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Comparison of the Kato-Katz, Wet Mount, and Formol-Ether Concentration Diagnostic Techniques for Intestinal Helminth Infections in Ethiopia
Mengistu Endris,Zinaye Tekeste,Wossenseged Lemma,Afework Kassu
ISRN Parasitology , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/180439
Abstract: Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational characteristics (sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV)) of wet mount, formol-ether concentration (FEC), and Kato-Katz techniques for the determination of intestinal parasitic infections. Method. A total of 354 faecal specimens were collected from students in Northwest Ethiopia and screened with Kato-Katz, wet mount, and FEC for the presence of intestinal parasitic infection. Since a gold standard test is not available for detection of intestinal parasites, the combined results from the three methods were used as diagnostic gold standard. Result. The prevalences of intestinal parasites using the single wet mount, FEC, and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques were 38.4%, 57.1%, and 59%, respectively. Taking the combined results of three techniques as a standard test for intestinal parasitic infection, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of Kato-Katz is 81.0% (confidence interval (CI)?=?0.793–0.810) and 66.2% (CI?=?0.63–0.622), respectively. The FEC detected 56 negative samples that were positive by the gold standard, indicating 78.3% (CI?=?0.766–0.783) and 63.2% (CI?=?0.603–63) sensitivity and NPV, respectively. Furthermore, Kato-Katz detects 113 cases that were negative by a single wet mount. The agreement between the wet mount and Kato-Katz methods for the diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm was substantial ( for Ascaris lumbricoides, for hookworm). 1. Background Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections worldwide. It is estimated that 3.5 billion people are affected, and 450 million are ill as a result of these infections, the majority being children [1]. In Ethiopia, intestinal parasitic infection is the second most predominant cause of outpatient morbidity. However, there are difficulties in estimating the exact burden of parasitic infections in the country [2]. Although there are several factors that make estimating the number and burden of intestinal parasitic infections difficult, lack of accurate diagnostic tools is the major one [3–9]. Although several diagnostic methods such as Kato-Katz and Formol-Ether Concentration (FEC) techniques are available, direct wet mount is the commonly used as a reliable diagnosis method for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections generally in Africa and particularly in Ethiopia [10–13]. However, low sensitivity of the direct wet mount technique has been reported in the detection of low-intensity infection elsewhere [14]. This shows that the use of direct wet mount as a confirmatory test
Malaria, Typhoid Fever, and Their Coinfection among Febrile Patients at a Rural Health Center in Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Meseret Birhanie,Belay Tessema,Getachew Ferede,Mengistu Endris,Bamlaku Enawgaw
Advances in Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/531074
Abstract: Background. Malaria and typhoid fever are major public health problems in tropical and subtropical countries. People in endemic areas are at risk of contracting both infections concurrently. Objectives. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of malaria, typhoid, and their coinfection among febrile patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 febrile patients suspected for malaria and/or typhoid fever from April to May, 2013, at Ayinba Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected for blood culture, Widal test, and blood film preparation. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Results. The prevalence of malaria was 36.5% (). Among these 32 (43.8%), 30 (41.1%) and 11 (15.1%) were positive for P. falciparum, P. vivax, and mixed infections, respectively. The seroprevalence of typhoid fever was 38 (19%), but 1 (0.5%) with blood culture. Malaria typhoid fever coinfection was 13 (6.5%). 2–5-year-old children and poor hand washing habit were significantly associated with malaria and typhoid infection, respectively (). Conclusions. The prevalence of malaria and typhoid fever was found high. Further studies should be done on the other determinants of malaria and typhoid fever coinfection in different seasons and different study areas. 1. Introduction Malaria is one of the febrile illnesses and the most common fatal disease in the world caused by one or more species of plasmodium. These are Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium knowlesi. Approximately half of the world population is at risk of malaria. Most of malaria cases and deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. According to the World malaria report 2011, there were about 216 million cases of malaria and an estimated 655,000 deaths in 2010 [1]. Malaria is the most communicable disease in Ethiopia and it accounts for about 30% of the overall disability adjusted life years lost. Approximately 68% (54.2 million) of the total population of 78 million lives in malaria risk areas. P. falciparum and P. vivax are the dominant species of malaria in Ethiopia, with 60% and 40% relative frequencies, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum is a predominant species in endemic areas and causes complicated disease and death in the country [2]. Typhoid fever (enteric fever) is a systemic prolonged febrile illness caused by certain Salmonella serotypes. Salmonella enterica serotype typhi (S. typhi) and Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi (S. paratyphi A, S. paratyphi B, and S.
Shigella Bacteremia in a Patient with Visceral Leishmaniasis
Mengistu Endris,Rezika Mohammed,Yegnasew Takele,Desalegn Woldeyohannes,Moges Tiruneh,Ermias Diro
Case Reports in Critical Care , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/920729
Abstract: Bacteremia due to Shigella is rare. A 26-year-old HIV-negative male presented with a persistent high-grade fever of two months duration to the Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Center of University of Gondar Hospital. He was anorexic and had lost significant weight (from 76 to 57?kg in 4 months, BMI = 17.2?kg/m2). He also complained of headache, chills, and rigor. In the last one year, he was experiencing a few episodes of acute bloody diarrhea, the last episode being two months ago. Microscopy from splenic aspiration showed Leishman-Donovan bodies with parasite load of +3. The blood culture showed Shigella species, but the stool was culture negative. The isolate was sensitive to most tested antibiotic discs, sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, tetracycline, and norfloxacilin, except ampicillin. Therefore, requesting blood culture for identifying unexpected type of organisms causing infections in patients with underlying diseases like visceral leishmaniasis should be encouraged. 1. Introduction Bacteremia due to Shigella is rare. Shigella is a gram-negative, nonmotile facultative anaerobe that causes infection typically confined to the gastrointestinal tract [1]. The disease is mediated by enterotoxin and manifests with acute bloody diarrhea and fever often occurring in an outbreak due to contamination of water [2]. There are few reports of Shigella causing meningitis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis mostly in neonates, malnourished children, and immuno compromised hosts [3–8]. It is highly likely that such kind of infection be missed and associated with high risk of death. Shigella rarely invades the bloodstream and results in septic shock. Macrophages not only fail to kill Shigella bacteria that they phagocytize, but also are killed by them [1]. Due to overlapping manifestations of sepsis, blood culture is not a routine examination in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. To the best of our knowledge, Shigella bacteremia was not reported in patients with VL in Ethiopia. Here we report a case of Shigella bacteriemia in a patient with VL. 2. Case Description 2.1. Clinical Presentation A 26-year-old male presented with a persistent high-grade fever of two months duration to the Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Center of University of Gondar Hospital. He was anorexic and had lost significant weight (from 76 to 57?kg in 4 months). He also complained of headache, chills, and rigor. In the last one year, he was experiencing some acute episodes of bloody diarrhea, the last episode being two months ago. He was treated with unspecified medications at a
Changing Trends in Prevalence and Antibiotics Resistance of Uropathogens in Patients Attending the Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
Moges Tiruneh,Sisay Yifru,Mucheye Gizachew,Kassie Molla,Yeshambel Belyhun,Feleke Moges,Mengistu Endris
International Journal of Bacteriology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/629424
Abstract: Background. In most hospitals of developing countries, urinary tract infections are treated empirically because of lack of culture facilities. This leads to emergence of multiresistant uropathogens. Culturing and drug susceptibility testing are essential to guide therapy. Objectives. To assess changing prevalence and resistance pattern of uropathogens to commonly used antibiotics in a two-year study period. Methods. Urine specimens were collected and cultured. Uropathogens were identified by standard methods and tested for antibiotics resistance. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical sofware. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The commonest isolates in both the previous and present studies were E. coli, Klebsiella, CoNS, S. aureus, Proteus, and Citrobacter species. Previous isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, whereas present isolates developed 31% to 60% resistance to it. Previous isolates were less resistant to gentamycin than the present ones. Multiresistance isolates were predominant in present study than previous ones. Conclusion. E. coli was predominant in the two study periods. Present isolates were more resistant than previous ones. Some previous isolates were 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, whereas present isolates were increasingly resistant. Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin have been recommended for empiric treatment of urinary tract infections. 1. Background Urinary tract infection is one of the commonest bacterial infections encountered in daily clinical practice [1]. It has been estimated that worldwide about 150 million people suffer from asymptomatic and symptomatic UTIs each year [2]. In most parts of the sub-Saharan Africa, as well as in other developing parts of the world, UTI is among the most common health problems occurring both in the community and hospitalized patients [3]. Since the last two to three decades, just as many community and hospital acquired bacterial infections, UTIs due to multidrug resistant uropathogens have caused a growing concern worldwide [1, 4–6]. Investigators [1, 7, 8] explained that the drug resistance problem in Africa stems from factors like indiscriminate use of antibiotics, inappropriate advertisement, and erratic prescription by unqualified drug sellers. Since the previous two decades, the problem of UTIs due to uropathogens resistant to the commonly used antibiotics was reported by many authors in Ethiopia in general and in Gondar region in particular [1, 9–12]. Consequently, the prevalence of urinary tract pathogens and
Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Associated Risk Factors among People Living with HIV at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
Dagnachew Muluye,Yitayih Wondimeneh,Yeshambel Belyhun,Feleke Moges,Mengistu Endris,Getachew Ferede,Gashaw Yitayew,Digsu Negese
ISRN Tropical Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/123858
Abstract: Background. Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite and is a major opportunistic pathogen in immune-compromised hosts. This study assessed the prevalence of T. gondii and associated risk factors among people living with HIV. Methods and Materials. A cross-sectional study was carried out among people living with HIV attending Gondar University Hospital. A structured and pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic factors, and 10mL of venous blood was collected for anti-Toxoplasma antibody test and determination of CD4 levels. Serum was tested in duplicate for anti-Toxoplasma antibody using rapid slide agglutination test. Results. A total of 170 study subjects were enrolled in the study. Seroprevalence of T. gondii among the study participants was 76.5% (95% CI: 69.0–82.8). High proportions of seropositive individuals (64.7%) were found under the child bearing age groups. The mean CD4+ lymphocyte count of HIV monoinfected participants was cells/mm3 while coinfected study participants had mean CD4+ lymphocyte count of cells/mm3 with value of 0.01. Conclusion. The seroprevalence of T. gondii among people living with HIV was high. Cautious followup of HIV-positive patients is needed to prevent development of toxoplasmic encephalitis and other related complications. 1. Introduction Toxoplasma gondii??is an obligate intracellular protozoan of worldwide distribution and is a major opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised hosts. Infection is mainly acquired by ingestion of food, water or soil that is contaminated with oocysts shed by cats or by eating undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts [1]. Toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS is usually the result of reactivation of latent infection. In HIV-positive people, without previous exposure to T. gondii, the acute infection could not be well controlled and in these susceptible hosts a wide range of infections is expected [2]. Toxoplasmosis occurs mostly in brain that is the frequent clinical finding [3, 4] even in patients with latent toxoplasmosis. Seroprevalence varies greatly in geographical regions within a country and within different ethnic groups according to different environments, social customs, and habits of different populations [5, 6]. There is wide geographic variation in the prevalence of latent Toxoplasma infection. Studies from Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Africa have reported a range of prevalence estimates of 30%–75% and prevalence estimates from US studies have had a range of 3%–42% [7, 8]. Worldwide prevalence rate of latent Toxoplasma
Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia
Abraraw Abate,Biniam Kibret,Eylachew Bekalu,Sendeku Abera,Takele Teklu,Aregawi Yalew,Mengistu Endris,Ligabaw Worku,Zinaye Tekeste
ISRN Parasitology , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/757451
Abstract: Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in this study was 62.3%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite (23.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (12.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.6%), Schistosoma mansoni (8.9%), hookworm (6.6%), Hymenolepis nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.2%). Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was shown to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection ( for both). Furthermore, swimming and less shoe wearing habits showed a significant prevalence of S. mansoni and hookworm infections, respectively. Conclusion. The present study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in the study area. Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was found to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Therefore, there is a need for integrated control programme to have a lasting impact on transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. 1. Background The intestinal parasites can be protozoan or helminth living within the body. Generally, these parasites are more common in tropics and subtropics than elsewhere in the world [1, 2]. It is closely associated with low income, poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation, lack of pure water supply, limited access to clean water, tropical climate, and low altitude [1, 2]. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura are among the most common parasites in the world [2]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, there are 800–1000 million A. lumbricoides, 700–900 million Hookworm infections, 500 millions T. trichiura, 200 million Giardia intestinalis, and 500 million E. histolytica/dispar cases globally [3]. Despite recent effort to control intestinal parasite infections, the diseases are still the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world [2]. In Ethiopia, intestinal parasitic infections are the major causes of mortality and morbidity causing a series of public health problems such as malnutrition, anaemia, and growth retardation as well as higher
Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in Northwest Ethiopia
Bemnet Amare, Jemal Ali, Beyene Moges, Gizachew Yismaw, Yeshambel Belyhun, Simon Gebretsadik, Desalegn Woldeyohannes, Ketema Tafess, Ebba Abate, Mengistu Endris, Desalegn Tegabu, Andargachew Mulu, Fusao Ota, Bereket Fantahun, Afework Kassu
BMC Pediatrics , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-13-7
Abstract: A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer’s instruction.A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1?±?2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117–2076, n?=?80) and 610 IU/ml (143–1833, n?=?20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z?=??0.198, P?>?0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy.The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this population. In addition, there was no significant association between the prevalence of allergy and their nutritional status, and parasite infection. Further research prospective observational and intervention studies are required to address the question of causality between nutritional factors, parasites, and allergy.According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 2 billion people are affected by helminthic infection worldwide [1]. These infections are responsible for high levels of morbidity and mo
Farmers' perception and knowledge on climate change and their coping strategies to the related hazards: case study from Adiha, central Tigray, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Dejene K. Mengistu
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.22020
Abstract: Climate change adversely affects Ethiopian economy due to heavy dependence of the agricultural sector on rainfall. A decrease of rainfall and rise in temperature has been increasing the exposure of the country to frequent drought. The study was conducted in central Tigray, Adiha tabia, to examine the perception of farmers on trends of climate changes and existing coping strategies. Farmers’ knowledge of various adaptation strategies, drought early warning system and weather forecasting were assessed using focus group discussion (FGD), which consisted of 144 systematically sampled respondents. Temperature is rising while precipitation is declining from time to time. Untimely rain and frequent drought are challenging crop production in the area. Drought is perceived, both by male and female respondents, as the primary climate related hazard which is occurring frequently and affecting their livelihood. Individual’s vulnerability to this hazard varies based on their hazard coping capacity. Lack of modern early warning systems, inflexible cropping calendar and narrow choice of crop varieties should aggravates the vulnerability. Hence, improving forecasting and dissemination of climate information, developing drought resistant varieties and promoting farm-level adaptation measures like use of irrigation technologies and adjusting planting dates should be prioritized to improve community resilience to climate change.
Assessment of commercial feedlot finishing practices at eastern Shoa, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tsegay Teklebrhan, Mengistu Urge
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.34041
Abstract: This study was conducted to characterize and identify husbandry practice and major constraints of commercial feedlot industries in the study area. Forty eight commercial feedlot farms were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The results showed that, livestock species such as cattle, shoat and camels were used in commercial fattening though significant variation in demand among species. Cattle had got the highest acceptance in feedlot industries followed by shoat, however, camel and swine had least preference. All cattle breeds were granted equal requirement by domestic market. However, there is variation in demand among cattle breeds for export market. Boran was the most preferred cattle breed compared to the rest of cattle by the importers. Uncastrated bull demanded for export market however, castrated and female cattle were not used for export markets. Pastoralists were the potential supplier of feeder livestock followed by small holders to feedlot industries. Teff straw was predominantly used roughage feed in most of commercial feedlot farms and agro-industrial by-products as a source of concentrate. However, sorghum and maize grains were utilized by very few farms. Vitamin and mineral supplementation were not often available except common salt in all feedlot rations. Market was noted as the most potential constraints followed by feed and type of livestock coming to the markets in the commercial feedlot industries. The study suggested that, government and other development partners should provide and improve all services to pastoralists or producers in an organized way at their localities to ensure sustainable supply of livestock to the market.
Woody Species Diversity and Structure of Agroforestry and Adjacent Land Uses in Dallo Mena District, South-East Ethiopia  [PDF]
Bikila Mengistu, Zebene Asfaw
Natural Resources (NR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2016.710044
Abstract: Sustainable farming practice that utilizes and conserves biodiversity, reducing negative impacts of agriculture on biodiversity and provides wood and energy to local community is a good solution to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. This study was carried out in Dallo Mena district of Bale zone to identify woody species diversity in homegarden agroforestry practices, shade grown coffee agroforestry practices and adjacent natural forest, and to show how land use and management practice determine the plant species diversity. The study site was selected based on spatial analogue approach. In each land use, a plots of 10 m × 10 m size was drown by using systematic sampling method following the transect line. A total of 36 sample plots were sampled along the transect line laid down inside each land uses. In each plot, woody species were counted and the diameter and height of trees and shrubs were measured. Based on this inventory a total of 39 woody plant species which are about 23, 10, 15 woody plant species were recorded from natural forest, shade grown coffee agroforestry and homegarden agroforestry practices respectively. These species were classified belonging to 24 families. The Shannon Wiener diversity index used to estimate species diversity ranged from 0.14 to 2.54 with a mean of 1.47. Also 21% woody species similarities were observed between those three land uses. The result shows that both agroforestry practices (shade grown coffee and home garden agroforestry practices) and adjacent natural forests are conserving several woody species diversity in its system.
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