Abstract:
Four patients with Scapular Hypoplasia, Elevation And Rotation (SHEAR) deformity who had undergone unsuccessful humeral osteotomies to treat internal rotation underwent acromion and clavicular osteotomy, ostectomy of the superomedial border of the scapula and posterior capsulorrhaphy in order to relieve the torsion developed in the acromio-clavicular triangle by persistent asymmetric muscle action and medial rotation contracture.Clinical examination shows significant improvement in the functional movement possible for these four children as assessed by the modified Mallet scoring, definitely improving on what was achieved by humeral osteotomy.These results reveal the importance of recognizing the presence of scapular hypoplasia, elevation and rotation deformity before deciding on a treatment plan. The Triangle Tilt procedure aims to relieve the forces acting on the shoulder joint and improve the situation of the humeral head in the glenoid. Improvement in glenohumeral positioning should allow for better functional movements of the shoulder, which was seen in all four patients. These dramatic improvements were only possible once the glenohumeral deformity was directly addressed surgically.Obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) has been described as a discrete entity since 1754 [1]. The pathophysiology of the secondary deformities encountered in this population was described succinctly in 1905 by Whitman who wrote that the large majority of internal rotation and subluxation deformities of the shoulder in children with obstetric brachial plexus injuries were caused by fibrosis and contractures developed as a consequence of the neurological injury [2]. The medial rotation contracture (MRC) is the most significant secondary shoulder deformity in children with severe OBPI, requiring surgery in more than one third of patients whose injury did not resolve spontaneously [3].The current surgical approach to treating persistent MRC in OBPI patients is derotational humeral ost

Abstract:
Following partial hepatectomy blood flow-to-liver mass ratio reached maximal values 24 hrs post resection. Concomitantly, large fenestrae (gaps) were noted. Exposure of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, in vitro, to physiological laminar shear stress forces was associated with translocation of vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and neuropilin-1 from perinuclear and faint cytoplasmic distribution to plasma membrane and cytoskeletal localization. Under these conditions, VEGFR-2 co-stains with VE-cadherin. Unlike VEGFR-2, the nuclear localization of VEGFR-1 was not affected by shear stress. Quantification of the above receptors showed a significant increase in VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and neuropilin-1 mRNA following shear stress.Our data suggest a possible relation between elevated blood flow associated with partial hepatectomy and the early events occurring thereby.Following partial hepatectomy (PHx) the remaining liver is transfused by normal blood volume, thereby exposing liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LECs) to excess hemodynamic forces. These forces have been noted as an early event leading to liver restoration in rats [1-3]; however, the idea that quality of the blood rather than quantity has been the accepted dogma [4,5]. Based on time-scale events, shear stress inflicted on liver cells precedes the expression of factors some of which are expressed within minutes. Studies conducted in recent years indicate that shear stress induced NO leads to the expression of genes participating in liver regeneration including c-fos [6-8]. There is evidence demonstrating that increase of c-fos in PHx or portal branch ligation models is inhibited by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, which blocks NO synthase [8]. The present study was undertaken to examine the molecular and ultrastructural effects of hemodynamic forces on LECs. We have chosen to focus on vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) receptors (VEGFRs), as these are present on endothelial

Abstract:
Within the context of standard cosmology, an accelerating universe requires the presence of a third `dark' component of energy, beyond matter and radiation. The available data, however, are still deemed insufficient to distinguish between an evolving dark energy component and the simplest model of a time-independent cosmological constant. In this paper, we examine the cosmological expansion in terms of observer-dependent coordinates, in addition to the more conventional co-moving coordinates. This procedure explicitly reveals the role played by the radius R_h of our cosmic horizon in the interrogation of the data. (In Rindler's notation, R_h coincides with the `event horizon' in the case of de Sitter, but changes in time for other cosmologies that also contain matter and/or radiation.) With this approach, we show that the interpretation of dark energy as a cosmological constant is clearly disfavored by the observations. Within the framework of standard Friedman-Robertson-Walker cosmology, we derive an equation describing the evolution of R_h, and solve it using the WMAP and Type Ia supernova data. In particular, we consider the meaning of the observed equality (or near equality) R_h(t_0) ~ ct_0, where t_0 is the age of the Universe. This empirical result is far from trivial, for a cosmological constant would drive R_h(t) towards ct (where t is the cosmic time) only once--and that would have to occur right now. Though we are not here espousing any particular alternative model of dark energy, for comparison we also consider scenarios in which dark energy is given by scaling solutions, which simultaneously eliminate several conundrums in the standard model, including the `coincidence' and `flatness' problems, and account very well for the fact that R_h(t_0) ~ ct_0.

Abstract:
I study group theory (Kleiss-Kuijf) relations between purely multi-quark primitive amplitudes at tree level, and prove that they reduce the number of independent primitives to (n-2)!/(n/2)!, where n is the number of quarks plus antiquarks, in the case where quark lines have different flavours. I give an explicit example of an independent basis of primitives for any n which is of the form A(1,2,sigma), where sigma is a permutation based on a Dyck word.

Abstract:
One cannot understand the early appearance of 10^9 solar-mass black holes without invoking anomalously high accretion rates or the creation of exotically massive seeds, neither of which is seen in the local Universe. Recent observations have compounded this problem by demonstrating that most, if not all, of the high-z quasars appear to be accreting at the Eddington limit. In the context of LCDM, the only viable alternative now appears to be the assemblage of supermassive black holes via mergers, as long as the seeds started forming at redshifts >40, but ceased being created by z~20-30. In this paper, we show that, whereas the high-z quasars may be difficult to explain within the framework of the standard model, they can instead be interpreted much more sensibly in the context of the R_h=ct Universe. In this cosmology, 5-20 solar-mass seeds produced after the onset of re-ionization (at z<15) could have easily grown to M>10^9 solar masses by z> 6, merely by accreting at the standard Eddington rate.

Abstract:
Within the context of standard cosmology, an accelerating universe requires the presence of a third `dark' component of energy, beyond matter and radiation. The available data, however, are still deemed insufficient to distinguish between an evolving dark energy component and the simplest model of a time-independent cosmological constant. In this paper, we examine the cosmological expansion in terms of observer-dependent coordinates, in addition to the more conventional co-moving coordinates. This procedure explicitly reveals the role played by the radius R_h of our cosmic horizon in the interrogation of the data. (In Rindler's notation, R_h coincides with the `event horizon' in the case of de Sitter, but changes in time for other cosmologies that also contain matter and/or radiation.) With this approach, we show that the interpretation of dark energy as a cosmological constant is clearly disfavored by the observations. Within the framework of standard Friedman-Robertson-Walker cosmology, we derive an equation describing the evolution of R_h, and solve it using the WMAP and Type Ia supernova data. In particular, we consider the meaning of the observed equality (or near equality) R_h(t_0) ~ ct_0, where t_0 is the age of the Universe. This empirical result is far from trivial, for a cosmological constant would drive R_h(t) towards ct (where t is the cosmic time) only once--and that would have to occur right now. Though we are not here espousing any particular alternative model of dark energy, for comparison we also consider scenarios in which dark energy is given by scaling solutions, which simultaneously eliminate several conundrums in the standard model, including the `coincidence' and `flatness' problems, and account very well for the fact that R_h(t_0) ~ ct_0.

Abstract:
The cosmological principle, promoting the view that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic, is embodied within the mathematical structure of the Robertson-Walker (RW) metric. The equations derived from an application of this metric to the Einstein Field Equations describe the expansion of the universe in terms of comoving coordinates, from which physical distances may be derived using a time-dependent expansion factor. These coordinates, however, do not explicitly reveal properties of the cosmic spacetime manifested in Birkhoff's theorem and its corollary. In this paper, we compare two forms of the metric--written in (the traditional) comoving coordinates, and a set of observer-dependent coordinates--first for the well-known de Sitter universe containing only dark energy, and then for a newly derived form of the RW metric, for a universe with dark energy and matter. We show that Rindler's event horizon--evident in the co-moving system--coincides with what one might call the "curvature horizon" appearing in the observer-dependent frame. The advantage of this dual prescription of the cosmic spacetime is that with the latest WMAP results, we now have a much better determination of the universe's mass-energy content, which permits us to calculate this curvature with unprecedented accuracy. We use it here to demonstrate that our observations have probed the limit beyond which the cosmic curvature prevents any signal from having ever reached us. In the case of de Sitter, where the mass-energy density is a constant, this limit is fixed for all time. For a universe with a changing density, this horizon expands until de Sitter is reached asymptotically, and then it too ceases to change.

Abstract:
Based on dramatic observations of the CMB with WMAP and of Type Ia supernovae with the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based facilities, it is now generally believed that the Universe's expansion is accelerating. Within the context of standard cosmology, the Universe must therefore contain a third `dark' component of energy, beyond matter and radiation. However, the current data are still deemed insufficient to distinguish between an evolving dark energy component and the simplest model of a time-independent cosmological constant. In this paper, we examine the role played by our cosmic horizon R0 in our interrogation of the data, and reach the rather firm conclusion that the existence of a cosmological constant is untenable. The observations are telling us that R0=c t0, where t0 is the perceived current age of the Universe, yet a cosmological constant would drive R0 towards ct (where t is the cosmic time) only once, and that would have to occur right now. In contrast, scaling solutions simultaneously eliminate several conundrums in the standard model, including the `coincidence' and `flatness' problems, and account very well for the fact that R0=c t0. We show here that for such dynamical dark energy models, either R0=ct for all time (thus eliminating the apparent coincidence altogether), or that what we believe to be the current age of the universe is actually the horizon time th=R0/c, which is always shorter than t0. Our best fit to the Type Ia supernova data indicates that t0 would then have to be ~16.9 billion years. Though surprising at first, an older universe such as this would actually eliminate several other long-standing problems in cosmology, including the (too) early appearance of supermassive black holes (at a redshift > 6) and the glaring deficit of dwarf halos in the local group.

Abstract:
Cosmology today is confronted with several seemingly insoluble puzzles and strange, inexplicable coincidences. But a careful re-examination of the Cosmological principle and the Weyl postulate, foundational elements in this subject, suggests that we may be missing the point. The observations actually reveal a simpler and more elegant Universe than anyone could have imagined.

Abstract:
Two recent discoveries have made it possible for us to begin using high-z quasars as standard candles to construct a Hubble Diagram (HD) at z > 6. These are (1) the recognition from reverberation mapping that a relationship exists between the optical/UV luminosity and the distance of line-emitting gas from the central ionizing source. Thus, together with a measurement of the velocity of the line-emitting gas, e.g., via the width of BLR lines, such as Mg II, a single observation can therefore in principle provide a determination of the black hole's mass; and (2) the identification of quasar ULAS J1120+0641 at z = 7.085, which has significantly extended the redshift range of these sources, providing essential leverage when fitting theoretical luminosity distances to the data. In this paper, we use the observed fluxes and Mg II line-widths of these sources to show that one may reasonably test the predicted high-z distance versus redshift relationship, and we assemble a sample of 20 currently available high-z quasars for this exercise. We find a good match between theory and observations, suggesting that a more complete, high-quality survey may indeed eventually produce an HD to complement the highly-detailed study already underway (e.g., with Type Ia SNe, GRBs, and cosmic chronometers) at lower redshifts. With the modest sample we have here, we show that the R_h=ct Universe and LCDM both fit the data quite well, though the smaller number of free parameters in the former produces a more favorable outcome when we calculate likelihoods using the Akaike, Kullback, and Bayes Information Criteria. These three statistical tools result in similar probabilities, indicating that the R_h=ct Universe is more likely than LCDM to be correct, by a ratio of about 85% to 15%.