (as in profeso- rado [teaching staff]). Our aims were to know to what degree these resources were accepted by highly-educated young people, whether differences exist between the attitudes of men and women with respect to these forms, and which of these uses was the best accepted and which the least. Various examples of these non-sexist uses were presented to university students, who were asked to make a pronouncement on the feeling which these gave them or whether they used them. Our study concluded that the @ symbol and collective nouns are widely accepted among the student community. The dual gender seems to be also accepted, although greater vacillation was seen and sometimes the levels of rejection or indifference are higher. Nevertheless, of the four uses studied, the one which appears to provoke the greatest hesitation, vacillation or even opposition is the use of the feminine for some names of professions. In general, the number of female students in favour of the four features studied exceeds the number of male students.

Computational Ecology: From the Complex to the Simple and Back
Mercedes Pascual
PLOS Computational Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0010018
Mujer, publicidad y consumo en Espa?a. Una aproximación diacrónica
Anagramas -Rumbos y sentidos de la comunicación- , 2011,
Abstract: in spain, advertising made transition of a survival society to a modern consumption society easier. the process took place during the last century and displayed two vital moments: a period between wars and the 60's. in both cases, the woman's role was vital, because women were used to promote consumption in the 20's and 30's and to consolidate consumption years later. this article is intended to analyze the circumstances around which spanish women became the main advertising promoters and the most important allies of consumption. the intention was to base modernity on women without taking into account resulting contradictions: women's education was totally behind and experimental psychology theories were observed keeping traditional ''clichés'' about women's role in society.
Aquisi??o da linguagem e habilidades cognitivas superiores: o papel da língua no desenvolvimento da cogni??o numérica
Marcilese, Mercedes;
Alfa : Revista de Linguística (S?o José do Rio Preto) , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1981-57942012000200009
Abstract: this paper investigates the possible relationship between language acquisition and the configuration of a sophisticated numerical cognition. we provide an introduction to one of the main theoretical perspectives with regard to human cognition development: the hypothesis of nuclear systems (spelke, 1992/2010), as well as a complete and updated overview of the studies on numerical cognition, including results of a recent survey conducted in brazil. it is assumed that language is responsible for the combination of representations provided by two basic systems for numerosity processing. one of these systems represents approximate quantities, while the other deals with the representation of small numbers processed through the identification of individuals in parallel. it is argued that - with regard to the concept of number, but also in a more general way - natural language has a special relevance in the integration of information, allowing the combination of lexical items associated with different kinds of non-verbal representations, therefore assisting in the expansion of the scope of concepts by children.
Patrimonio intangible e identidad: representaciones bolivianas en Olavarría, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Intersecciones en antropolog?-a , 2011,
Abstract: in this paper the construction of bolivian identity in olavarría, buenos aires province, argentina, is examined through the analysis of festivities as expressions of intangible cultural heritage. underlying processes of identity construction are analyzed, particularly as manifested in the annual celebration in honor of the virgen de copacabana, in order to understand how social actors set in motion elements of their heritage in such celebrations. these processes, far from being univocal, are permeated with present-day conflicts and a diversity of views about the past.
Infancia, significante en falta de significación
Minnicelli, Mercedes;
Educa??o em Revista , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-46982009000100010
Abstract: considering the term "childhood" as a "signifier always lacking signification" enables us to establish an argumentative network supported by the psychoanalytical discourse. according to giorgio agamben, childhood is related to language, and this is the starting point for the following thesis: childhood - as a signifier - stands for language as desire stands for law. it was, is and will be a signifier always in lack of signification, establishing itself by language and in the field of language. the statute of the subjective legality must be distinguished from the judicial code enabling the enactment of a possible tension between them. the meaning given to the term institution must be cleared up: it should be distinguished from the legal sense it has been given and still retains, proposing a retrieval of its value in terms of the writing of law as subjective constitution, an epistemic landmark raised by psychoanalysis.
Historia Crítica , 2010,
Abstract: at the turn of the twentieth century, spain experienced a social and intellectual conflict between catholics and those who believed in the separation of the church and state. in 1910, after 40 years of struggle, women were officially allowed to attend universities. this achievement placed them at the center of both of the above-mentioned currents of thought. each side supported the educational efforts of women as an essential component of their projects of political and social regeneration. this educational support, however, differed significantly from the role that they considered women should play in public life. based on a thorough study of the literature on the subject, this article shows that the formative project of both groups, as well as their initial assumptions, were very similar.
El uso de los instrumentos clásicos del marketing y la tecnología digital en turismo
Estudios y perspectivas en turismo , 2006,
Abstract: this paper presents an analysis of the interaction of classic and traditional instruments and the innovations or use of new information technologies in the process of product creation, promotion and price settings through the internet. it takes into account the classic factor of the marketing mix and its conduct in the traditional and modern marketing. special emphasis is made on the use of internet, the online tools and their applications to the tourism sector.
Nuevos modos de exposición y circulación de las imágenes fotográficas
Cuadernos del Centro de Estudios en Dise?±o y Comunicaci?3n. Ensayos , 2012,
Abstract: from the last decades of xxth century the circulation of photographies and art works has been modified substantially, generating a new way to approach this thematic as much from the theory as from the practice. this article presents those thematics linked to the photography nature; such as the audience-work relationship, the bonds between public and private and the glance of the audience like "an another" different from the creator.
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