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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 537413 matches for " Maureen A. O'Leary "
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Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution
Michelle Spaulding, Maureen A. O'Leary, John Gatesy
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007062
Abstract: Background Integration of diverse data (molecules, fossils) provides the most robust test of the phylogeny of cetaceans. Positioning key fossils is critical for reconstructing the character change from life on land to life in the water. Methodology/Principal Findings We reexamine relationships of critical extinct taxa that impact our understanding of the origin of Cetacea. We do this in the context of the largest total evidence analysis of morphological and molecular information for Artiodactyla (661 phenotypic characters and 46,587 molecular characters, coded for 33 extant and 48 extinct taxa). We score morphological data for Carnivoramorpha, ?Creodonta, Lipotyphla, and the ?raoellid artiodactylan ?Indohyus and concentrate on determining which fossils are positioned along stem lineages to major artiodactylan crown clades. Shortest trees place Cetacea within Artiodactyla and close to ?Indohyus, with ?Mesonychia outside of Artiodactyla. The relationships of ?Mesonychia and ?Indohyus are highly unstable, however - in trees only two steps longer than minimum length, ?Mesonychia falls inside Artiodactyla and displaces ?Indohyus from a position close to Cetacea. Trees based only on data that fossilize continue to show the classic arrangement of relationships within Artiodactyla with Cetacea grouping outside the clade, a signal incongruent with the molecular data that dominate the total evidence result. Conclusions/Significance Integration of new fossil material of ?Indohyus impacts placement of another extinct clade ?Mesonychia, pushing it much farther down the tree. The phylogenetic position of ?Indohyus suggests that the cetacean stem lineage included herbivorous and carnivorous aquatic species. We also conclude that extinct members of Cetancodonta (whales + hippopotamids) shared a derived ability to hear underwater sounds, even though several cetancodontans lack a pachyostotic auditory bulla. We revise the taxonomy of living and extinct artiodactylans and propose explicit node and stem-based definitions for the ingroup.
Health professionals’ perceptions about the adoption of existing guidelines for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Australia
Rochelle E Watkins, Elizabeth J Elliott, Raewyn C Mutch, Jane Latimer, Amanda Wilkins, Janet M Payne, Heather M Jones, Sue Miers, Elizabeth Peadon, Anne McKenzie, Heather A D’Antoine, Elizabeth Russell, James Fitzpatrick, Colleen M OLeary, Jane Halliday, Lorian Hayes, Lucinda Burns, Maureen Carter, Carol Bower
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-69
Abstract: We surveyed 130 Australian and 9 international health professionals with expertise or involvement in the screening or diagnosis of FASD. An online questionnaire was used to evaluate participants’ familiarity with and use of five existing diagnostic guidelines for FASD, and to assess their perceptions about the adoption of these guidelines in Australia.Of the 139 participants surveyed, 84 Australian and 8 international health professionals (66.2%) responded to the questions on existing diagnostic guidelines. Participants most frequently reported using the University of Washington 4-Digit Diagnostic Code (27.2%) and the Canadian guidelines (18.5%) for diagnosis. These two guidelines were also most frequently recommended for adoption in Australia: 32.5% of the 40 participants who were familiar with the University of Washington 4-Digit Diagnostic Code recommended adoption of this guideline in Australia, and 30.8% of the 26 participants who were familiar with the Canadian guidelines recommended adoption of this guideline in Australia. However, for the majority of guidelines examined, most participants were unsure whether they should be adopted in Australia. The adoption of existing guidelines in Australia was perceived to be limited by: their lack of evidence base, including the appropriateness of established reference standards for the Australian population; their complexity; the need for training and support to use the guidelines; and the lack of an interdisciplinary and interagency model to support service delivery in Australia.Participants indicated some support for the adoption of the University of Washington or Canadian guidelines for FASD diagnosis; however, concerns were raised about the adoption of these diagnostic guidelines in their current form. Australian diagnostic guidelines will require evaluation to establish their validity in the Australian context, and a comprehensive implementation model is needed to facilitate improved diagnostic capacity in Australi
Effect of aubergine (Solanum melongena) on serum and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides in rats
Silva, Marcelo E;Santos, Rinaldo C;O'Leary, Maureen C;Santos, Ronald S;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89131999000300011
Abstract: the present work reports the effect of aubergine extract on serum and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides levels in adult rats. fisher rats were divided into three groups: the first one received a normolipidic diet and water , serving as a control; the other two received a hypercholesterolaemic diet with 30% vegetable oil and 1% cholesterol, one of these being given water while the other was given an aubergine extract. after 28 days the animals were sacrificed and serum and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides levels were assessed. the obtained results indicated that under the experimental conditions employed, the aubergine extract increased serum and decreased hepatic cholesterol and had little or no effect on both serum and hepatic triglycerides.
Pro/con clinical debate: It is acceptable to stop large multicentre randomized controlled trials at interim analysis for futility
David A Schoenfeld, Maureen O Meade
Critical Care , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/cc3013
Abstract: You are a clinician in an intensive care unit and you have recently heard that some very large trials have been stopped at interim analysis for futility. Although you have not yet seen the results, this cessation concerns you because you were anxiously awaiting the results of these trials since you felt they were very relevant clinical questions that would impact on your treatment decisions. Your concern is based on the fact that you are uncertain whether clinical trials should ever be stopped for futility.David A SchoenfeldA futility-stopping rule for a clinical trial is a plan in which the results of a clinical trial are periodically reviewed and the clinical trial is stopped if the treatment difference is smaller than some predetermined value. The idea is to stop trials that would not have shown statistical significance had they gone on to completion. A futility-stopping rule can drastically reduce the time and money spent on clinical trials, and can more rapidly find effective treatments. In the present paper I describe the available methods used for futility stopping. I then quantify the advantages of futility stopping in a drug development programme. Finally, I will discuss some of the problems of futility stopping and how clinicians should interpret trials that stop early for futility.There are two methods of futility stopping. The method that was used in early trials was based on the principal of stochastic curtailment [1]. A review committee would analyse the results of a trial and calculate the probability that the trial will give a significant result if it is completed. If this probability was small, say less than 25%, then the trial would be stopped. This probability calculation depends on an assumption about the actual success rates of the treatments. The safest assumption is to use the original difference that was used to calculate the sample size.The second method is to use asymmetric stopping boundaries [2,3]. The futility boundary can be based on ho
How stands the Tree of Life a century and a half after The Origin?
Maureen A O'Malley, Eugene V Koonin
Biology Direct , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6150-6-32
Abstract: This article was reviewed by W. Ford Doolittle, Nicholas Galtier and Christophe Malaterre."And after a while you'll hear a deep voice saying, "Neighbor, how stands the Union?" Then you better answer the Union stands as she stood, rock-bottomed and copper sheathed, one and indivisible, or he's liable to rear right out of the ground."The Devil and Daniel Webster (Stephen Vincent Benet, 1937)"On a huge hill,Cragged, and steep, Truth stands, and he that willReach her, about must and about must go"Satire III (John Donne, written 1593-1600)One might think that there is nothing further that could be said about the last decades of debate on the Tree of Life (TOL). There is certainly no need to recapitulate the numerous overviews of these debates as they set out the positions of key participants (e.g., [1-3]). However, as the pageantry of 2009's "Darwin Year" subsides, it seems to be an appropriate time to reflect on where TOL studies are headed in relation to the legacies on which they draw. We will consider two key issues: the specific effects of these debates on the conceptual frameworks of TOL studies, and how these frameworks are actually used. We will discuss whether they function as hypotheses or heuristics. To put it in a deliberately over-simplified way, it seems useful to examine two basic questions:? What are reasonable interpretations of the TOL in the postgenomic era?? What is the utility of the TOL for research in evolutionary biology and perhaps beyond?The natural starting point for thinking about the TOL is Darwin's explication of its metaphorical power in On the Origin of Species."The affinities of all the beings of the same class have sometimes been represented by a great tree. I believe this simile largely speaks the truth. The green and budding twigs may represent existing species; and those produced during each former year may represent the long succession of extinct species.... As buds give rise by growth to fresh buds, and these, if vigorous, branch ou
Intervention, integration and translation in obesity research: Genetic, developmental and metaorganismal approaches
Maureen A O'Malley, Karola Stotz
Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1747-5341-6-2
Abstract: Prediction and control of biological systems are driving forces of the life sciences. While varying degrees of these capabilities have been generated in every branch of biology throughout its history, the contemporary post-genomic period has seen a remarkable surge of optimism about the possibility of achieving fine-grained control of complex interactions of biological systems. One of the many physiological systems that appears to call out for systems-based control-oriented inquiry is that of weight gain, loss and maintenance in animal bodies, particularly those of humans. Our foci in this paper are how two aspects of biological practice -- intervention and integration -- orient and configure fields of scientific inquiry and help us understand translational practice better. We suggest that these features are inseparable in ongoing research activity: to intervene successfully in complex systems requires a highly integrated, multi-level understanding that can be transferred to new contexts. Obesity research casts considerable light on this claim and illustrates the difficulties in doing so. It also offers new avenues of investigation for the philosophies of science and medicine.Obesity science tackles the problems and causes of excess weight from a number of directions. The most well known stream of research is concerned with biochemical feedback loops and their genetic bases as well as behavioural contributions. Another rapidly developing body of research focuses on developmental and epigenetic causes of obesity and sees pregnancy and early childhood as major periods of intervention. A third, even newer avenue of research is concerned with the role microbes in the gut play in obesogenesis, and what the interventions are that might alleviate such contributions. What marks all these bodies of research is their dynamic and system-wide conception of obesity, and the integrated conceptual and methodological apparatuses that are brought to bear on the phenomenon of excess
Varieties of Living Things: Life At The Intersection of Lineage And Metabolism
John Dupré,Maureen A. O'Malley
Philosophy & Theory in Biology , 2009,
Abstract: We address three fundamental questions: What does it mean for an entity to be living? What is the role of inter-organismic collaboration in evolution? What is a biological individual? Our central argument is that life arises when lineage-forming entities collaborate in metabolism. By conceiving of metabolism as a collaborative process performed by functional wholes, which are associations of a variety of lineage-forming entities, we avoid the standard tension between reproduction and metabolism in discussions of life – a tension particularly evident in discussions of whether viruses are alive. Our perspective assumes no sharp distinction between life and non-life, and does not equate life exclusively with cellular or organismal status. We reach this conclusion through an analysis of the capabilities of a spectrum of biological entities, in which we include the pivotal case of viruses as well as prions, plasmids, organelles, intracellular and extracellular symbionts, unicellular and multicellular life-forms. The usual criterion for classifying many of the entities of our continuum as non-living is autonomy. This emphasis on autonomy is problematic, however, because even paradigmatic biological individuals, such as large animals, are dependent on symbiotic associations with many other organisms. These composite individuals constitute the metabolic wholes on which selection acts. Finally, our account treats cooperation and competition not as polar opposites but as points on a continuum of collaboration. We suggest that competitive relations are a transitional state, with multi-lineage metabolic wholes eventually outcompeting selfish competitors, and that this process sometimes leads to the emergence of new types or levels of wholes. Our view of life as a continuum of variably structured collaborative systems leaves open the possibility that a variety of forms of organized matter – from chemical systems to ecosystems – might be usefully understood as living entities.
Objective critical appraisal of mammography images in clinical audit: can we achieve this?
D O'Leary, A Teape, J Hammond, L Rainford
Breast Cancer Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2955
Abstract: The European Quality Criteria for mammographic IQ and the Breast Screening quality criteria classification of images as inadequate/moderate/good/perfect were modified to remove all subjective criteria. These objective classifications of IQ were tested for inter/intrarater reliability by a panel of experts and compared with original IQ criteria. Further objective measures such as breast volume, density and pectoral-nipple measurements were carried out.When tested with 278 surgically modified breast images from the larger research sample, inter-rater reliability (K > 0.701; P < 0.001) and agreement (Pearson's correlation r > 0.884; P < 0.01) by the evaluation panel were higher than when the original quality criteria methods were used. The intra-rater reliability was equally high (K > 0.7; P < 0.001) with agreement via Pearson's correlation at r > 0.844; P < 0.01.A method of scoring images combining the most objective components of major European, national and international image scoring systems is suggested. The removal of subjectivity from the scoring systems will remove all doubt regarding the achievement of high image-quality goals for all mammography departments.
SINOPSIS DEL GéNERO JUNELLIA (VERBENACEAE)
Nataly O'Leary,Paola Peralta,María E. Múlgura
Darwiniana , 2011,
Abstract: Se presenta una sinopsis del género Junellia, fundamentada en la reciente recircunscripción del género sobre la base de estudios de filogenia molecular y análisis de caracteres morfológicos. Se aporta una clave que incluye las 37 especies de Junellia según la más actual definición del género, se presenta una descripción actualizada del género y se establecen las diferencias con los demás géneros de la tribu Verbeneae. Se describen y/o ilustran nueve especies y una variedad de Junellia no tratadas previamente o cuyas descripciones son aquí enmendadas. Se proponen también dos nuevas combinaciones: Junellia hookeriana var. catamarcensis y Junellia trifida, y ocho nuevos sinónimos.
Asymptomatic Primary Fallopian Tube Cancer: An Unusual Cause of Axillary Lymphadenopathy
N. A. Healy,S. O. Hynes,J. Bruzzi,S. Curran,M. O'Leary,K. J. Sweeney
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/402127
Abstract: Primary Fallopian tube malignancy is considered a rare disease and is often mistaken histologically and clinically for ovarian cancer. The etiology is poorly understood, and it typically presents at an advanced disease stage, as symptoms are often absent in the initial period. As a result, primary fallopian tube cancer is generally associated with a poor prognosis. We present the case of a 45-year-old female who presents with a 5-day history of left axillary swelling and a normal breast examination. Mammogram and biopsy of a lesion in the left breast revealed a fibroadenoma but no other abnormalities. Initial sampling of the axillary node was suspicious for a primary breast malignancy, but histology of the excised node refuted this. PET-CT showed an area of high uptake in the right pelvis, and a laparoscopy identified a tumor of the left fallopian tube which was subsequently excised and confirmed as a serous adenocarcinoma.
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