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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2283 matches for " Meghan Woo "
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Community Violence as Psychosocial Stressor:The Case of Childhood Asthma in Boston  [PDF]
Gonzalo Bacigalupe, Takeo Fujiwara, Sabrina Selk, Meghan Woo
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.11005
Abstract: Childhood asthma is a critical public health problem of urban centers in the United States and other industrialized nations. Population-based and laboratory research studies indicate that psychosocial stress differentially affects asthma expression. Witnessing or experiencing community violence is a psychosocial stressor that results in long-term biological changes that may in turn contribute to asthma morbidity. This is a review of the literature that examines the exposure to violence as a psychosocial stressor that is independently associated with asthma morbidity even after adjustment for income, housing, and other adverse life events. In addition to acting as a physiological trigger for the disease, community violence can also impact health behaviors and exposure to other unknown environmental risk factors. This connection leads the authors to suggest that reducing violence and the amelioration of its impact has implications beyond public health. The City of Boston in Massachusetts serves as the context to contextualize a series of recommendations that may ameliorate and/or prevent asthma incidence and prevalence. The reduction of poverty, unemployment, substandard housing, and high crime/violence rates can have significant health implications for children asthma and a decline on asthma hospitalization.
Reliability Design of Ice-Maker System Subjected to Repetitive Loading  [PDF]
Seong-Woo Woo
Engineering (ENG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2016.89056
Abstract: Parametric Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) was used to improve the reliability of ice-maker system with a fractured helix upper dispenser in field. By using bond graphs and state equations, a variety of mechanical loads in the assembly were analyzed. The acceleration factor was derived from a generalized life-stress failure model with a new load concept. To reproduce the failure modes and mechanisms causing the fracture, new sample size equation was derived. The sample size equation with the acceleration factor also enabled the parametric accelerated life testing to quickly reproduce early failure in field. Consequently, the failure modes and mechanisms found were identical with those of the failed sample. The design of this testing should help an engineer uncover the design parameters affecting the reliability of fractured helix upper dispenser in field. By eliminating the design flaws, gaps and weldline, the B1 life of the redesign of helix upper dispenser is now guaranteed to be over 10 years with a yearly failure rate of 0.1% that is the reliability quantitative test specifications (RQ).
Assessing the Relationship between Vitamin D3 and Stratum Corneum Hydration for the Treatment of Xerotic Skin
Meghan Russell
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4091213
Abstract: Vitamin D 3 has been called the “sunshine” vitamin since the formation of vitamin D is mediated by exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D 3 is linked to many health benefits, however serum levels of vitamin D 3 have been decreasing over the last few decades and the lower levels of vitamin D 3 may have consequences on normal physiology. We investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and stratum corneum conductance as well as the effect of topical application of cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3) on dry skin. Eighty three subjects were recruited and blood serum levels and skin conductance measurements were taken after a one week washout. A correlation was observed between vitamin D levels and skin moisture content, individuals with lower levels of vitamin D had lower average skin moisture. Subsequently, a 3-week split leg, randomized, vehicle controlled clinical study was conducted on a subset of 61 of the above individuals who were identified with non-sufficient vitamin D serum levels. Topical supplementation with cholecalciferol significantly increased measurements of skin moisturization and resulted in improvements in subjective clinical grading of dry skin. Taken together our finding suggest a relationship between serum vitamin D 3 (25(OH)D) levels and hydration of the stratum corneum and further demonstrate the skin moisture benefit from topical application of vitamin D 3.
A Comparative Study of Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Meghan GUNN, Simon G. M. KOO
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2009.28080
Abstract: One of the major constraints in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is power consumption. In recent years, a lot of efforts have been put into the design of medium access control (MAC) protocols for WSN, in order to reduce energy consumption and enhance the network’s lifetime. In this paper, we surveyed some MAC protocols for WSN and compared their design tradeoffs. The goal is to provide a foundation for future MAC design, and to identify important design issues that allow us to improve the overall performances.
Growth Kinetics of Wildlife E. coli Isolates in Soil and Water  [PDF]
Meghan A. Gallagher, Raghupathy Karthikeyan, Saqib Mukhtar
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.328098
Abstract: Bacteria are the major cause of surface water contamination in the United States. US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) uses the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) process to regulate the E. coli loads from fecal sources in a watershed. Different point and non-point sources can contribute to the fecal contamination of a waterbody including municipal and on-site wastewater treatment plants, livestock, birds, and wildlife. Unfortunately, wildlife sources in many rural watersheds are poorly characterized. E. coli is also known to persist in waterbodies when no known fecal sources are present. In this study, E. coli from wildlife fecal material was enumerated and the fate of E. coli under different environmental factors was studied. No growth was observed in soil at 4% moisture content and in water at 10℃. The highest E. coli growth was recorded in water at 30℃. It can be seen from these results that there was variation in the fate of E. coli under different environmental conditions. The fate of E. coli in the environment is a complex process and is influenced by many factors and their interactions, making it difficult to predict. The findings from this study along with additional studies can be used to improve the accuracy of model predictions to estimate the E. coli loads in watersheds.
Global Rates and Prevalence of Urogenital Mycoplasmosis: Assembly of a Dataset from Peer-Reviewed Literature*  [PDF]
Jennifer A. Jones, Nufar Chaban, Meghan May
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.32017
Abstract: Rates of urogenital mycoplasmosis associated with Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum have been reported numerous times, and frequently show a wide range of findings. Differing diagnostic techniques, population targeting, temporal and spatial data collection, and coincident infections make the conclusions from these analyses difficult to compare. We generated a single data set including the infection rate, geographic location, year, study population, diagnostic method, and clinical signs for these organisms by performing literature searches with the species names and compiling the findings. Studies focusing on basic research or reporting clinical surveys where these criteria were not reported were excluded. A statistical analysis of the dataset parameters found that: diagnostic method does not significantly correlate with positive specimen rate but does correlate with the year of publication, and the number of publications correlated significantly with year, indicating that this topic is of growing interest. Further analysis indicated that Ureaplasma species infection rate is significantly higher in pregnant women across all studies. Associations with distinct clinical presentation could not be made on datasets assembled across studies due to the number of confounding variables presented in each. The generated data set represents a large amount of temporal, geographic, and clinical data that can be utilized in future communications.

Effect of On-Line Hemodiafiltration on Dry Weight Adjustment in Intradialytic Hypotension-Prone Patients: Comparative Study of Conventional Hemodialysis and On-Line Hemodiafiltration  [PDF]
Sun Woo Kang
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2014.41001

Introduction: Correct adjustment of dry weight after hemodialysis (HD) with no signs of hypervolemia is important. Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is the most common complication during HD. IDH occurs in 15% to 30% and possibly in up to 50% of dialysis sessions. IDH augments mortality essentially due to chronic overhydration and the inability to reach the proper dry weight. On-line hemodiafiltration (ol-HDF) has been reported to reduce the frequency of IDH. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ol-HDF on hemodynamic stability and dry weight adjustment compared with low-flux HD. Methods: IDH-prone HD patients at our center were enrolled. This study was designed as a crossover trial with two phases (A arm: low-flux HD for 8 weeks followed by ol-HDF for 8 weeks vs. B arm: ol-HDF for 8 weeks followed by low-flux HD for 8 weeks) and two treatment arms (ol-HDF vs. low-flux HD), each phase lasting 8 weeks. We measured the proportion of body water using a body composition monitor (BCM). Results: In a comparison of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reductions from the baseline blood pressure between the HD and ol-HDF groups, statistically significant differences were observed only in the SBP of the B arm (SBP: HD vs. HDF, -9.83 ± 6.64 vs. -4.62 ± 1.61 mmHg, p = 0.036; DBP: HD vs. HDF, -3.29 ± 4.05 vs. -1.86 ± 1.49 mmHg, p = 0.261). Neither the mean of the interdialytic body weight gains nor the frequency of IDH was different between the A and B arms (p = 0.817 and p = 0.562, respectively). In terms of dialysis modality, there were no significant differences in the amount of overhydration between the conventional

The Middle Ground in Action Research: Integrating Practical and Critical Inquiry
Meghan McGlinn Manfra
Journal of Curriculum and Instruction , 2009,
Abstract: Advocates of action research propose formalizing teacher inquiry to empower teachers to leverage their “insider” knowledge to change classroom practice. Currently there is disagreement between theorists who promote action research as practical or critical inquiry. This article defines the characteristics and history of action research in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. This review provides evidence of the theoretical divide between practical and critical action research, promoting the exploration of a middle ground. By encouraging a dialogue between proponents of both forms of action research, educators will gain new insights about teacher practice and the factors that promote or hinder critical teacher reflection.
Finite-size effects and switching times for Moran dynamics with mutation
Lee DeVille,Meghan Galiardi
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We consider the Moran process with two populations competing under an iterated Prisoners' Dilemma in the presence of mutation, and concentrate on the case where there are multiple Evolutionarily Stable Strategies. We perform a complete bifurcation analysis of the deterministic system which arises in the infinite population size. We also study the Master equation and obtain asymptotics for the invariant distribution and metastable switching times for the stochastic process in the case of large but finite population. We also show that the stochastic system has asymmetries in the form of a skew for parameter values where the deterministic limit is symmetric.
Minimal ramification and the inverse Galois problem over the rational function field $\mathbb{F}_p(t)$
Meghan De Witt
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: The inverse Galois problem is concerned with finding a Galois extension of a field $K$ with given Galois group. In this paper we consider the particular case where the base field is $K=\F_p(t)$. We give a conjectural formula for the minimal number of primes, both finite and infinite, ramified in $G$-extensions of $K$, and give theoretical and computational proofs for many cases of this conjecture.
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