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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297862 matches for " Maureen J. Charron "
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Major Facilitator Superfamily Domain-Containing Protein 2a (MFSD2A) Has Roles in Body Growth, Motor Function, and Lipid Metabolism
Justin H. Berger, Maureen J. Charron, David L. Silver
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050629
Abstract: The metabolic adaptations to fasting in the liver are largely controlled by the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), where PPARα upregulates genes encoding the biochemical pathway for β-oxidation of fatty acids and ketogenesis. As part of an effort to identify and characterize nutritionally regulated genes that play physiological roles in the adaptation to fasting, we identified Major facilitator superfamily domain-containing protein 2a (Mfsd2a) as a fasting-induced gene regulated by both PPARα and glucagon signaling in the liver. MFSD2A is a cell-surface protein homologous to bacterial sodium-melibiose transporters. Hepatic expression and turnover of MFSD2A is acutely regulated by fasting/refeeding, but expression in the brain is constitutive. Relative to wildtype mice, gene-targeted Mfsd2a knockout mice are smaller, leaner, and have decreased serum, liver and brown adipose triglycerides. Mfsd2a knockout mice have normal liver lipid metabolism but increased whole body energy expenditure, likely due to increased β-oxidation in brown adipose tissue and significantly increased voluntary movement, but surprisingly exhibited a form of ataxia. Together, these results indicate that MFSD2A is a nutritionally regulated gene that plays myriad roles in body growth and development, motor function, and lipid metabolism. Moreover, these data suggest that the ligand(s) that are transported by MFSD2A play important roles in these physiological processes and await future identification.
Shared Effects of Genetic and Intrauterine and Perinatal Environment on the Development of Metabolic Syndrome
Patricia M. Vuguin, Kirsten Hartil, Michael Kruse, Harpreet Kaur, Chia-Lei Vivian Lin, Ariana Fiallo, Alan Scott Glenn, Avanee Patel, Lyda Williams, Yoshinori Seki, Ellen B. Katz, Maureen J. Charron
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063021
Abstract: Genetic and environmental factors, including the in utero environment, contribute to Metabolic Syndrome. Exposure to high fat diet exposure in utero and lactation increases incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in offspring. Using GLUT4 heterozygous (G4+/?) mice, genetically predisposed to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and wild-type littermates we demonstrate genotype specific differences to high fat in utero and lactation. High fat in utero and lactation increased adiposity and impaired insulin and glucose tolerance in both genotypes. High fat wild type offspring had increased serum glucose and PAI-1 levels and decreased adiponectin at 6 wks of age compared to control wild type. High fat G4+/? offspring had increased systolic blood pressure at 13 wks of age compared to all other groups. Potential fetal origins of adult Metabolic Syndrome were investigated. Regardless of genotype, high fat in utero decreased fetal weight and crown rump length at embryonic day 18.5 compared to control. Hepatic expression of genes involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, oxidative stress and inflammation were increased with high fat in utero. Fetal serum glucose levels were decreased in high fat G4+/? compared to high fat wild type fetuses. High fat G4+/?, but not high fat wild type fetuses, had increased levels of serum cytokines (IFN-γ, MCP-1, RANTES and M-CSF) compared to control. This data demonstrates that high fat during pregnancy and lactation increases Metabolic Syndrome male offspring and that heterozygous deletion of GLUT4 augments susceptibility to increased systolic blood pressure. Fetal adaptations to high fat in utero that may predispose to Metabolic Syndrome in adulthood include changes in fetal hepatic gene expression and alterations in circulating cytokines. These results suggest that the interaction between in utero-perinatal environment and genotype plays a critical role in the developmental origin of health and disease.
étude comparative des caractéristiques physiques et mécaniques du bois des mélèzes d'Europe (Larix decidua Mill.), du Japon (Larix kaempferi (Lambert) Carr.) et de leur hybride (Larix x eurolepis Henry)
Charron S.,Jourez B.,Marchal M.,Hébert J.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 2003,
Abstract: Comparison study of physical and mechanical characteristics of European (Larix decidua Mill.), Japanese (Larix kaempferi (Lambert) Carr.) and hybrid (Larix x eurolepis Henry) larch woods. This present research aims to compare physical and mechanical characteristics between two larch species and their hybrid (Larix decidua Mill., Larix kaempferi (Lambert) Carr. et Larix x eurolepis Henry). From each species, normalised samples have been sawn from five trees, and submitted to normalised tests according to the norms NBN 225, NF B 51-016 and DIN 52189. The Japanese (Larix kaempferi (Lambert) Carr.) and hybrid (Larix x eurolepis Henry) larches present similar physical and mechanical properties, always lower than those observed for the European one. This is partly explained by a higher mean wood density for this species. Whatever the species, juvenile wood presents lower physical and mechanical properties than mature wood. The larch wood produced in the Walloon Region presents a large technological potential that it is interesting to promote, without forgetting to adapt the classification procedures. Consequently, larch appears to be a versatile species, which can be used for numerous purposes, inside as well as outside.
An Explanatory Model to Guide Assessment, Risk and Diagnosis of Psychological Distress after Abortion  [PDF]
Maureen Curley
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.415133
Abstract: Background: Emerging data report 30% of women worldwide who obtain elective abortion experience negative and persistent psychological distress afterward. Studies find higher rates of psychological stress, depressive, substance, and anxiety disorders as well as suicidal behaviors, among some populations after abortion as compared to other reproductive events. Of concern, is that currenttheory and practice which promote abortion to relieve the stress of an unwanted pregnancy do not reflect new evidence. Moreover, the controversy on abortion inhibits research and treatment on its impact on women’s mental health. Thus, clinicians do not identify adverse psychological outcomes to abortion leaving many women untreated. Indeed, this knowledge-practice gap among healthcare providers may be the major reason that the incidence of adverse psychological outcomes after abortion continues to rise. Method: This paper proposes a theoretical understanding of psychological distress after abortion based on new data. A bio-psychosocial framework, including a psychological and biological theory, as well as a conceptual model is presented to explain the development of psychological distress after abortion. A comparison of risk factors between postpartum and post-abortion disorders is presented. Conclusion: A new theoretical model of psychological distress after abortion deepens understanding of the range of women’s responses to abortion and promotes evidence based practice. A scientific framework provides a much needed understanding of abortion aftermath as opposed to a political one. By providing assistance to clinicians in the identification, screening, and treatment of psychological disorders after abortion, this thesis aims to close the practice gap, and increase services after abortion to women who need them.
FASA-Renault.Un caso de internacionalización de la producción automovilística
Elsie Charron
Política y Sociedad , 1990, DOI: -
Abstract: Sin resumen
As paix es em geral: da sabedoria, livro I, capítulo 20
Pierre Charron
Revista Latinoamericana de Psicopatologia Fundamental , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/s1415-47142009000100015
Inherited cardiac disease
Philippe Charron
Cardiogenetics , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/cardiogenetics.2012.br1
Abstract: Major advances have been achieved over the two last decades in the field of genetic cardiovascular diseases, not only through increased recognition and understanding of underlying molecular defects but also through rapid translation of knowledge into clinical practice. Genetic counseling and organization of cardiac family screening has become part of the medical management of these diseases, and these should be performed systematically unless an acquired cause has been diagnosed...
A Pleijel-type theorem for the quantum harmonic oscillator
Philippe Charron
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We prove a Pleijel-type theorem for the asymptotic behaviour of the number of nodal domains of eigenfunctions of the quantum harmonic oscillator in any dimension.
Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease: Diagnostic Dilemma
Mark J. Hamblin,Maureen R. Horton
Pulmonary Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/872120
Abstract: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is an increasingly recognized complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) contributing to significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis can be challenging since patients are unlikely to report dyspnea due to an overall decrease in physical activity with advanced arthritic symptoms. Additionally, infections, drug toxicity, and environmental toxins can mimic ILD, creating significant diagnostic dilemmas for the clinician. In this paper we will explore an effective clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of RA-ILD. We will also discuss features of drug-related toxicities, infections, and environmental toxins that comprise the main entities in the differential diagnosis of RA-ILD. Finally, we will explore the known and experimental treatment options that may have some benefit in the treatment of RA-ILD. 1. Introduction It has been estimated that nearly 50% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients will develop some form of respiratory abnormality during their lifetime [1, 2]. In fact, one study by Toyoshima et al. placed pulmonary disease as the second leading cause of death in RA accounting for nearly 20% of the mortality [3]. While there are a myriad of pulmonary complications associated with RA (Table 1), the most debilitating remains rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). Advancements in imaging technology have improved our ability to diagnose RA-ILD, and what once was thought to be a relatively rare complication is now suspected to affect 20–30% of RA patients [4]. Table 1: Respiratory complications of rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, we will discuss the initial evaluation of suspected RA-ILD focusing on screening algorithms and radiologic features of the disease. However, screening and diagnosis of RA-ILD is only one aspect of care. Once the presence of RA-ILD is certain, the challenge for clinicians comes in distinguishing an exacerbation of RA-ILD from infection, drug toxicity, or a host of other comorbid disease entities. We will explore a practical approach to the workup and treatment of a clinical deterioration in the established RA-ILD patient, and the following case history will serve as a framework for this discussion highlighting some of the inherent challenges. 2. Case Discussion A 64-year-old woman was originally diagnosed with RA in 1986, and over the next several years her treatment regimen escalated from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications with gold salts to D-penicillamine and methotrexate (MTX). In 2000, she was started on etanercept. Her arthritis symptoms
Shaping Successful and Unsuccessful CD8 T Cell Responses Following Infection
Maureen A. Cox,Allan J. Zajac
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/159152
Abstract: CD8 T cells play a vital role in the immunological protection against intracellular pathogens. Ideally, robust effector responses are induced, which eradicate the pathogen, and durable memory CD8 T cells are also established, which help confer protection against subsequent reinfection. The quality and magnitude of these responses is dictated by multiple factors, including their initial interactions with professional antigen-presenting cells, as well as the cytokine milieu and availability of CD4 T cell help. These factors set the transcriptional landscape of the responding T cells, which in turn influences their phenotypic and functional attributes as well as ultimate fate. Under certain conditions, such as during chronic infections, the development of these usually successful responses becomes subverted. Here we discuss advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular determinants of T cell quality, and the formation of effector, memory, and exhausted CD8 T cells, during acute and chronic infections.
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