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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3664 matches for " Mayankbhai Patel "
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Gentamicin Renal Excretion in Rats: Probing Strategies to Mitigate Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity  [PDF]
Aruna Dontabhaktuni, David R. Taft, Mayankbhai Patel
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2016.71007
Abstract: The renal excretion of gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, was studied in the isolated perfused rat kidney (IPRK) model. Dose-linearity experiments were carried out at four doses (400, 800, 1600, 3200 μg), targeting initial perfusate levels of 5, 10, 20 and 40 μg/ml. Additionally, gentamicin was co-perfused with sodium bicarbonate (0.25 mM) and/or cimetidine (2 mM) to evaluate the effect of urinary alkalization and secretory inhibition on gentamicin excretion and kidney accumulation. Gentamicin displayed net reabsorption in the IPRK, consistent with extensive luminal uptake. Kinetic analysis indicated that luminal transport of gentamicin (kidney ? urine) is the rate-determining step for gentamicin urinary excretion. Clearance and cumulative excretion decreased with increased gentamicin dose. Gentamicin kidney accumulation, estimated by mass balance, ranged from ~20% - 30%. Urinary alkalization significantly increased gentamicin excretion, with no effect on kidney accumulation. Conversely, cimetidine co-administration did not affect gentamicin clearance in the IPRK, but kidney accumulation was significantly reduced. When both sodium bicarbonate and cimetidine were administered together, gentamicin kidney accumulation decreased ~80% with corresponding increases in clearance and excretion ratio (XR) compared to gentamicin alone. A main strategy to reduce the incidence of nephrotoxicity with gentamicin therapy (up to ~25%) involves reducing kidney accumulation of the compound. The results of this research suggest that the combination of urinary alkalization and inhibition of basolateral secretion (blood → kidney) may be a viable approach to mitigate aminoglycoside toxicity, and warrants further investigation.
A Quantitative Analysis of Collision Resolution Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network  [PDF]
Reema Patel, Dhiren Patel
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2015.88036
Abstract: In this paper, we present formal analysis of 2CS-WSN collision resolution protocol for wireless sensor networks using probabilistic model checking. The 2CS-WSN protocol is designed to be used during the contention phase of IEEE 802.15.4. In previous work on 2CS-WSN analysis, authors formalized protocol description at abstract level by defining counters to represent number of nodes in specific local state. On abstract model, the properties specifying individual node behavior cannot be analyzed. We formalize collision resolution protocol as a Markov Decision Process to express each node behavior and perform quantitative analysis using probabilistic model checker PRISM. The identical nodes induce symmetry in the reachable state space which leads to redundant search over equivalent areas of the state space during model checking. We use “ExplicitPRISMSymm” on-the-fly symmetry reduction approach to prevent the state space explosion and thus accommodate large number of nodes for analysis.
RETRACTED: Artefact in forensic medicine: The jigsaw piece in a thanatopsy puzzle  [PDF]
Freddy Patel
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2013.12002

Short Retraction Notice

The following article has been retracted due to the investigation of complaints received against it. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and we treat all unethical behavior seriously. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE's Retraction Guidelines. Aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics. The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused.

Editor guiding this retraction: Prof. Geoffrey Sperber (EB of FMAR)

The?full retraction notice?in PDF is preceding the original paper, which is marked \"RETRACTED\"

Spectroscopic Investigation and Characterizations of PAM/PEO Blends Films  [PDF]
Gaurang Patel, Mundan B. Sureshkumar, Purvi Patel
Soft (Soft) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/soft.2015.42002
Abstract: Polymer blends have been obtained in the form of dimensionally stable and free standing films and their properties were characterized by different techniques. FTIR analysis and Raman spectroscopic analysis cleared the hydrogen bonding intermolecular interaction between –CONH2 groups in Poly Acrylamide (PAM) and C-O-C and –CH2OH group in Poly Ethylene Oxide (PEO). From Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) the study shows that crystallinity is increasing with PEO wt%. From polymer interaction parameter we also show that the polymer blend is miscible. Thermal stability of films is investigated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and derivative Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (DrTG). From UV-Vis absorption spectra, absorption band edge, direct/ indirect band gap and optical activation energy have been calculated.
Trusted Heartbeat Framework for Cloud Computing  [PDF]
Dipen Contractor, Dhiren Patel, Shreya Patel
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2016.73007
Abstract: In cloud computing environment, as the infrastructure not owned by users, it is desirable that its security and integrity must be protected and verified time to time. In Hadoop based scalable computing setup, malfunctioning nodes generate wrong output during the run time. To detect such nodes, we create collaborative network between worker node (i.e. data node of Hadoop) and Master node (i.e. name node of Hadoop) with the help of trusted heartbeat framework (THF). We propose procedures to register node and to alter status of node based on reputation provided by other co-worker nodes.
Synthesis of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), and Mn(II) Complexes with Ciprofloxacin and Their Evaluation of Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Anti-Tubercular Activity  [PDF]
Ketan S. Patel, Jiten C. Patel, Hitesh R. Dholariya, Vishal K. Patel, Kanuprasad D. Patel
Open Journal of Metal (OJMetal) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmetal.2012.23008
Abstract: Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Mn(II) complexes synthesized by reflux of 6-bromo-3-(3-(4-chlorophenyl)acryloyl)-2H- chromen-2-one, Ciprofloxacin and various transition metal. 1H, 13C, IR and ESI Mass confirm the formation of ligand. The metal complexes were characterized on the basis of various spectroscopic techniques like IR studies and elemental analysis while the geometry of complexes was octahedral which is confirmed by electronic spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. The compounds were subjected to antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-tubercular activity screening using serial broth dilution method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) is determined. Mn(II) complex has shown significant antifungal activity with an MIC of 6.25 μg/ml while Cu(II) complex is noticeable for antibacterial activity at the same concentration. Anti-TB activity of the ligand has enhanced on complexation with Ni(II) and Co(II) ions. While Ni(II) complex shows superior antioxidant activity than other complexes.
A Survey of High Performance Concrete Developments in Civil Engineering Field  [PDF]
Vatsal Patel, Niraj Shah
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2013.32007

High Performance concrete (HPC) has received increased attention in the development of infrastructure Viz., Buildings, Industrial Structures, Hydraulic Structures, Bridges and Highways etc. leading to utilization of large quantity of concrete. This paper presents a comprehensive coverage of High Performance concrete developments in civil engineering field. It highlights the High Performance concrete features and requirements over conventional concrete. Furthermore, recent trends with regard to High Performance Concrete development in this area are explored. This paper also includes effect of Mineral and Chemical Admixtures used to improve performance of concrete.

Comparison of Two Markov Models for a 30-Year Simulation of the Natural History of Intracranial Aneurysms  [PDF]
Suraj Patel, Aichi Chien
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2014.42030
Abstract: Objective: There are several Markov models which simulate long-term aneurysm growth and rupture. By comparing multiple models, we cannot only find a way to accurately simulate the growth and rupture behavior of untreated aneurysms in our database, but also find he best model to simulate aneurysm behavior for other studies. This will let us identify which aneurysms require invasive treatment. Methods: We analyzed 290 aneurysms in 29 males and 177 females. The mean diameter was 4.5 ± 3.45 mm, and the mean age was 61 ± 13.22 years. We tested Markov Model I and Markov Model II to simulate growth and rupture over 30 years, and growth and rupture were functions of aneurysm volume. At five-year intervals, we calculated the odds ratio and used the One-Way ANOVA and Independent T-Test to test the effects of aneurysm diameter and growth on the rupture rate. Results: After 30 years, the mean aneurysm sizes were 9.18 ± 2.37 mm and 7.80 ± 6.44 mm for Markov Models I and II, respectively. The mean rupture rate was 13.93% ± 12.89% for Markov Model I and 14.15% ± 21.96% for Markov Model II. There was a significantly higher rupture rate and significant odds ratio for larger aneurysms and “Significant Growth” aneurysms at most five-year intervals. Conclusion: Aneurysms larger than 9.5 mm need immediate surgical treatment. For aneurysms between 3.5 - 9.5 mm, early intervention is recommended if the growth rate exceeds 0.36 mm/year. Markov Model I is the optimal model for our database due to the unrealistically large aneurysms produced by Markov Model II.

Virtual Numbers to Represent Entangled Quantum States  [PDF]
Lalit A. Patel
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2014.41002

In the existing formalism of quantum states, probability amplitudes of quantum states are complex numbers. A composition of entangled quantum states, such as a Bell state, cannot be decomposed into its constituent quantum states, implying that quantum states lose their identities when they get entangled. This is contrary to the observation that a composition of entangled quantum states decays back to its constituent quantum states. To eliminate this discrepancy, this paper introduces a new type of numbers, called virtual numbers, which produce zero upon multiplication with complex numbers. In the proposed formalism of quantum states, probability amplitudes of quantum states are general numbers made of complex and virtual numbers. A composition of entangled quantum states, such as a Bell state, can then be decomposed into its constituent quantum states, implying that quantum states retain their identities when they get entangled.

Evaluation of Modified Vector Space Representation Using ADFA-LD and ADFA-WD Datasets  [PDF]
Bhavesh Borisaniya, Dhiren Patel
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2015.63025
Abstract: Predicting anomalous behaviour of a running process using system call trace is a common practice among security community and it is still an active research area. It is a typical pattern recognition problem and can be dealt with machine learning algorithms. Standard system call datasets were employed to train these algorithms. However, advancements in operating systems made these datasets outdated and un-relevant. Australian Defence Force Academy Linux Dataset (ADFA-LD) and Australian Defence Force Academy Windows Dataset (ADFA-WD) are new generation system calls datasets that contain labelled system call traces for modern exploits and attacks on various applications. In this paper, we evaluate performance of Modified Vector Space Representation technique on ADFA-LD and ADFA-WD datasets using various classification algorithms. Our experimental results show that our method performs well and it helps accurately distinguishing process behaviour through system calls.
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