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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402970 matches for " Melissa M. Bunting "
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Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Remodelling Effects of ISU201, a Modified Form of the Extracellular Domain of Human BST2, in Experimental Models of Asthma: Association with Inhibition of Histone Acetylation
Cristan Herbert, Alexander M. Shadie, Melissa M. Bunting, Nicodemus Tedla, Linda Garthwaite, Araluen Freeman, Hyouna Yoo, Sang-Ho Park, Rakesh K. Kumar
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090436
Abstract: There are few alternatives to glucocorticosteroids for treatment of asthma. We assessed the activity of a novel protein drug designated ISU201, the extracellular domain of the human cell surface protein BST2, stabilised by fusion with the Fc region of IgG, in mouse models of mild chronic asthma and an acute exacerbation of asthma. The ability of ISU201 to suppress airway inflammation and remodelling was compared with that of dexamethasone. Female BALB/c mice were systemically sensitised with ovalbumin, then received controlled low-level challenge with aerosolised ovalbumin for 6 weeks, which induced lesions of mild chronic asthma, and were treated with drugs during the final 2 weeks. Alternatively, sensitised mice received 4 weeks of chronic low-level challenge and were treated 24 and 2 hours before a final single moderate-level challenge, which triggered acute airway inflammation simulating an asthmatic exacerbation. Inflammation and remodelling were quantified, as was the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and tissues. To identify cellular targets of ISU201, we assessed the effects of the drug on activated lymphocytes, macrophages and airway epithelial cells. In the model of mild chronic asthma, ISU201 was as effective as dexamethasone in suppressing airway inflammation and most changes of remodelling. In the model of an allergen-induced acute exacerbation of chronic asthma, ISU201 was also an effective anti-inflammatory agent, although it was less active than dexamethasone. The drug acted on multiple cellular targets, suppressing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by lymphocytes and macrophages. ISU201 significantly reduced acetylation of histone H4 in airway epithelial cells, suggesting at least one potential mechanism of action. We conclude that in these models of asthma, ISU201 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of both airway inflammation and remodelling. Thus, unlike drugs which target specific mediators, it could potentially be an alternative or an adjunct to glucocorticoids for the treatment of asthma.
The use of a model current wedge in the determination of the position of substorm current systems
M. Cramoysan,R. Bunting,D. Orr
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: We present a technique for determination of the position and extent of the current systems present during substorm breakup. The parameters of a three-dimensional model of the currents are determined by fitting the model to data from the SAMNET magnetometer array, a midlatitude array of seven stations. The model used is a fully 3D current wedge aligned along dipolar field lines, the parameters being the meridians of upward and downward field-aligned currents (FACs), the latitude of the auroral electrojet and the magnitude of current growth over the observation interval. The method is novel in that the three geometrical parameters are first determined with the fourth arrived at via a secondary process. It has been applied to a number of events and appears to make estimates of the longitudes of the FACs consistent with the predictions of previous methods. Since the method employs a fully 3D model of the substorm current wedge as opposed to an idealised 2D model, it is reasonable to place more reliance on the results so obtained. Moreover, the method also has the additional benefit of a prediction of the latitude of the substorm electrojet and the nature of the current growth through the wedge at substorm onset.
Encoding of emotion-paired spatial stimuli in the rodent hippocampus
Rebecca Nalloor,Kristopher M. Bunting,Almira Vazdarjanova
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2012.00027
Abstract: Rats can acquire the cognitive component of CS-US associations between sensory and aversive stimuli without a functional basolateral amygdala (BLA). Thus, other brain regions should support such associations. Some septal/dorsal CA1 (dCA1) neurons respond to both spatial stimuli and footshock, suggesting that dCA1 could be one such region. We report that, in both dorsal and ventral hippocampus, different neuronal ensembles express immediate-early genes (IEGs) when a place is experienced alone vs. when it is associated with foot shock. We assessed changes in the size and overlap of hippocampal neuronal ensembles activated by two behavioral events using a cellular imaging method, Arc/Homer1a catFISH. The control group (A-A) experienced the same place twice, while the experimental group (A-CFC) received the same training plus two foot shocks during the second event. During fear conditioning, A-CFC, compared to A-A, rats had a smaller ensemble size in dCA3, dCA1, and vCA3, but not vCA1. Additionally, A-CFC rats had a lower overlap score in dCA1 and vCA3. Locomotion did not correlate with ensemble size. Importantly, foot shocks delivered in a training paradigm that prevents establishing shock-context associations, did not induce significant Arc expression, rejecting the possibility that the observed changes in ensemble size and composition simply reflect experiencing a foot shock. Combined with data that Arc is necessary for lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory, the data suggests that Arc/H1a+ hippocampal neuronal ensembles encode aspects of fear conditioning beyond space and time. Rats, like humans, may use the hippocampus to create integrated episodic-like memory during fear conditioning.
Audit of appendicectomies at Frere Hospital
AD Rogers, MI Hampton, M Bunting, AK Atherstone
South African Journal of Surgery , 2008,
Abstract: Objective. We sought to evaluate the surgical service in the central part of the Eastern Cape Province by reviewing the practice of appendicectomy at Frere Hospital. Specifically, it was our aim to compare the service to those patients who reside in and outside the East London metropolitan area and the outcomes of patients according to their operative finding. Patients and methods. A retrospective study was performed on the medical records of all patients who underwent appendicectomy in a 26-month period. This entailed a thorough review of demographic factors, mode of presentation, operation factors and findings, and the postoperative course. Results. In the study period, 436 appendicectomies were performed, of which 81% were performed after hours, with a consultant surgeon present in only 6% of cases. Of the group, 51% had a perforated appendix at surgery, and 12% a normal appendix. There was a significantly increased risk of perforation at the extremes of age and in patients from outside East London (63% v. 35% in East London). Those with perforated appendices stayed an average of 7.3 days in hospital, compared with 5 days for those with earlier appendicitis. Of the perforated group, 21% developed a complication, with 86% of all complications occurring in this group. The hospital stays were longer in those perforated appendices that were drained (10.7 days v. 6.1 days), and the rate of complications higher in this subgroup. Four patients died (1%) – all in the perforated group. Discussion. The perforation rate in our setting is significantly higher than other published results. Patients with perforated appendices have longer hospital stays and are more likely to develop significant complications, including re-operation. Patients from outside East London, males and those at the extremes of age are more likely to have perforated appendices. This study lends little support to the advocates of drains, and recommends the use of non-absorbable sutures for skin closure. The majority of procedures are performed after hours by medical officers and registrars, but there is no evidence to suggest that this practice be altered, particularly in light of the high perforation rate. The main factor identified as contributing to the huge discrepancy between perforation rates (and hence morbidity) is delay in presentation to the operating surgeon for the region. Patient factors may contribute, but service factors are regarded as significant, including poor access to clinics and hospitals, transport and ambulance services, and the expertise of the referring medical staff. The need to improve the quality of patient care in the under-serviced rural areas of the Eastern Cape is highlighted. South African Journal of Surgery Vol. 46 (3) 2008: pp. 74-78
Examining the Coping Response to Peer Relational Aggression Victimization
Melissa M. Gomes
Nursing Research and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/473980
Abstract: Purpose. Relational aggression, rumor spreading, backstabbing, and social isolation, is psychologically damaging for adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to provide an explanation of victimization response after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization. Methods. Grounded theory techniques were used to gain an understanding of the victimization experience and the coping responses used. Findings. A theory of coping after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization was generated. Girls voiced feelings of hurt and anger after the experience and expressed the following ways of coping as a result: distancing from others, retaliation against the aggressor, discussing their feelings with friends and family, writing their feelings down, and/or confronting the aggressor. Clinical Implications. Nurses should be aware of the phenomenon and asses, for incidences of relational aggression victimization so that they may provide strategies to assist the adolescent and her family with positive coping mechanisms in order to prevent maladaptive responses. 1. Introduction Relational aggression, rumor spreading, backstabbing, and social isolation, is recognized as a violent act and is no longer considered a normal part of growing up. Research has indicated the experience of peer (girl-girl) relational aggression—whether from the standpoint of the perpetrator or the victim—as detrimental, resulting in serious consequences for those involved [1–4], indicating that it reverberates in a manner similar to physical aggression. Although relational aggression victimization is experienced by both boys and girls [5], it is a psychosocial experience that damages what matters most to girls, which is a connection to the peer group [6]. As an aspect of the bullying phenomena, it seeks to damage peer relationships through rejection, isolation, and character assassination. However, relational aggression is covert and often goes unnoticed to those not immersed within the social network. For girls, this is crucially important because it impacts social connections that are a vital aspect of growth and development, and self-identity formation [7]. Moreover, the maladaptive responses of depression, social anxiety, social phobia, borderline personality disorder, psychosocial maladjustment and decreased life satisfaction have all been associated with the relational aggression victimization experience [2, 8, 9]. Furthermore, an increase from previous years in the rates of suicide attempts in seemingly healthy African American female adolescents (Joe, Baser,
Pre-fractionated Microbial Samples – The Second Generation Natural Products Library at Wyeth
Melissa M. Wagenaar
Molecules , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/molecules13061406
Abstract: From the beginning of the antibiotic era in the 1940s to the present, Wyeth has sustained an active research program in the area of natural products discovery. This program has continually evolved through the years in order to best align with the “current” drug discovery paradigm in the pharmaceutical industry. The introduction of highthroughput screening and the miniaturization of assays have created a need to optimize natural product samples to better suit these new technologies. Furthermore, natural product programs are faced with an ever shortening time period from hit detection to lead characterization. To address these issues, Wyeth has created a pre-fractionated natural products library using reversed-phase HPLC to complement their existing library of crude extracts. The details of the pre-fractionated library and a cost-benefit analysis will be presented in this review.
Morphological Knowledge and Decoding Skills of Deaf Readers  [PDF]
M. Diane Clark, Gizelle Gilbert, Melissa L. Anderson
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.22018
Abstract: Many studies have reported the necessity of phonological awareness to become a skilled reader, citing barriers to phonological information as the cause for reading difficulties experienced by deaf individuals. In contrast, other research suggests that phonological awareness is not necessary for reading acquisition, citing the importance of higher levels of syntactic and semantic knowledge. To determine if deaf students with higher language skills have better word decoding strategies, students responded to a morphological test, where monomorphemic words and multimorphemic words were matched to their definitions. Two studies are reported, one focusing on English placement levels and a second with formal measures of both ASL and English language proficiency. Results in-dicated that performance on the morphological decoding test was related to language proficiency scores, but not to phonological awareness scores.
Visual Attributes of Subliminal Priming Images Impact Conscious Perception of Facial Expressions  [PDF]
Melissa A. Huang, Hsin-Mei Sun, Lucia M. Vaina
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2019.93009
Abstract: We investigated, in young healthy participants, how the affective content of subliminally presented priming images and their specific visual attributes impacted conscious perception of facial expressions. The priming images were broadly categorized as aggressive, pleasant, or neutral and further subcategorized by the presence of a face and by the centricity (egocentric or allocentric vantage-point) of the image content. Participants responded to the emotion portrayed in a pixelated target-face by indicating via key-press if the expression was angry or neutral. Response time to the neutral target face was significantly slower when preceded by face primes, compared to non-face primes (p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected). In contrast, faster RTs were observed when angry target faces were preceded by face compared to non-face primes. In addition, participants’ performance was worse when a priming image contained an egocentric face compared to when it contained either an allocentric face or an egocentric non-face. The results suggest a significant impact of the visual features of the priming image on conscious perception of face expression.
Schwann cell myelination requires Dynein function
Langworthy Melissa M,Appel Bruce
Neural Development , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8104-7-37
Abstract: Background Interaction of Schwann cells with axons triggers signal transduction that drives expression of Pou3f1 and Egr2 transcription factors, which in turn promote myelination. Signal transduction appears to be mediated, at least in part, by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) because elevation of cAMP levels can stimulate myelination in the absence of axon contact. The mechanisms by which the myelinating signal is conveyed remain unclear. Results By analyzing mutations that disrupt myelination in zebrafish, we learned that Dynein cytoplasmic 1 heavy chain 1 (Dync1h1), which functions as a motor for intracellular molecular trafficking, is required for peripheral myelination. In dync1h1 mutants, Schwann cell progenitors migrated to peripheral nerves but then failed to express Pou3f1 and Egr2 or make myelin membrane. Genetic mosaic experiments revealed that robust Myelin Basic Protein expression required Dync1h1 function within both Schwann cells and axons. Finally, treatment of dync1h1 mutants with a drug to elevate cAMP levels stimulated myelin gene expression. Conclusion Dync1h1 is required for retrograde transport in axons and mutations of Dync1h1 have been implicated in axon disease. Our data now provide evidence that Dync1h1 is also required for efficient myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells, perhaps by facilitating signal transduction necessary for myelination.
Transforming Energy Usage: It’s Not Only about Solar  [PDF]
Melissa Matlock
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2014.32004
Abstract:

GRID Alternatives, a non-profit solar contractor, installs solar electric systems for low-income families. Part of GRID Alternatives’ program is to provide solar electric systems that are designed to replace 75% of the homeowners’ electricity usage with solar power. This leaves 25% of their bill still to be paid. In order to save our resources, one must first use conservation practices, then energy efficiency, and then follow-up with renewable energy to cover the rest. GRID Alternatives Inland Empire (GRID IE) educates our participating homeowners and community members on this philosophy. However, measuring whether or not our families have been following this philosophy is hard to prove. It may seem obvious that if we want to know whether our homeowners are saving energy, we should look at their energy usage before and after solar. However, this is not the case with our low-income families that could be using electricity to make their lives more comfortable. GRID IE developed a survey to be given before homeowners received their solar systems and started their participation with GRID Alternatives and the same survey to be given after they have received their solar systems. This before and after survey (pre-test/post-test) asked our homeowners to rate their responses to 7 questions on a scale of 1 - 10. The before and after responses for each person were compared, and as a group, their differences were calculated to find out if the differences were statistically significance (within subjects, dependent Z test). 6 out of 7 questions showed statistical significance. The big picture is that change is happening among our low-income homeowners and has happened for many of the varied energy saving methods discussed. It is important to transform energy usage, because the solution is not just solved with solar.

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