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Investigation of Borrelia burgdorferi genotypes in Australia obtained from erythema migrans tissue
Mayne PJ
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S31913
Abstract: vestigation of Borrelia burgdorferi genotypes in Australia obtained from erythema migrans tissue Case Series (3589) Total Article Views Authors: Mayne PJ Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 69 - 78 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S31913 Received: 18 March 2012 Accepted: 27 April 2012 Published: 05 July 2012 Peter J Mayne International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA The author is a member of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) Background: Lyme disease (LD) is an emerging infectious disease in Australia. There has been controversy regarding endemic lyme disease in the country for over 20 years. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss) and sensu lato (Bbsl) are closely related spirochetal species that are the causative agents of LD in humans. Clinical transmission of this tick-borne disease is marked by a characteristic rash known as erythema migrans (EM). This study employed molecular techniques to demonstrate the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease isolated from EM biopsies of patients in Australia and then investigate their genetic diversity. Methods: Four patients who presented to the author's practice over a one-year period from mid 2010 to mid 2011 returned positive results on central tissue biopsy of EM lesions using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The findings were confirmed by DNA sequencing, and basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis was then used to genetically characterize the causative organisms. Results: Three isolates were identified as Bbss that lay genotypically between strains B31 and ZS7 and were then characterized as strain 64b. One of the three isolates though may have similarity to B. bissettii a Bbsl. The fourth isolate was more appropriately placed in the sensu lato group and appeared to be similar, but not identical to, a B. valaisiana-type isolate. In this study, a central biopsy taken within 6 days of infection was used instead of conventional sampling at the leading edge, and the merits of this are discussed. Conclusion: These patients acquired infection in Australia, further proving endemic LD on the continent. Central biopsy site of EM is a useful tool for PCR evaluation. BLAST searches suggest a genetic diversity of B. burgdorferi, which has implications concerning the diagnosis, clinical severity, and testing of LD in Australia.
Emerging incidence of Lyme borreliosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Australia
Mayne PJ
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S27336
Abstract: ging incidence of Lyme borreliosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Australia Case Series (14672) Total Article Views Authors: Mayne PJ Video presented by Peter J Mayne Views: 1209 Published Date December 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 845 - 852 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S27336 Peter J Mayne International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA Background: Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD), and Babesia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia species (spp.) are recognized tick-borne pathogens in humans worldwide. Using serology and molecular testing, the incidence of these pathogens was investigated in symptomatic patients from Australia. Methods: Sera were analyzed by an immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) followed by immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM Western blot (WB) assays. Both whole blood and sera were analyzed for detection of specific Borrelia spp. DNA using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Simultaneously, patients were tested for Babesia microti, Babesia duncani, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Bartonella henselae infection by IgG and IgM IFA serology, PCR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Results: Most patients reported symptom onset in Australia without recent overseas travel. 28 of 51 (55%) tested positive for LD. Of 41 patients tested for tick-borne coinfections, 13 (32%) were positive for Babesia spp. and nine (22%) were positive for Bartonella spp. Twenty-five patients were tested for Ehrlichia spp. and (16%) were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum while none were positive for Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Among the 51 patients tested for LD, 21 (41%) had evidence of more than one tick-borne infection. Positive tests for LD, Babesia duncani, Babesia microti, and Bartonella henselae were demonstrated in an individual who had never left the state of Queensland. Positive testing for these pathogens was found in three others whose movements were restricted to the east coast of Australia. Conclusion: The study identified a much larger tick-borne disease (TBD) burden within the Australian community than hitherto reported. In particular, the first cases of endemic human Babesia and Bartonella disease in Australia with coexisting Borrelia infection are described, thus defining current hidden and unrecognized components of TBD and demonstrating local acquisition in patients who have never been abroad.
Emerging incidence of Lyme borreliosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Australia
Mayne PJ
International Journal of General Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Peter J MayneInternational Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USABackground: Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD), and Babesia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia species (spp.) are recognized tick-borne pathogens in humans worldwide. Using serology and molecular testing, the incidence of these pathogens was investigated in symptomatic patients from Australia.Methods: Sera were analyzed by an immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) followed by immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM Western blot (WB) assays. Both whole blood and sera were analyzed for detection of specific Borrelia spp. DNA using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Simultaneously, patients were tested for Babesia microti, Babesia duncani, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Bartonella henselae infection by IgG and IgM IFA serology, PCR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).Results: Most patients reported symptom onset in Australia without recent overseas travel. 28 of 51 (55%) tested positive for LD. Of 41 patients tested for tick-borne coinfections, 13 (32%) were positive for Babesia spp. and nine (22%) were positive for Bartonella spp. Twenty-five patients were tested for Ehrlichia spp. and (16%) were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum while none were positive for Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Among the 51 patients tested for LD, 21 (41%) had evidence of more than one tick-borne infection. Positive tests for LD, Babesia duncani, Babesia microti, and Bartonella henselae were demonstrated in an individual who had never left the state of Queensland. Positive testing for these pathogens was found in three others whose movements were restricted to the east coast of Australia.Conclusion: The study identified a much larger tick-borne disease (TBD) burden within the Australian community than hitherto reported. In particular, the first cases of endemic human Babesia and Bartonella disease in Australia with coexisting Borrelia infection are described, thus defining current hidden and unrecognized components of TBD and demonstrating local acquisition in patients who have never been abroad.Keywords: Borrelia, lyme disease, Babesia, Bartonella, ehrlichiosis, Australia, humans
Investigation of Borrelia burgdorferi genotypes in Australia obtained from erythema migrans tissue
Mayne PJ
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology , 2012,
Abstract: Peter J Mayne International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA The author is a member of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS)Background: Lyme disease (LD) is an emerging infectious disease in Australia. There has been controversy regarding endemic lyme disease in the country for over 20 years. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss) and sensu lato (Bbsl) are closely related spirochetal species that are the causative agents of LD in humans. Clinical transmission of this tick-borne disease is marked by a characteristic rash known as erythema migrans (EM). This study employed molecular techniques to demonstrate the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease isolated from EM biopsies of patients in Australia and then investigate their genetic diversity.Methods: Four patients who presented to the author's practice over a one-year period from mid 2010 to mid 2011 returned positive results on central tissue biopsy of EM lesions using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The findings were confirmed by DNA sequencing, and basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis was then used to genetically characterize the causative organisms.Results: Three isolates were identified as Bbss that lay genotypically between strains B31 and ZS7 and were then characterized as strain 64b. One of the three isolates though may have similarity to B. bissettii a Bbsl. The fourth isolate was more appropriately placed in the sensu lato group and appeared to be similar, but not identical to, a B. valaisiana-type isolate. In this study, a central biopsy taken within 6 days of infection was used instead of conventional sampling at the leading edge, and the merits of this are discussed.Conclusion: These patients acquired infection in Australia, further proving endemic LD on the continent. Central biopsy site of EM is a useful tool for PCR evaluation. BLAST searches suggest a genetic diversity of B. burgdorferi, which has implications concerning the diagnosis, clinical severity, and testing of LD in Australia.Keywords: tissue biopsy, PCR, lyme disease, lyme-like
Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease
Middelveen MJ, Mayne PJ, Kahn DG, Stricker RB
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S39017
Abstract: racterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease Original Research (6113) Total Article Views Authors: Middelveen MJ, Mayne PJ, Kahn DG, Stricker RB Video abstract presented by Raphael B Stricker Views: 1031 Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 1 - 21 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S39017 Received: 10 October 2012 Accepted: 28 November 2012 Published: 08 January 2013 Marianne J Middelveen,1 Peter J Mayne,1 Douglas G Kahn,2 Raphael B Stricker1 1International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Olive View–UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, USA Abstract: Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either self-implanted by patients or accidentally adhering to lesions, and conclude that patients with this disease have delusions of infestation. We present histological observations and electron microscopic imaging from representative Morgellons disease samples revealing that dermal filaments in these cases are keratin and collagen in composition and result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the epidermis. Spirochetes were detected in the dermatological specimens from our study patients, providing evidence that Morgellons disease is associated with an infectious process.
Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease
Middelveen MJ,Mayne PJ,Kahn DG,Stricker RB
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology , 2013,
Abstract: Marianne J Middelveen,1 Peter J Mayne,1 Douglas G Kahn,2 Raphael B Stricker11International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Olive View–UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, USAAbstract: Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either self-implanted by patients or accidentally adhering to lesions, and conclude that patients with this disease have delusions of infestation. We present histological observations and electron microscopic imaging from representative Morgellons disease samples revealing that dermal filaments in these cases are keratin and collagen in composition and result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the epidermis. Spirochetes were detected in the dermatological specimens from our study patients, providing evidence that Morgellons disease is associated with an infectious process.Keywords: Morgellons disease, digital dermatitis, Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, spirochetes, keratin, keratinocytes, collagen, fibroblasts
Observational indicators of the transition from fully convective stars to stars with radiative cores
Nathan Mayne
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17245.x
Abstract: We present a discussion of the similarities and key differences between the transition onto (at the turn-on) and away from (at the turn-off) the main sequence, the latter termed the Hertzsprung gap. Using a set of model isochrones and adopting an initial mass function leads us to predict a dearth of G-type stars for any star forming region. This is caused by the (relatively) constant spectral type at which the transition from a fully convective star to a star with a radiative core begins. We also present analysis of the details of this transition in the ONC. In particular we show that a gap in the photometric and spectral type distributions is centred on, and a change in the fractional X-ray luminosity and rotation rate distribution occurs approximately at, the position of a peak in radiative core size as a function of mass. Whilst photometric signatures of this transition are lost at ages over ~20 Myrs, we show that changes in fractional X-ray luminosity and magnetic field configuration persist to older ages. Analysis of literature data show that the mass at which the change in fractional X-ray luminosity is observed decreases with age.
Newborn screening for classic galactosemia and primary congenital hypothyroidism in the Nkangala district of the Mpumalanga province of South Africa.
PJ Lebea, PJ Pretorius
South African Journal of Child Health , 2008,
Abstract: Objectives. The main objective of this work was to establish the incidence of classic galactosaemia and primary congenital hypothyroidism in newborns in the Nkangala district of Mpumalanga. In the process a cost-effective protocol for neonatal screening of both diseases was developed. Study design and setting. Blood spot specimens were collected from a third (1 012 out of 3 297) of newborn infants in the Nkangala district of Mpumalanga province from June to November 2005. The specimens were subsequently screened for classic galactosaemia and hypothyroidism using metabolite quantification assays. Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) enzyme activity assays were also performed to confirm the reliability of the total galactose assays. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect commonly occurring mutations in the GALT gene that cause galactosaemia. Thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) levels were evaluated as a diagnostic metabolite for primary congenital hypothyroidism. Subjects and outcome measures. Informed consent was obtained from the babies' parents before commencement of screening. Total galactose levels above 0.9 mg/l and TSH concentrations above 25.1 mU/l were considered to indicate galactosaemia and hypothyroidism, respectively. A decrease in the total financial input on the screening protocol was evaluated for significance in cost reduction. Results. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be 0.1%, while none of the newborns presented with classic galactosaemia. There was an up to 20% reduction in direct input costs of screening when our protocol was applied. Conclusion. Cost-effective newborn screening is possible when classic galactosaemia and congenital hypothyroidism are screened for simultaneously. Cumulative disease frequency plots confirm the already established fact that hypothyroidism tends to occur at higher frequencies than classic galactosaemia. South African Journal of Child Health Vol. 2 (1) 2008: pp. 19-22
The effect of degree of competition for feeding space on the silage dry matter intake and feeding behaviour of dairy cows
Elizalde,HF; Mayne,CS;
Archivos de medicina veterinaria , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0301-732X2009000100004
Abstract: twenty five late lactation dairy cows were allocated to 5 treatments with either 1, 3, 5, 7 or 9 cows per feeding space. each feeding space consisted of a calan gate with access to silage blocks placed on a load platform. eating behaviour was monitored by identifying cows using collar borne transponders. animals had access to silage throughout the day, with fresh silage being offered daily at 09:30 h. no concentrates were offered during the experiment. cows were allocated to a graeco-latin square design with 5 periods. each period consisted of 14 days, and one cow per treatment was recorded for each period, with additional cows used to reach the required level of competition. all cows were rotated across treatments and gates over periods. as the degree of competition increased, animals modified their feeding behaviour, with a linear increase (p < 0.001) in both number of meals per day and eating rate. increasing level of competition resulted in linear reductions (p < 0.01) in total feeding time, feeding time per meal and average meal size. total dry matter intake was reduced both by the absence of competition and at high levels of competition, showing a quadratic trend (p < 0.05) with increasing competition. it is concluded that at low levels of competition, cows ate relatively few, large meals, but as competition increased cows consumed silage in a large number of small meals. at moderate levels of competition (3-7 cows/feeding space) cows maintained their intake as a result of marked changes in feeding behaviour.
Jorge Teillier: La inscripción de una historia familiar Jorge Teillier: The inscription of a family history
Alida Mayne-NichollsVerdi
Acta Literaria , 2012,
Abstract: El presente artículo propone una lectura de cinco poemas de Jorge Teillier, en los que se utilizan las comidas y bebidas como metáforas del sujeto poético. Este sujeto se encuentra en una posición de desarraigo e inicia un viaje a través de la memoria hacia la infancia, con el fin de realizar una reconstrucción de ésta, al punto de crear una inscripción de su historia familiar. This paper proposes a reading of fve poems from Jorge Teillier, in which food and beverage become metaphors for the poetic subject. This subject is in an uprooting position, so he begins a journey through memory towards childhood, with the purpose to perform a reconstruction of it, creating, at the same time, an inscription of his family history.
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