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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 298407 matches for " Megan J Moerdyk-Schauwecker "
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A role for DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factor in the recognition of herpes simplex virus type 1 by glial cells
Samantha R Furr, Vinita S Chauhan, Megan J Moerdyk-Schauwecker, Ian Marriott
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-99
Abstract: Expression of DAI and its downstream effector molecules was determined in C57BL/6-derived microglia and astrocytes, either at rest or following exposure to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and/or murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68), by immunoblot analysis. In addition, such expression was studied in ex vivo microglia/macrophages and astrocytes from uninfected animals or mice infected with HSV-1. Inflammatory cytokine production by glial cultures following transfection with a DAI specific ligand (B-DNA), or following HSV-1 challenge in the absence or presence of siRNA directed against DAI, was assessed by specific capture ELISA. The production of soluble neurotoxic mediators by HSV-1 infected glia following DAI knockdown was assessed by analysis of the susceptibility of neuron-like cells to conditioned glial media.We show that isolated microglia and astrocytes constitutively express DAI and its effector molecules, and show that such expression is upregulated following DNA virus challenge. We demonstrate that these resident CNS cells express DAI in situ, and show that its expression is similarly elevated in a murine model of HSV-1 encephalitis. Importantly, we show B-DNA transfection can elicit inflammatory cytokine production by isolated glial cells and DAI knockdown can significantly reduce microglial and astrocyte responses to HSV-1. Finally, we demonstrate that HSV-1 challenged microglia and astrocytes release neurotoxic mediators and show that such production is significantly attenuated following DAI knockdown.The functional expression of DAI by microglia and astrocytes may represent an important innate immune mechanism underlying the rapid and potentially lethal inflammation associated with neurotropic DNA virus infection.The neurotropic DNA virus herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is capable of causing severe necrotizing encephalitis and accounts for 95% of all fatal cases of sporadic viral encephalitis [1]. Untreated HSV-1 encephalitis has a 70% mortality
Analysis of virion associated host proteins in vesicular stomatitis virus using a proteomics approach
Megan Moerdyk-Schauwecker, Sun-Il Hwang, Valery Z Grdzelishvili
Virology Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-6-166
Abstract: Here we used a proteomics approach to identify cellular proteins within purified VSV virions, thereby creating a "snapshot" of one stage of virus/host interaction that can guide future experiments aimed at understanding molecular mechanisms of virus-cell interactions. Highly purified preparations of VSV virions from three different cell lines of human, mouse and hamster origin were analyzed for the presence of cellular proteins using mass spectrometry. We have successfully confirmed the presence of several previously-identified cellular proteins within VSV virions and identified a number of additional proteins likely to also be present within the virions. In total, sixty-four cellular proteins were identified, of which nine were found in multiple preparations. A combination of immunoblotting and proteinase K protection assay was used to verify the presence of several of these proteins (integrin β1, heat shock protein 90 kDa, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, annexin 2, elongation factor 1a) within the virions.This is, to our knowledge, the first systematic study of the host protein composition for virions of VSV or any other member of the order Mononegavirales. Future experiments are needed to determine which of the identified proteins have an interaction with VSV and whether these interactions are beneficial, neutral or antiviral with respect to VSV replication. Identification of host proteins-virus interactions beneficial for virus would be particularly exciting as they can provide new ways to combat viral infections via control of host components.The order Mononegavirales contains four families (Rhabdoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Filoviridae and Bornaviridae), which include many lethal human pathogens (e.g. rabies, Ebola, and Hendra viruses); highly prevalent human pathogens, such as the respiratory syncytial and parainfluenza viruses; potential ethological agents of some neurobehavioral abnormalities and psychiatric disorders in humans (Borna disease virus); as we
Analysis of vaccinia virus temperature-sensitive I7L mutants reveals two potential functional domains
Megan J Moerdyk, Chelsea M Byrd, Dennis E Hruby
Virology Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-3-64
Abstract: Vaccinia virus (VV) is the prototypic member of the orthopoxviruses, a genus of large, double-stranded DNA viruses which includes the human pathogens variola virus and monkeypox virus. VV has a complex replication cycle where, as in many other viruses, proteolysis plays a key role in the maturation process. The initial step in virion assembly is envelopment of viroplasm by crescent shaped membranes to form immature virions (IV). The IVs must then undergo a series of morphological changes, including cleavage of a number of core protein precursors, to become intracellular mature virions (IMV), the first of several different infectious forms.The product of the VV I7L open reading frame (ORF) has been shown to be the viral core protein proteinase responsible for cleavage of the major core protein precursors P4a (A10L), P4b (A3L), and P25K(L4R) [1,2]. It is a cysteine proteinase, with a catalytic triad consisting of a histidine, an aspartate and a cysteine residue [2] and cleaves its substrates at conserved AG*X motifs [3-5]. In addition to the major core protein precursors, I7L has been shown to cleave the membrane protein A17L [6] and may also be responsible for the cleavage of other viral proteins containing the AG*X motif such as A12L and G7L whose cleavage has been documented but not attributed to a particular proteinase [5,7].In the absence of functional I7L, virion morphogenesis is irreversibly arrested after the formation of IV but prior to the formation of IMV [6,8,9]. Despite the potential importance of this enzyme, relatively little is known about the biochemistry of the cleavage reaction or the structural features which allow I7L to direct regulated catalysis. Up to this point, all attempts to produce purified, functional I7L have failed, thereby limiting progress in this area. An alternative approach for studying the I7L protein is an analysis of the existing collections of temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants. Six ts mutants from the Dales and Condit collecti
Die Voortrekker-Monument
Gerard Moerdyk
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1938, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v6i3.1737
Abstract: Die Eeufeesjaar is vir die Afrikaner ’n tydperk van besieling. Nog nooit sedert die ontstaan van ons volk het een enkele gebeurtenis soveel nasietrots gewek as die honderdjarige herdenking van die Groot Trek. Vir die eerste keer in ons geskiedenis voel ons ons nie meer Kapenaars, Vrystaters, Natalers, en Transvalers nie, maar Afrikaners, saamgesnoer deur die tradisies van ’n selfstandige kultuurvolk. Wanneer die klimaks van die Ossewatrek met die hocksteenlegging van die Voortrekker-Monument bereik word, sal die besieling nie uitsterf nie, die krag wat geskep is sal bly voortgroei tot ’n onweerstaanbare mag. Die Afrikaner sal homself vind, en as die Monument na sowat vyf jaar onthul word, sal die saad wat in hierdie jaar gesaai is, tot voile rypheid gekom het. Dan sal die Monument self tot die volk spreek; intussen egter, is dit wenslik, nee noodsaaklik selfs, om die Monument aan die Afrikaners te verklaar, om ‘n uiteensetting te gee van die noodsaaklikheid van so ’n Monument, sowel as om die motief te verduidelik wat as inspirasie gedien het vir die ontwerpdaar van.
à propos du lexique juridique en ancien fran ais avant le 13e siècle : la Règle de saint Beno t et le Perceval de Chrétien de Troyes
Schauwecker Yela
SHS Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/shsconf/20120100117
Abstract: La plus ancienne traduction de la {em Règle} de saint Beno t en franc{c}ais, rédigée en dialecte picard-wallon, date de la première moitié ou du milieu du {sc xii}$^{ m e}$~siècle. On veut montrer que son auteur, pour qui le changement de langue, n'est pas le premier objectif s'efforce de transférer le texte de son milieu originel de l'Antiquité tardive dans le monde chevaleresque-féodal du {sc xii}$^{ m e}$~siècle. Même sans nécessité apparente, quand il a eu à sa disposition l'équivalent du mot employé dans la {em Regula}, il substitue aux mots latins des termes juridiques et féodaux franc{c}ais. par Son texte, en tant que document de droit pour les moines, devient ainsi une source de vocabulaire juridique franc{c}ais avant le {sc xiii}$^{ m e}$~siècle, c'est-à-dire dans un temps où les documents juridiques en langue vulgaire sont extrêmement rares. Cela est d au fait que la justice, dans le Nord, fondée sur des coutumes, utilisait la langue vernaculaire à l'oral. La terminologie juridique franc{c}aise est bien enracinée dans la langue courante de l'époque~: leur insertion dans les Lais et les Chansons de geste en fait preuve. Mais cette terminologie est souvent méconnue par la lexicographie traditionnelle de l'ancien franc{c}ais, en raison des contextes littéraires et figurés. par
The effects of glycemic control on seizures and seizure-induced excitotoxic cell death
Schauwecker Paula
BMC Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-13-94
Abstract: Background Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder after stroke, affecting more than 50 million persons worldwide. Metabolic disturbances are often associated with epileptic seizures, but the pathogenesis of this relationship is poorly understood. It is known that seizures result in altered glucose metabolism, the reduction of intracellular energy metabolites such as ATP, ADP and phosphocreatine and the accumulation of metabolic intermediates, such as lactate and adenosine. In particular, it has been suggested that the duration and extent of glucose dysregulation may be a predictor of the pathological outcome of status. However, little is known about neither the effects of glycemic control on brain metabolism nor the effects of managing systemic glucose concentrations in epilepsy. Results In this study, we examined glycemic modulation of kainate-induced seizure sensitivity and its neuropathological consequences. To investigate the relationship between glycemic modulation, seizure susceptibility and its neuropathological consequences, C57BL/6 mice (excitotoxin cell death resistant) were subjected to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, followed by systemic administration of kainic acid to induce seizures. Glycemic modulation resulted in minimal consequences with regard to seizure severity but increased hippocampal pathology, irrespective of whether mice were hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic prior to kainate administration. Moreover, we found that exogenous administration of glucose following kainic acid seizures significantly reduced the extent of hippocampal pathology in FVB/N mice (excitotoxin cell death susceptible) following systemic administration of kainic acid. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that modulation of the glycemic index can modify the outcome of brain injury in the kainate model of seizure induction. Moreover, modulation of the glycemic index through glucose rescue greatly diminishes the extent of seizure-induced cell death following kainate administration. Our data support the hypothesis that deficient insulin signaling may represent a critical contributing factor in the susceptibility to seizure-induced cell death and this may be an important therapeutic target.
Galanin Receptor 1 Deletion Exacerbates Hippocampal Neuronal Loss after Systemic Kainate Administration in Mice
P. Elyse Schauwecker
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015657
Abstract: Galanin is a neuropeptide with a wide distribution in the central and peripheral nervous systems and whose physiological effects are mediated through three G protein-coupled receptor subtypes, GalR1, GalR2, and GalR3. Several lines of evidence indicate that galanin, as well as activation of the GalR1 receptor, is a potent and effective modulator of neuronal excitability in the hippocampus.
Practicing What We Preach: How Are Admissions Decisions Made for Clinical Psychology Graduate Programs, and What Do Students Need to Know?  [PDF]
Travis J. Pashak, Paul J. Handal, Megan Ubinger
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31001
Abstract: As the application process to Clinical Psychology graduate programs becomes increasingly competitive, applicants and advisors have a need to know what to expect. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of the application process, an examination of characteristics of admission committees’ criteria and selection policies, and an analysis of differences among and between programs of different types. Programs offering doctoral degrees in clinical psychology (n = 59) were surveyed regarding their admissions procedures and criteria, and the results are discussed in light of what impacts applicants. Findings suggest that policies and procedures are mixed, that important differences exist between Ph.D. programs and Psy.D. programs, and that programs generally follow an assessment model in their selection decisions.
Empowering black managers in a multicultural society
A. P. Moerdyk,D. Coldwell
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 1990, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v16i1.500
Abstract: Recently, Erwee (1988) discussed the issue of black advancement in South Africa. This paper extends and clarifies her views. Three reasons for lack of progress are proposed. The first two, namely prejudice and lock of ability are rejected in favour of a mismatch argument, which argues that management is ethnocentric, seeking out and rewarding behaviours that are arbitrary and inappropriate. The effects of "culture" on the behaviour of black employees and white management are discussed and the need is stressed for both groups to move from their ethnocentric value systems and behaviour patterns if black managers are to be "empowered" to achieve their full potential. Opsomming Erwee (1988) het onlangs die kwessie van swart vooruitgang in Suid-Afrika bespreek. Hierdie referaat brei daarop uit en lewer kommentaar op haar sienswyse. Drie redes vir die gebrek aan vordering word aan die hand gedoen. Die eerste twee, naamlik vooroordeel en gebrek aan bekwaamhied word verwerp ten gunste van 'n wanpassingsargument waarvolgens bestuur as etnosentries beskou word en dienooreenkomstig gedrag soek en beloon wat in wese arbitrer en ontoepaslik is. Die effek van "kulturele" faktore op die gedrag van swart werknemers en blanke bestuurders word bespreek en die behoefte daaraan dat beide groepe wegbeweeg van hulle etnosentriese waardestelsels en gedragspatrone, word beklemtoon as voorvereiste vir die bemagtiging van swart bestuurders om hulle voile potensiaal te verwesenlik.
Family Conflict Resolution: Its Measurement and Relationship with Family Conflict and Psychological Adjustment  [PDF]
P. Tyler Roskos, Paul J. Handal, Megan E. Ubinger
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.15046
Abstract: Based on family conflict literature, there is a need for the development of a measure of family conflict resolution. This study aimed to develop items based on established instruments and rationally construct new items in order to pilot a measure of family conflict resolution. Preliminary reliability and validity data were obtained using a sample of young adults. Results indicate that the proposed measure of conflict resolution produced valid factor analytic solutions, adequate internal consistency, and construct validity. The results of this study also revealed avoidance of conflict as a factor that is related to adjustment. Future research into conflict avoidance as a salient contributor to psychological adjustment appears warranted.
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