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Inventory, Geographical Distribution of Caryedon Species in Burkina Faso, and Evaluation of Their Impact on Stored Groundnut  [PDF]
Issoufou Ouedraogo, Mbacke Sembene, Dona Dakouo
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2017.52005
Abstract: To understand the mechanism of infestation of stored groundnut in farming areas, studies on the inventory and geographical distribution of Caryedon species were carried out in the tree savannah and in producers’ storage structures. The incidence of C. serratus in stored groundnut was evaluated. Inventory and geographical distribution of insects belonging to Caryedon genus was achieved through a sampling in the savannah and producers’ granaries. The inventory and geographical distribution of insects was made throughout Burkina Faso whereas the evaluation of the perforations of groundnut pods was made in the western zone of the country. The results of the inventory showed the presence of two species belonging to Caryedon genus which are C. serratus and C. crampelii. These species are found on the agro-ecological zones of the country. The survival and maintenance of Caryedon species genus are ensured by the presence of plants belonging to various families such as Caesalpiniceae and Mimosaceae. The evaluation of the losses caused by C. serratus in producer’s stored groundnut revealed that the pods perforation rate varied according to the locality. In?Toussiana, the rate of perforated pods ranged from 53.72% to 100% in five months while in?Karangasso Sembla, for the same conservation time, the rate was in the range from 2.8% to 35%. However it is C. serratus which is responsible for the losses observed in the stored groundnut. Indeed, in the western area of Burkina Faso where more than 25% of the production is realized, 70% of
Diversity and Origin of Indigenous Village Chickens (Gallus gallus) from Chad, Central Africa  [PDF]
Khadidja Hassaballah, Vounparet Zeuh, Raman A. Lawal, Olivier Hanotte, Mbacké Sembene
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2015.69062
Abstract: In this study we assess the maternal genetic diversity and origin of indigenous village chickens from Chad complementing previous phenotypic and biometric measurements studies. We analysed a 387 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region of 181 village chickens from three populations of western Chad (Lake Chad/Hadjer Lamis), central Chad (Guera) and south-west Chad (Pala) and at different poultry markets in N'Djamena. Twenty-five polymorphic sites and 20 haplotypes are identified. Phylogenetic and network analyses group all chicken into a single mtDNA haplogroup D. Comparison with reference sequences shows that this haplogroup is the commonest one observed in chicken and it supports the Indian subcontinent as the maternal center of origin for the village chicken in Chad. Little genetic variation was found within and between populations which is in agreement with a recent and a maternal founding effect for the chicken in the country.
Benzyltriphenylphosphonium dichloridotriphenylstannate(IV)
Bocar Traore,Mouhamadou Sembene Boye,Mamadou Sidibe,Libasse Diop
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2013, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536812049689
Abstract: The crystal structure of the title salt, (C25H22P)[Sn(C6H5)3Cl2] or (PhCH2PPh3)[SnPh3Cl2], consists of [PhCH2PPh3]+ cations and [SnPh3Cl2] anions in which the SnIV atom is linked to two Cl atoms and three phenyl groups in a trigonal–bipyramidal geometry, with the Cl atoms in trans positions. The cation adopts a tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal, the cations and the anions are connected by C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to an infinite chain propagating along the c direction.
Hypertension and periodontal status in Senegalese patients: A case-control study  [PDF]
Mohamed Leye, Massamba Diouf, William Stéve Térence Madozein, Modou Jobe, El Hadj Mbacke Sarr, Simon Joel Manga, Arame Diagne Diallo, Ibrahima Bara Diop
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2014.41005
Abstract: Introduction: Hypertension is a public health concern worldwide due to its known consequences. The literature has shown a close relationship between periodontal disease and systemic diseases, especially hypertension. The objective of this study was to determine the periodontal risk factors involved in the occurrence or severity of hypertension in a population of patients attending the cardiology department of Fann University Hospital located in an urban Dakar region. Methodology: This was a case-control study involving 246 patients of whom 123 were hypertensive patients (cases) and 123 non-hypertensive patients (controls). The data collected include sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, risk factors, and data on hypertension and on periodontal disease: plaque index, papillary bleeding index, clinical attachment loss, pocket depth and community periodontal index and treatment needs (CPITN). Data in univariate analysis were expressed as proportions and averages and odd ratios with their confidence intervals. Results: The average age in the cases group was 58 ± 11.4 years and 34.5 ± 14.2 years in the control group. The body mass index (BMI) averaged 27.1 ± 6 kg/m2 and 23.2 ± 4.6 kg/m2 respectively in cases and controls. Hypertensive patients had on average more severe periodontal characteristics than non-hypertensives (PAC of 2.8 ± 1859 versus 0.8 ± 1.325) (CPITN 2.5 ± 0.998 versus 1.2 ± 1.074) and the risk of developing hypertension adjusted for age, physical inactivity, heredity and other parameters was twice more when the patient had periodontitis. Conclusion: It is necessary to have a more integrated approach in the management of hypertension, which should take into account oro-dental factors.
Attitudes and Practices of Senegalese Dentists towards Hepatitis B  [PDF]
Massamba Diouf, Jean-Claude Guinan, Amadou Dieng, Mbatio Diop, Aida Kanouté, Abou Dramane Sanghare, Ndeye Amina Diop, Daouda Cisse, Cheikh Mamadou Mbacke Lo, Daouda Faye
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2017.74026
Abstract: Introduction: Hepatitis B is an infectious viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver. It is transmitted through body secretions and fluids, including genital secretions, saliva and blood. The objective of this study was to assess the attitudes and practices of dental surgeons in the face infection of Hepatitis B. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional a sample of 171 dental surgeons. Probabilistic multi-stage, stratified, and systematic sampling was used. Using a questionnaire, we gathered variables related to the attitudes and practices of dentists with respect to Hep B. Results: Nearly 22% of dentists were not vaccinated against hepatitis B virus; Compliance with the use of gloves, glasses, professional clothing, and hygiene in dental offices was not systematic. Blood exposure accidents (BEA) were common, with nearly 13% suffering from needle stick injuries, 10% from eye splashes and about 6% from sharp instruments. The majority of the actions to be taken in the event of (BEA) were disinfection in the event of sticks or injuries (52.1%) and rinsing in the event of eye splashes (66.7%). Conclusion: Dentists should be educated and informed about the need for vaccination and hygiene, sterilization, and good behaviour in case of exposure to blood.
Qualitative Detection of Proviral-DNA of HIV-1 in Infants to Determine the Efficacy of Antiretroviral Therapy in the Prevention of Vertical Transmission of HIV-1 in The Gambia  [PDF]
Lamin B. Cham, Pape Mbacké Sembene, Pa Ousman Bah, Musa Ceesay, Ebrima Joof, Abou Kebbeh, Massamba Gueye, Ebrima Njie, Bakary Sanneh
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2016.64019
Abstract: The priority of The Gambia government is to eliminate maternal to child transmission of HIV and in line with this priority, the country implemented an antiretroviral therapy (ART) program. With this, all HIV infected pregnant and breastfeeding mothers and infants have access to ARV drugs. This study aims to determine the prevalence of vertical transmission of HIV among women receiving the ARV drugs. Dried blood spot samples were collected from 109 HIV-exposed infants enrolled in 13 PMTCT sites across the country. A qualitative detection of proviral-DNA of HIV-1 was performed using the RealTime Abbott PCR assay. Data from 105 mothers were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and association of risk factors to PCR results were analyzed using (Crosstabs) Pearson Chi-Square. The p-value of significant was set at p < 0.05. This study has found that the prevalence of vertical transmission of HIV is 0.0% (0/64) among women that received the ARV prophylaxis then started ART, 7.1% (2/28) among mothers that received HIV prophylaxis only, and 38.4% (5/13) among women who neither receive HIV-prophylaxis nor ART during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Other risk factors of vertical transmission such as late initiation of treatment, default during treatment and first born of twins were found to be significantly associated with vertical transmission p = 0.001, p = 0.022 and p = 0.000 respectively. This study has found that the early intervention of ART at the onset of pregnancy through breastfeeding can eliminates Maternal to Child transmission of HIV-1and a high risk of vertical transmission was found among women who neither receive prophylaxis nor ART. If the effectiveness of the antiretroviral therapy is maintain, The Gambia, in the near future will attain the WHO’s goal to eliminate maternal to child transmission of HIV.
catena-Poly[bis(dibenzylammonium) [[dichloridomercurate(II)]-μ-sulfato-κ2O:O′]]
Mouhamadou Sembene Boye,Aminata Diasse-Sarr,Arnaud Grosjean,Philippe Guionneau
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2012, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536812006927
Abstract: The structure of the title compound, (C14H16N)2[HgCl2(SO4)], consists of an infinite chain propagating along the c direction, containing HgII ions tetracoordinated by two bridging O atoms of bis-monodentate sulfate anions and two chloride ligands. In the the crystal, N—H...O hydrogen bonding between the cations and the anionic chains consolidates the packing. The crystal structure was determined from an inversion twin with approximately equal twin domains.
Mouhamadou Sembene Boye,Aminata Diasse-Sarr,Arnaud Grosjean,Philippe Guionneau
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2013, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536813000676
Abstract: The central SnIV atom of the pentanuclear title complex, {[Sn(CH3)3]3O2C(CH2)PO3[Sn(CH3)3(H2O)]2HO2C(CH2)PO3}, is located on a twofold rotation axis; due to symmetry, the H atom of the carboxyl group of the anion is disordered with a site occupancy of 0.5. The central SnIV atom is bonded to three methyl groups (one of which is disordered about the twofold rotation axis) and is symmetrically trans coordinated by two phosphonate groups with Sn—O = 2.2665 (12) while the other SnMe3 residues are asymmetrically trans coordinated with Sn—O = 2.1587 (12) and 2.3756 (13) for one residue and Sn—O = 2.1522 (12) and 2.4335 (12) for the other; the Sn–O distances involving two O atoms trans to carboxylate are longer than those trans to phosphonate groups. The Sn—C distances lie in a very narrow range [2.112 (2)–2.133 (3) ]. The oxyanion behaves as a tetra-coordinating ligand. The bridging mode of the latter leads to the formation of layers parallel to (001) that are interconnected by O—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds.
Bis(1,1-dimethylguanidinium) tetraaquadimethyltin(IV) bis(sulfate)
Mouhamadou Sembene Boye,Aminata Diasse-Sarr,Eric Lebraud,Philippe Guionneau
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2012, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811053761
Abstract: Single crystals of the title salt, (C3H10N3)2[Sn(CH3)2(H2O)4](SO4)2, formed concomitantly with the already known [Sn(CH3)3]2SO4·2H2O. In the title structure, the SnIV atom displays a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry defined by four O water atoms in the equatorial positions and two methyl groups in the axial positions. In the crystal, various O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions between the organic cation and the coordinated water molecules as donors and the sulfate O atoms as acceptors result in a three-dimensional structure. The SnIV atom is located on an inversion centre, resulting in half of the complex metal cation being in the asymmetric unit.
Study of Factors Associated with Anemia among Women in Reproductive Age in Kolda (Senegal)  [PDF]
Tine Jean Augustin Diégane, Faye Adama, Diop Sophie, Niang Khadim, Bassoum Oumar, Leye Mamadou Moustapha Mbacke, Sougou Ndeye Mareme, Diongue Fatoumata Bintou, Diallo Amadou Ibra, Diongue Mayassine, Camara Maty Diagne, Dankoko Boubacar, Seck Ibrahima, Dia Anta Tal
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2018.87073
Abstract: Introduction: Anemia in women of reproductive age is a common health problem in the region of Kolda (Senegal). The objective of this research was to study the risk factors of anemia among women in reproductive age in Kolda (Senegal). Methodology: A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study of women in reproductive age and their households was conducted in the Kolda region between October and December 2015. This was a three-stage random sample survey. The data was collected during an individual interview. Logistic regression was used to identify the factors of this anemia. Results: In this study, 968 women of reproductive age were surveyed. The average age of women was 27 years with a standard deviation of 7.4 years. There were 10% of pregnant women, 36.3% of lactating women and 53.7% of women neither pregnant nor lactating. The average size of the households surveyed was 14 people and the 36.3% had an average economic level. The majority of households were equipped with traditional latrines (76.9%). Women were neither pregnant nor lactating in 53.7%, were uneducated in 70.7% and 81% used micronutrient-rich foods. The prevalence of anemic women was 55.2%. The factors associated with anemia in women in Kolda were the use of traditional latrines (ORa = 1.48 [1.0 - 2.1]), the woman’s pregnancy status (ORa = 5 [2.7 - 9.8]), non-education of the woman (ORa = 1.52 [1.1 - 2.0]), the existence of income-generating activity for the woman (ORa = 0.69 [0.5 - 0.9]), the processing of local products in the household (ORa = 0.5 [0.3 - 0.9]) and the use of at least one micronutrient rich food in the household (ORa = 0.73 [0.49 - 1.0]). Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia
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