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The Diversity and Composition of Woody Plants in Chebera Churcura National Park (CCNP), Southern Ethiopia  [PDF]
Mezmir Girma, Melesse Maryo
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.84028
Abstract: National parks harbor the most valuable biological diversities of national and global significance. The study of these diversities assists for the proper resource management. This study was carried out to determine woody species diversity and composition in CCNP. Systematic sampling was used to collect vegetation data from 67 plots (400 m2 each), which were laid following altitudinal gradient. From each plot presence/absence of woody species, abundance and structural data were recorded. R Program, Sorensen’s similarity, Shannon diversity index were used for vegetation analysis. Our result indicated that a total of 106 plant specimens belonging to 42 families and 90 genera were identified, of which 57.6% were trees, followed by 18.8% shrubs, 7.6% liana and 16% tree/shrub. The three most dominant families were Fabaceae, Rubiaceae and Combretaceae. Five vegetation community types were identified. Millettia ferugenia—Vepris danelii, and, Combrutum molle—Terminalia browni are among others. The tree density and basal area were 426.5 trees/hectare and 30.92 m2/hectare, respectively. The diversity and evenness indices were 3.88 and 0.46 for the study area, respectively. CCNP has more similarity with Bonga and Yayu afromontane forests of Ethiopia. Disturbances caused by the human activities and wild animals such as elephant were major threats to plant biodiversity in CCNP. We recommend floristic as well as ethnobotanical investigations to realize fully the existing plant diversity and their importance. Moreover, national attention should be given to ensure sustainable use of CCNP with its incredible biological resources.
Situational Analysis of Post Basic Bachelorate Health Training Programs at Jimma University
Kassahun Melesse
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2002,
Abstract: Background :In a higher institution like Jimma university frequent revision of its programs is inevitable to meet its goal and keep up its standard nationally as well as globally. Objective: This study is then intended to evaluate the teaching and learning situations of the four post basic BSc health programs in line with their curriculums, students performance and problems, and acceptance by the stakeholder. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through structured questionnaires collected form 155 senior students, 44 instructors and 8 stakeholder, analyzed using basic statistical package. Result: The result showed that, almost all (98%) of students and instructors suggested the programs to continue but with a significant revision of the curriculums. Both instructors and stakeholder found the students performance positive (at least satisfactory) 93% which went with the success rate 86% over the years 1995/96 to 1997/98. Students found earning situation difficult significantly (p<0.01) dominated by the health officers and nursing situations. Stakeholder are willing to accept graduates, more from health officers (46.3%). Conclusion: Thus, from the study we see that programs are in good academic standard but essential for revision with appropriate materials and quality of staff. Though students are performing well and likely to be accepted by stakeholder, difficult situations must be alleviated. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2002;16(2):217-224]
Developing skills of giving and receiving feedbacks between students and their teachers: a case of mathematics students in Jimma University
K Melesse, Z Teshome
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: One of the strategies to improve quality of teaching and learning at training institutes could be by developing the skill of giving and receiving feedbacks among the individuals involved in the training. This action research is then done as a final work for HDP in Jimma University (JU) to develop the skill of mutual understanding for improvement targeting third year mathematics student teachers and their mathematics teachers. Data were collected using questionnaire for all students and two focused group discussions among purposively selected few informants; one from students and the other from teachers. Based on the above two methods data were analyzed quantitative and qualitatively. As indicated in the result, the system of giving and receiving feed backs to improve the quality of teaching and learning activities was accepted as a very good approach both by students and teachers. Teachers agreed on what they have to improve in front of their students and this was appreciated by the students. Besides, some other controversial points were resolved by mutual agreement after discussion. Accordingly, students not only comment on the weak sides of their teachers, but also learnt to accept their weakness which were bottle necks for learning activities. Based on the findings it was recommended that such activity to continue not only in mathematics but also in all other subject areas in the future consistently.
Screening Criteria of Post Basic BSc . at Jimma University (JU)
K Melesse, A Mengistu
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: The study was conducted in Jimma University main campus health areas to evaluate the screening criteria of the post basic BSc candidates, from 1993/94 to 1997/98. A total of 1,924 applicants were involved in this study of which 85.9% (1,653) were examinees and 25.3% (419) admited. Four programs; Nursing, Environmental Health, Laboratory Technology and Public Health, have been under going through these recruiting processes to host the successful candidates. Candidates were grouped into two according to the system that their grades were measured at diploma level. These groups were compared according their performances; at diploma level taken out of 30%, writen exam out of 60% and interview 10%. The minimum points CGPA of 2.00 for the first group and 60% for the second, were taken as the cup of points. The two groups had significant diference on their performance out of 30% taken from the diploma results added in the final point of screening. Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences Vol. 1 (1) 2005: pp.65-94
Goal oriented Mathematics Survey at Preparatory Level- Revised set up
K Melesse, MR Reddy
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: This cross sectional study design on mathematical syllabi at preparatory levels of the high schools was to investigate the efficiency of the subject at preparatory level education serving as a basis for several streams, like Natural science, Technology, Computer Science, Health Science and Agriculture found at tertiary levels. The study was done for long period from January 2005 to April 2006 due to some societal inconveniences disturbing university academic situations. The study was based on the information collected from appropriate students and teachers of the university faculties mentioned above selected based on the purposive and random samplings through self administered questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The study reveals that vast contents of preparatory courses designed in the new education policy have been completed partially due to various reasons, like lack of time, not using of advanced methods of teaching, insufficient infrastructure facilities and shortage of qualified teachers generally in the schools and particularly in the rural area schools. In the same time, it is known, the Mathematical area contents of preparatory courses were not much supportive to much needed Mathematics faculties in the universities, like Technology, Computer Science and Applied Sciences. It is studied of hypothesis in-depth by splitting natural Science stream in to two steams Mathematical and Natural Science, was accepted by most students and teachers moderately with modification and orientation. It is observed in all the way, standards in the education was decreasing day by day. It is recommended that suitable steps should be taken to rectify all the shortages and strongly suggested for implementation of our HYPOTHESIS on urgent basis because it has advantages than disadvantages. Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences Vol. 3 (1) 2007: pp. 51-83
Enactment of student-centered approach in teaching Mathematics and Natural Sciences: The case of selected general secondary schools in Jimma zone, Ethiopia.
A Bekele, K Melesse
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The study was initiated to assess the implementation of student-centered teaching of Mathematics and Natural Science subjects in three selected schools in Jimma and the surrounding towns. To this end, classroom observation method was utilized. Accordingly, 40 lessons of 24 teachers were observed. The observation result depicts that teachers were effectively utilizing prior knowledge of learners in starting their lessons. They were also active in making question rich learning environment. On the contrary, they were rated as poor in making classroom environment conducive for group learning. Utilization of learning materials and activities was also rated as low. Subject, school and grade wise comparison put relatively teachers teaching in Jimma University Community school, Chemistry subject and grade nine students on the top but the rest on the other end of the spectrum although there is no statistically significant differences. Based on these findings, recommendations for action including area for further research were forwarded.
Stage level, volume, and time-frequency information content of Lake Tana using stochastic and wavelet analysis methods
Y. Chebud,A. Melesse
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-7-5525-2010
Abstract: Lake Tana is the largest fresh water body situated in the north western highlands of Ethiopia. It serves for local transport, electric power generation, fishing, ecological restoration, recreational purposes, and dry season irrigation supply. Evidence show, the lake has dried at least once at about 15 000–17 000 BP (before present) due to a combination of high evaporation and low precipitation events. Past attempts to observe historical fluctuation of Lake Tana based on simplistic water balance approach of inflow, out-flow and storage have failed to capture well known events of drawdown and rise of the lake that have happened in the last 44 years. This study is aimed at simulating the lake level, specifically extreme events of the lake variation using stochastic approaches. Fourty-four years of daily, monthly and mean annual lake level data has showed a Gaussian variation with goodness of fit at 0.01 significant levels of the Konglomorov-Simrnov test. Three stochastic methods were employed, namely perturbations approach, Monte-Carlo methods and wavelet analysis, and the results were compared with the stage level measurements. The stochastic simulations predicted the lake stage level of the 1972, 1984 and 2002/2003 historical droughts 99% of the time. The information content (frequency) of fluctuation of Lake Tana for various periods was resolved using Wigner's Time-Frequency Decomposition method. The wavelet analysis agreed with the perturbations and Monte Carlo simulations resolving the time (1970s, 1980s and 2000s) in which low frequency and high spectral power fluctuation has occurred. In summary, the Monte-Carlo and perturbations methods have shown their superiority for risk analysis over deterministic methods while wavelet analysis has met reconstructing stage level historical record at multiple time scales. A further study is recommended on dynamic forecasting of the Lake Tana stage level using a combined approach of the perturbation and wavelet analysis methods.
Hospital Bed Occupancy and HIV/AIDS in three Major Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Melesse Tamiru,Jemal Haidar
International Journal of Biomedical Science , 2011,
Abstract: Background: In countries like Ethiopia where the spread of HIV infection is extensive, health services are faced with an increased demand for care. The most obvious reflection of this increased demand is through patient load, longer bed occupancy perhaps to the exclusion of patients with other ailments. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the bed occupancy rate and the average length of stay of HIV/AIDS inpatients of three major public hospitals. Methods: A Retrospective Cross-sectional study was conducted in three major hospitals of Addis Ababa namely Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Tikure Anbessa Hospital and Saint Paul’s Hospital from February to March 2004. Results: Of the total 453 sampled inpatients, 293 (65 %) were HIV positives. Over half (55.0%) were Males. The most affected age group was between 24 and 56 years. The majority (85.8%) were from Addis Ababa and over half (57.7%) was married. Housewives constituted about a quarter (26.3%) of all the admitted cases. The most common co-morbidities resulted in admission to the medical wards among the HIV-positive cases were Tuberculosis (73.0%) and jirovicii pneumonia (70.3%), and their occurrence was significantly higher among HIV+ than their counter parts (p = 0.001). Although numbers of patients admitted in Tikur Anbesa hospital was more than Saint Paul’s and Zewditu Memorial hospitals (ZMH), the proportion of HIV positive cases admitted to ZMH however was higher (49.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (14.0%) and Saint Paul’s hospitals (18.0%). Likewise the number of inpatient days was also higher in ZMH (n=7765) than the other hospitals. The bed occupancy rate was however, higher in ZMH (53.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (12.0%) and Saint Paul’s (12.0%) hospitals. Conclusion: One of the most obvious consequences of HIV/AIDS patients are the increased occupancy of hospitals beds suggesting that only 81.1 % of the beds are for all other afflictions in the hospitals. It appears that there is a lot of concern that patients with HIV are competing with the non-HIV infected patients in a resource limited areas. Home based care with community involvement and greater use made of existing community resources might be a response to the limitations of curative hospital-based care and treatment needs of many HIV/AIDS patients.
Evaporation Estimation of Rift Valley Lakes: Comparison of Models
Assefa M. Melesse,Wossenu Abtew,Tibebe Dessalegne
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s91209603
Abstract: Evapotranspiration (ET) accounts for a substantial amount of the water flux in the arid and semi-arid regions of the World. Accurate estimation of ET has been a challenge for hydrologists, mainly because of the spatiotemporal variability of the environmental and physical parameters governing the latent heat flux. In addition, most available ET models depend on intensive meteorological information for ET estimation. Such data are not available at the desired spatial and temporal scales in less developed and remote parts of the world. This limitation has necessitated the development of simple models that are less data intensive and provide ET estimates with acceptable level of accuracy. Remote sensing approach can also be applied to large areas where meteorological data are not available and field scale data collection is costly, time consuming and difficult. In areas like the Rift Valley regions of Ethiopia, the applicability of the Simple Method (Abtew Method) of lake evaporation estimation and surface energy balance approach using remote sensing was studied. The Simple Method and a remote sensing-based lake evaporation estimates were compared to the Penman, Energy balance, Pan, Radiation and Complementary Relationship Lake Evaporation (CRLE) methods applied in the region. Results indicate a good correspondence of the models outputs to that of the above methods. Comparison of the 1986 and 2000 monthly lake ET from the Landsat images to the Simple and Penman Methods show that the remote sensing and surface energy balance approach is promising for large scale applications to understand the spatial variation of the latent heat flux.
Effects of feeding Moringa stenopetala leaf meal on nutrient intake and growth performance of Rhode Island Red chicks under tropical climate
Melesse, A.;Tiruneh, W.;Negesse, T;
Tropical and subtropical agroecosystems , 2011,
Abstract: the effects oí moringa stenopetala leaf meal (mslm) on nutrient intake and weight gain (wg) were evaluated. forty unsexed rhode island red chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. the control diet (tl) (mslm 0%), the experimental diets contained msml at a rate of 2% (t2), 4% (t3), and 6% (t4) of the diets (as fed basis) to replace 3%, 5.9% and 8.8% of the crude protein (cp) of the control diet. daily feed, dry matter and cp intake of the chicks fed mslm diets were higher (p<0.05) than those fed the control diet. average weight gain (awg) of birds fed mslm diets were higher (p<0.05) than those fed the control diet. chicks fed t4 showed higher (p<0.05) awg than those on t2 and t3. feed efficiency ratio (fer, g gain/g feed intake) and protein efficiency ratio (per, g gain/g cp intake) were higher for chicks fed mslm. mslm elicited no deleterious effects in the birds. the results indicated that mslm is a potential plant protein supplement and could be included to 6% in the diet of grower chicks to substitute expensive conventional protein sources.
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