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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4835 matches for " Memory "
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Memory Strength and Criterion Shift in the False Memory Paradigm: A Learning Case  [PDF]
Shahid Naved, Ameer Haider Ali, Khubaib Ahmed Qureshi
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23033
Abstract: The attempt has been made to investigate the criterion shift hypothesis once again by re-evaluating the confi-dence measurement, which will possibly clarify the role that criterion shifts play in the false memory phenome-non (recollection of an event, or the details of an event, that did not occur). Literature review shows that this hypothesis still needs research upon the same topic. The study was experimental in which students of Hamdard University were selected as subjects - 40 students from BBA and MBA programs. Both male/female and left/right handed subjects participated. All the subjects were not native English speakers. The experiment was conducted using a computer program to collect the data. The experiment had two parts, firstly a study/recall phase and secondly a test/recognition phase. The scale we introduced to allow participants to assess their own certainty about the classification of recognition items is more detailed than that used in the Roediger and McDermott study. Our hypothesis was that a shift in decision criterion would become evident by means of a lower certainty measure for lure words as compared to target words from the lists. This difference was found in our data. The mean certainty measure we found for the critical lures is significantly lower than the mean cer-tainty for the targets.
A Brief Report Investigating Subjective and Objective Memory Pre- and Post-Memory Training in 70- to 96-Year-Old Individuals with Mild Memory Deficit  [PDF]
Peter A. Magaro, Bruce Brotter, Mariyam Jalees
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2015.44013
Abstract: Subjective memory impairment is a major complaint among older adults; however, research is conflicting regarding the relationship between subjective memory impairment and objectively measured memory loss. Here, individuals with mild memory impairment completed the memory subscale of the Cognistat as a measure of objective memory, and the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MCQ) as a measure of subjective memory, prior to and following a 3-month memory training program. Results revealed that individuals with more, compared with fewer, memory complaints performed worse on the Cognistat. Additionally, increased Cognistat performance fol-lowing the memory training procedure was associated with decreased MCQ measured complaints. There was suggestive evidence that the memory training procedure improved memory, and thus future research is warranted. These findings imply that older, memory-impaired, adults, despite their memory impairment, are indeed able to judge, and may be accurately concerned with, the extent of their own memory loss. It should be noted that serious statistical limitations here indicate the need for replication to confirm the validity of the findings.
Cognitive Demand and Reminders Effect on Time-Based Prospective Memory in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment (AMCI) and in Healthy Elderly  [PDF]
Olimpia Pino, Francesca Poletti, Paolo Caffarra
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2013.21007

Individuals with-Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) often complain of difficulty remembering to carry out intended actions. We investigated the relative efficacy of a different reminder in performing a time-based Prospective Memory (PM) task. The PM performance of 24 participants with amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment (AMCI) has been compared with that of 24 healthy controls. As ongoing task, samples of the Attentive Matrices Test were used. In the PM task subjects were requested to write an “X” every three minutes during a 9 minutes period. Participants received the task consisting either in a low demand condition (checking number “5”) or in a high demand condition (checking numbers “1”, “4”, “9”). In order to be as punctual as possible, participants were asked to simultaneously write the “X” at task time expiration, using a digital clock. Time monitoring was recorded. Reminder occurring was manipulated in that participants could receive critical, accidental or completely absent reminder. As expected, high cognitive demand was negatively correlated with PM performance and time monitoring. Unexpectedly, all the participants did not benefit from the critical reminder. These findings demonstrated, from a behavioral perspective, that Working Memory (WM) and PM processes are not based on the same memory system and PM may require WM resources at high demand.

Corrosion Behavior of Cu-Zn-Ni Shape Memory Alloys  [PDF]
S. Sathish, U. S. Mallik, T. N. Raju
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2013.12010

Four shape memory alloys of Cu-Zn-Ni, in the range of 35-55 wt% of Cu, 43-60 wt% Zn and 2-9 wt% Ni, were prepared by ingot metallurgy route in an induction furnace under an inert atmosphere. The shape memory effect was tested by bend test. The alloys were further tested for its corrosion behavior in fresh water, Hank’s solution and sea water. From the results it was observed that the alloys exhibit high corrosion resistance in fresh water when compared to Hank’s solution and sea water. And it was also observed that the alloys exhibit better corrosion resistance in Hank’s solution than in sea water.

Application of the Zhe Yin’s Gene Inherits Law  [PDF]
Zhe Yin, Yunfei Guo
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2014.46041
Abstract: Several results are provided using gene inherits law in another article [1], making use of the theory of algebra in mathematics, according to which we derive, which will give some reference value to genetics.
A Twenty-Year Follow-up Case Study of an Office Worker Who Returned to Work despite Serious Memory Disorder Caused by Herpes Encephalitis  [PDF]
Mitsuko Nakano, Nobuo Miyashita, Kazutaka Tanabe, Takeshi Yamamoto
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.24059
Abstract: This study followed a 52-year-old male patient, who had suffered from severe impairment in recent memory due to se- quelae of herpes encephalitis, for 20 years. He returned to his highly intellectual work and performed well despite his doctor’s prediction. While the patient showed consistently poor results on various neuropsychological memory tests, he demonstrated incredible performance at work. This case exemplifies an extreme case that declarative memory is formed with the support of semantic memory, procedural memory, and his strong interests. Additionally, it offers lessons that results on memory tests do not necessarily correspond to the actual level of competence. The focal sites were found on both sides of the medial temporal lobe, predominantly on the left side. The T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) obtained 9 years after the onset confirmed widespread damage to the left brain including parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, spindle gyrus, and amygdaloid complex, with microlesions extending from the right parahippocampal gyrus to its antero-interior rim. However, the damage to hippocampus was presumed to be minor.
Working Memory and Distraction: Performance Differences between College Students with and without ADHD  [PDF]
Tabitha W. Payne, Noah B. Z. Steege
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.47A2007

The goal of this study was to examine potential deficits in working memory capacity for college students that had a diagnosis of ADHD. College students with ADHD may be a particularly vulnerable group of individuals, given that success on academic work required focus and working memory for a variety of problem solving activities. Performance on these assessments involved controlled processing with simultaneous memory load. Both verbal and visual complex span tasks were used to assess working memory. Additionally, students were all administered with the Brown ADD scale in order to examine self-reported issues with distractibility. Results revealed that ADHD students performed significantly lower on the verbal complex span measure of working memory. No differences in reported inattentiveness were found. Findings were discussed in context of varying task demands in working memory and executive function measures.

Effects of Age on the Disruption of Cognitive Performance by Exposure to Space Radiation  [PDF]
Bernard M. Rabin, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Kirsty L. Carrihill-Knoll
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.47031
Abstract: Exposure to low doses of heavy particles and protons, which will be encountered during long-term exploratory class missions to other planets, can cause deficits in cognitive performance. These deficits are similar to those observed in aged animals. The long-term effects of such exposures and their relationship to the short-term effects and to aging remain to be established. Two-month old rats were exposed to a variety of heavy particles and protons. Recognition memory was tested at two time points following irradiation. The results showed that exposure to doses of radiation that did not disrupt cognitive performance in the younger animals, disrupted performance when the subjects were re-tested at an older age. These results indicate that there is an interaction between the age of the organism and the effects of exposure to space radiation on cognitive performance, such that exposure to doses of heavy particles or protons that may not produce an initial effect on cognitive performance may produce an effect as the organism ages. Because of the interaction between exposure to the types of radiation encountered in space and age, it is possible that participating in exploratory class missions may have consequences for the quality of life after the conclusion of the mission.
The Impact of Memory Load on Customer Choice Behavior  [PDF]
Hao-Te Lu, Tso-Jen Chen, Yi-Chou Wang
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.29041

There are only limited things that human brain can process at the same time, and people are adapted to save mental resources for things that are more important. Earlier research has shown that heuristics is employed to lighten brain load when people have to make quick decisions. However, it is not clear whether people will make rational choices if they have plenty of time. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether mental resources more or less will affect consumer behavior. In the experiment feeling/thinking (intuition vs. rational), working memory load (numbers memorization), will be employed to understand participants’ changing behaviors.

Working Memory and Functional Neuroimaging in Patients with Depression  [PDF]
Chaoqun Chen, Jian Chen, Liangtie Dai
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.612140
Abstract: Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients suffering from depression present impairment in working memory. This paper firstly introduced the concept of working memory, and then elucidated the deficits of working memory of patients with depression. It also reviewed the neuroimaging studies of working memory in patients with depression. In the final part, we further summarized the future research orientations. In short, exploration of working memory on the regulative mechanisms of depression and figuring out that working memory impairment is the cause or the result of depressive symptoms will be the core problem that the future research needs to address.
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