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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 211200 matches for " Megan L. Phillips "
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Differences in Leaf Flammability, Leaf Traits and Flammability-Trait Relationships between Native and Exotic Plant Species of Dry Sclerophyll Forest
Brad R. Murray, Lyndle K. Hardstaff, Megan L. Phillips
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079205
Abstract: The flammability of plant leaves influences the spread of fire through vegetation. Exotic plants invading native vegetation may increase the spread of bushfires if their leaves are more flammable than native leaves. We compared fresh-leaf and dry-leaf flammability (time to ignition) between 52 native and 27 exotic plant species inhabiting dry sclerophyll forest. We found that mean time to ignition was significantly faster in dry exotic leaves than in dry native leaves. There was no significant native-exotic difference in mean time to ignition for fresh leaves. The significantly higher fresh-leaf water content that was found in exotics, lost in the conversion from a fresh to dry state, suggests that leaf water provides an important buffering effect that leads to equivalent mean time to ignition in fresh exotic and native leaves. Exotic leaves were also significantly wider, longer and broader in area with significantly higher specific leaf area–but not thicker–than native leaves. We examined scaling relationships between leaf flammability and leaf size (leaf width, length, area, specific leaf area and thickness). While exotics occupied the comparatively larger and more flammable end of the leaf size-flammability spectrum in general, leaf flammability was significantly correlated with all measures of leaf size except leaf thickness in both native and exotic species such that larger leaves were faster to ignite. Our findings for increased flammability linked with larger leaf size in exotics demonstrate that exotic plant species have the potential to increase the spread of bushfires in dry sclerophyll forest.
Temporal introduction patterns of invasive alien plant species to Australia
Brad Murray,Megan Phillips
NeoBiota , 2012, DOI: 10.3897/neobiota.13.2422
Abstract: We examined temporal introduction patterns of 132 invasive alien plant species (IAPS) to Australia since European colonisation in 1770. Introductions of IAPS were high during 1810–1820 (10 species), 1840–1880 (51 species, 38 of these between 1840 and 1860) and 1930–1940 (9 species). Conspicuously few introductions occurred during 10-year periods directly preceding each introduction peak. Peaks during early European settlement (1810–1820) and human range expansion across the continent (1840-1860) both coincided with considerable growth in Australia’s human population. We suggest that population growth during these times increased the likelihood of introduced plant species becoming invasive as a result of increased colonization and propagule pressure. Deliberate introductions of IAPS (104 species) far outnumbered accidental introductions (28 species) and were particularly prominent during early settlement. Cosmopolitan IAPS (25 species) and those native solely to South America (53 species), Africa (27 species) and Asia (19 species) have been introduced deliberately and accidentally to Australia across a broad period of time. A small number of IAPS, native solely to Europe (5 species) and North America (2 species), were all introduced to Australia prior to 1880. These contrasting findings for native range suggest some role for habitat matching, with similar environmental conditions in Australia potentially driving the proliferation of IAPS native to southern-hemisphere regions. Shrub, tree and vine species dominated IAPS introduced prior to 1840, with no grasses or forbs introduced during early colonisation. Since 1840, all five growth forms have been introduced deliberately and accidentally in relatively large numbers across a broad period of time. In particular, a large number of grass and forb IAPS were deliberately introduced between 1840 and 1860, most likely a direct result of the introduction of legislation promoting intensive agriculture across large areas of the continent. Since the 1980s, only three IAPS have been introduced (all deliberately introduced forbs). The decline in IAPS introductions is most likely a reflection of both increased surveillance and biosecurity efforts and the likelihood that many potential IAPS are still within a pre-expansion lag period.
Proteomic Analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Biofilms Shows Shift to Anaerobic Respiration and Changes in Nutrient Transport and Outermembrane Proteins
Nancy J. Phillips, Christopher T. Steichen, Birgit Schilling, Deborah M. B. Post, Richard K. Niles, Thomas B. Bair, Megan L. Falsetta, Michael A. Apicella, Bradford W. Gibson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038303
Abstract: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, can form biofilms in vitro and in vivo. In biofilms, the organism is more resistant to antibiotic treatment and can serve as a reservoir for chronic infection. We have used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to compare protein expression in biofilm and planktonic organisms. Two parallel populations of N. gonorrhoeae strain 1291, which is an arginine auxotroph, were grown for 48 h in continuous-flow chambers over glass, one supplemented with 13C6-arginine for planktonic organisms and the other with unlabeled arginine for biofilm growth. The biofilm and planktonic cells were harvested and lysed separately, and fractionated into three sequential protein extracts. Corresponding heavy (H) planktonic and light (L) biofilm protein extracts were mixed and separated by 1D SDS-PAGE gels, and samples were extensively analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Overall, 757 proteins were identified, and 152 unique proteins met a 1.5-fold cutoff threshold for differential expression with p-values <0.05. Comparing biofilm to planktonic organisms, this set included 73 upregulated and 54 downregulated proteins. Nearly a third of the upregulated proteins were involved in energy metabolism, with cell envelope proteins making up the next largest group. Of the downregulated proteins, the largest groups were involved in protein synthesis and energy metabolism. These proteomics results were compared with our previously reported results from transcriptional profiling of gonococcal biofilms using microarrays. Nitrite reductase and cytochrome c peroxidase, key enzymes required for anaerobic growth, were detected as highly upregulated in both the proteomic and transcriptomic datasets. These and other protein expression changes observed in the present study were consistent with a shift to anaerobic respiration in gonococcal biofilms, although changes in membrane proteins not explicitly related to this shift may have other functions.
Henipaviruses Employ a Multifaceted Approach to Evade the Antiviral Interferon Response
Megan L. Shaw
Viruses , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/v1031190
Abstract: Hendra and Nipah virus, which constitute the genus Henipavirus, are zoonotic paramyxoviruses that have been associated with sporadic outbreaks of severe disease and mortality in humans since their emergence in the late 1990s. Similar to other paramyxoviruses, their ability to evade the host interferon (IFN) response is conferred by the P gene. The henipavirus P gene encodes four proteins; the P, V, W and C proteins, which have all been described to inhibit the antiviral response. Further studies have revealed that these proteins have overlapping but unique properties which enable the virus to block multiple signaling pathways in the IFN response. The best characterized of these is the JAK-STAT signaling pathway which is targeted by the P, V and W proteins via an interaction with the transcription factor STAT1. In addition the V and W proteins can both limit virus-induced induction of IFN but they appear to do this via distinct mechanisms that rely on unique sequences in their C-terminal domains. The ability to generate recombinant Nipah viruses now gives us the opportunity to determine the precise role for each of these proteins and address their contribution to pathogenicity. Additionally, the question of whether these multiple anti-IFN strategies are all active in the different mammalian hosts for henipaviruses, particularly the fruit bat reservoir, warrants further exploration.
Information Literacy: More to Learn--and Teach!
Robert L Phillips
Theological Librarianship , 2009,
Abstract:
Rheumatology education in US pediatric residency programs: results of a comprehensive program director survey
Curran Megan L,Husain Yasmin
Pediatric Rheumatology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1546-0096-10-s1-a7
Abstract:
WHEN THE PILL PEDDLERS MET THE SCIENTISTS: the Antecedents and Implications of Early Collaborations between US Pharmaceutical Firms and Universities
Jeffrey L. Furman,Megan MacGarvie
Essays in Economic & Business History , 2008,
Abstract: This paper examines rise of collaborations between for-profit pharmaceutical firms and academic scientists between 1927 and 1946, investigating (a) the historical and economic factors that led to such collaborations and (b) the implications of these early collaborations for the firms involved. The paper builds on a tradition ofprior research in this area, which reviews case evidence in a detailed way. The paper supplements this evidence with additional historical analysis and by drawing on survey data on a population of research- activefirms. The paper’s analyses highlight the importance ofgeography in the collaborative efforts of the period and provide evidence that those firms that did collaborate with universities produced greater number ofpatented outputs and grew more quickly than those that did not. Overall, the findings provide useful evidence about the qualities that helped set the stage for the hand-in-glove relationships that characterize the interactions between modern universities and pharmaceutical firms in the United States.
Observations of the Germination Behavior of Tilletia indica Teliospores on the Soil Surface under Varying Simulated Environmental Conditions  [PDF]
Gary L. Peterson, Dana K. Berner, John G. Phillips
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.811196
Abstract: A series of replicated growth chamber studies were conducted to determine the effects of soil type and simulated European temperature conditions from fall planting to anthesis in Hungary, United Kingdom, Italy and Norway on the initiation of Tilletia indica teliospore germination on the soil surface. A concurrent study examined effects on teliospore germination of a simulated temperature profile for Ciudad Obregon, Mexico, where Karnal bunt is known to occur. Three soil moisture treatments were tested; 40.5% water holding capacity (WHC), 16.2% WHC and weekly fluctuation of soil WHC. Results suggest that soil type would not have a significant effect on germination during the cropping season. Under all conditions tested, some portion of the teliospore population remained dormant but viable throughout the entire season. In comparing Mexican and Hungarian temperature profiles, highest soil surface germination for the Hungarian profile was at 40.5% WHC during the first 30 days of the simulation (30 days after planting date). The highest germination for the Mexican profile was at the 16.2% WHC during the last 30 days of the study (time of anthesis).
The Three-Boson System at Next-To-Next-To-Leading Order
L. Platter,D. R. Phillips
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1007/s00601-006-0165-z
Abstract: We discuss effective field theory treatments of the problem of three particles interacting via short-range forces (range R >> a_2, with a_2 the two-body scattering length). We show that forming a once-subtracted scattering equation yields a scattering amplitude whose low-momentum part is renormalization-group invariant up to corrections of O(R^3/a_2^3). Since corrections of O(R/a_2) and O(R^2/a_2^2) can be straightforwardly included in the integral equation's kernel, a unique solution for 1+2 scattering phase shifts and three-body bound-state energies can be obtained up to this accuracy. We use our equation to calculate the correlation between the binding energies of Helium-4 trimers and the atom-dimer scattering length. Our results are in excellent agreement with the recent three-dimensional Faddeev calculations of Roudnev and collaborators that used phenomenological inter-atomic potentials.
Deuteron Matrix Elements in Chiral Effective Theory at Leading Order
L. Platter,D. R. Phillips
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2006.08.053
Abstract: We consider matrix elements of two-nucleon operators that arise in chiral effective theories of the two-nucleon system. Generically, the short-distance piece of these operators scales as 1/r^n, with r the relative separation of the two nucleons. We show that, when evaluated between the leading-order wave functions obtained in this effective theory, these two-nucleon operators are independent of the cutoff used to renormalize the two-body problem for n=1 and 2. However, for n greater than or equal to 3 general arguments about the short-distance behavior of the leading-order deuteron wave function show that the matrix element will diverge.
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