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Are Rational Self-Interested Leadership Behaviors Contributing to the Workplace Bullying Phenomenon in Canada and the United States?  [PDF]
Lisa M. S. Barrow, Sandy Kolberg, Jim Mirabella, Annette Roter
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.36A004
Abstract: Workplace bullying is a phenomenon in American and Canadian organizations that has been ignored for many years and as a result targeted employees are suffering [1-3]. Workplace bullying is at epidemic proportions with little done to address the issue. The workplace for bullied employees has become an uncivilized and hostile environment [4]. Leaders who embrace a rational self-interested approach to leading are contributing to the workplace bullying phenomenon. Using Chi Square tests of independence, the study was conducted to determine the extent to which rational self-interested leaders rely on bullying behaviors when interacting with employees. Three hundred fifty-five employees were asked to complete a survey consisting of fifteen bullying behavior statements. The results of the Chi Square tests indicate a significant relationship exists between employee demographics vs. certain bullying behaviors associated with threats to personal standing, professional status and destabilization. The results further reveal that rational self-interested leaders are relying on bullying in three areas: threat to personal standing, threat to professional status and destabilization. It was also noted that if the rational self-interest leader did not make changes the problem of workplace bullying would continue to escalate. The recommendation was that rational self-interested leaders could benefit by changing their perspective on employees to include more personal and humane treatment, rewards, and recognition.
Studies of Ribonucleotide Reductase in Crucian Carp—An Oxygen Dependent Enzyme in an Anoxia Tolerant Vertebrate
Guro K. Sandvik, Ane B. Tomter, Jonas Bergan, Giorgio Zoppellaro, Anne-Laure Barra, ?smund K. R?hr, Matthias Kolberg, Stian Ellefsen, K. Kristoffer Andersson, G?ran E. Nilsson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042784
Abstract: The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the precursors for DNA. RNR requires a thiyl radical to activate the substrate. In RNR of eukaryotes (class Ia RNR), this radical originates from a tyrosyl radical formed in reaction with oxygen (O2) and a ferrous di-iron center in RNR. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is one of very few vertebrates that can tolerate several months completely without oxygen (anoxia), a trait that enables this fish to survive under the ice in small ponds that become anoxic during the winter. Previous studies have found indications of cell division in this fish after 7 days of anoxia. This appears nearly impossible, as DNA synthesis requires the production of new deoxyribonucleotides and therefore active RNR. We have here characterized RNR in crucian carp, to search for adaptations to anoxia. We report the full-length sequences of two paralogs of each of the RNR subunits (R1i, R1ii, R2i, R2ii, p53R2i and p53R2ii), obtained by cloning and sequencing. The mRNA levels of these subunits were measured with quantitative PCR and were generally well maintained in hypoxia and anoxia in heart and brain. We also report maintained or increased mRNA levels of the cell division markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Ki67 in anoxic hearts and brains. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on in vitro expressed crucian carp R2 and p53R2 proteins gave spectra similar to mammalian RNRs, including previously unpublished human and mouse p53R2 EPR spectra. However, the radicals in crucian carp RNR small subunits, especially in the p53R2ii subunit, were very stable at 0°C. A long half-life of the tyrosyl radical during wintertime anoxia could allow for continued cell division in crucian carp.
Hypermethylated MAL gene – a silent marker of early colon tumorigenesis
Guro E Lind, Terje Ahlquist, Matthias Kolberg, Marianne Berg, Mette Ekn?s, Miguel A Alonso, Anne Kallioniemi, Gunn I Meling, Rolf I Skotheim, Torleiv O Rognum, Espen Thiis-Evensen, Ragnhild A Lothe
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-6-13
Abstract: Using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) the promoter methylation status of MAL was analyzed in 218 samples, including normal mucosa (n = 44), colorectal adenomas (n = 63), carcinomas (n = 65), and various cancer cell lines (n = 46). Direct bisulphite sequencing was performed to confirm the MSP results. MAL gene expression was investigated with real time quantitative analyses before and after epigenetic drug treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis of MAL was done using normal colon mucosa samples (n = 5) and a tissue microarray with 292 colorectal tumors.Bisulphite sequencing revealed that the methylation was unequally distributed within the MAL promoter and by MSP analysis a region close to the transcription start point was shown to be hypermethylated in the majority of colorectal carcinomas (49/61, 80%) as well as in adenomas (45/63, 71%). In contrast, only a minority of the normal mucosa samples displayed hypermethylation (1/23, 4%). The hypermethylation of MAL was significantly associated with reduced or lost gene expression in in vitro models. Furthermore, removal of the methylation re-induced gene expression in colon cancer cell lines. Finally, MAL protein was expressed in epithelial cells of normal colon mucosa, but not in the malignant cells of the same type.Promoter hypermethylation of MAL was present in the vast majority of benign and malignant colorectal tumors, and only rarely in normal mucosa, which makes it suitable as a diagnostic marker for early colorectal tumorigenesis.Epigenetic changes – non-sequence-based alterations that are inherited through cell division [1] – are frequently seen in human cancers, and likewise as genetic alterations they may lead to disruption of gene function. In colorectal cancer, several tumour suppressor genes have been identified to be epigenetically inactivated by CpG island promoter hypermethylation, including the DNA mismatch repair gene MLH1 [2-4], the gatekeeper APC [5], and the cell cycle inhibito
A Bayesian spatial assimilation scheme for snow coverage observations in a gridded snow model
S. Kolberg, H. Rue,L. Gottschalk
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2006,
Abstract: A method for assimilating remotely sensed snow covered area (SCA) into the snow subroutine of a grid distributed precipitation-runoff model (PRM) is presented. The PRM is assumed to simulate the snow state in each grid cell by a snow depletion curve (SDC), which relates that cell's SCA to its snow cover mass balance. The assimilation is based on Bayes' theorem, which requires a joint prior distribution of the SDC variables in all the grid cells. In this paper we propose a spatial model for this prior distribution, and include similarities and dependencies among the grid cells. Used to represent the PRM simulated snow cover state, our joint prior model regards two elevation gradients and a degree-day factor as global variables, rather than describing their effect separately for each cell. This transformation results in smooth normalised surfaces for the two related mass balance variables, supporting a strong inter-cell dependency in their joint prior model. The global features and spatial interdependency in the prior model cause each SCA observation to provide information for many grid cells. The spatial approach similarly facilitates the utilisation of observed discharge. Assimilation of SCA data using the proposed spatial model is evaluated in a 2400 km2 mountainous region in central Norway (61° N, 9° E), based on two Landsat 7 ETM+ images generalized to 1 km2 resolution. An image acquired on 11 May, a week before the peak flood, removes 78% of the variance in the remaining snow storage. Even an image from 4 May, less than a week after the melt onset, reduces this variance by 53%. These results are largely improved compared to a cell-by-cell independent assimilation routine previously reported. Including observed discharge in the updating information improves the 4 May results, but has weak effect on 11 May. Estimated elevation gradients are shown to be sensitive to informational deficits occurring at high altitude, where snowmelt has not started and the snow coverage is close to unity. Caution is therefore required when using early images. Final Revised Paper (PDF, 2504 KB) Discussion Paper (HESSD) Citation: Kolberg, S., Rue, H., and Gottschalk, L.: A Bayesian spatial assimilation scheme for snow coverage observations in a gridded snow model, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 369-381, doi:10.5194/hess-10-369-2006, 2006. Bibtex EndNote Reference Manager XML
ENOR - An Energy-Model for Norway
A. Ek,T. Kolberg,Terje Sira
Modeling, Identification and Control , 1981, DOI: 10.4173/mic.1981.1.2
Abstract: The Energy model for Norway, ENOR, is a dynamic, multisectoral economic stimulation model to be used for long term energy analyses. Energy sectors and energy carriers are in principle treated in the same way as other sectors and economic commodities and integrated in the same general framework. The model has a two-level structure - a central coordination module ensures economic consistency, while the behaviour of each production and consumption sector is modelled in separate sector models. The model framework is thus capable of handling both engineering and economic knowledge.
Epicardial microwave ablation of permanent atrial fibrillation during a coronary bypass and/or aortic valve operation: prospective, randomised, controlled, mono-centric study
M. Knaut,S. Kolberg,S. Brose,F. Jung
Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology , 2010,
Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF), one of the most common arrhythmias, is the aetiology behind a high percentage of strokes. Recently simplified ablation procedures became more relevant in the surgical treatment of AF. One advantage of microwave ablation (MW) is that it can be used epicardially. We report our results of a prospective, randomized, controlled, mono centre trail. In two arms, with and without ablation, we treated patients with documented permanent atrial fibrillation with an indication for cardiac surgery, where opening of the left atrium was not required.Methods: Patients, who were scheduled for aortic valve replacement and/or coronary artery bypass grafting suffering from permanent AF, were included in the registry. After inclusion the patients were randomized either to epicardial MW (EMW) as a concomitant procedure during their operation (Group A) or equivalent operations without ablation therapy (group B). Follow-up was one year. EMW was performed under extracorporeal circulation on the beating heart creating a box lesion including the anterior part of the pulmonary veins with connection lines on the roof and bottom of the left atrium and an additional line to the left atrial appendage. Results: 45 patients (17 female/ 28 male) with AVD and/or CAD and pAF were included. Preoperative duration of pAF was 5.2 years (0.1-45 years). Preoperative data were as follows: mean age: 74 years (63-83 years), mean ejection fraction: 56% (30–83%), left atrial diameter: 46.1mm (40-59mm). 20 patients got aortic valve replacement, 17 had CABG, and 8 operations were combined procedures (AVR and CABG).All ablation procedures were performed on-pump beating heart. We observed no device related complications. During the follow-up, restoration of the sinus rhythm rate after one year is 52.4% in the ablated patients in contrast to 10.5% in the control group. The 30-day survival rate in group A was 87.5% and 95.2% in group B (n.s.). Pacemaker implants after one year were required in 12.5 % in group A and 25% in group B. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that EMW is an effective treatment option for patients with permanent AF. The procedure is less invasive than the endocardial approach and prolongs concomitant heart surgery only minimally without lengthening of the ischemic time. We think, that EMW ablation is a promising concept with a good benefit/risk ratio for the treatment of pAF, especially in patients where opening of the left atrium is not required as part of the original procedure. A more extended lesion line concept, closer to the classic Maze procedure line
Combined Hemostasis and Adhesion Prevention with the Novel Agent 4DryField® PH—Initial Observations  [PDF]
Matthias Korell
Surgical Science (SS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2014.512081
Abstract: Large size peritoneal trauma from extended surgery for high-grade expansive uterus pathology or endometriosis might result in severe diffuse bleeding and peritoneal adhesion formation with objectionable sequelae. This paper introduces 4DryField® PH polysaccharide powder certified for two indications: 1) given as powder 4DryField® PH provides hemostasis; 2) transformed into gel, 4DryField® PH forms an adhesion prevention barrier. Twenty-one women with expanded uterus pathology and/or deep infiltrating endometriosis had surgery including repair of intestine lesions (n = 8), ureterolysis/repair of bladder, including retrograde ureteric stents (n = 5). Subjective impression of hemostatic effect, drain loss and infection parameters were recorded. Six women had scheduled second look laparoscopy. 4DryField® PH applied as powder showed an immediate significant hemostatic effect in all instances, especially in profound diffuse bleeding. Mean drain loss was 497 ± 339 mL, moderate considering the extent of disease. Dripped with saline solution, 4DryField® PH immediately formed a viscous gel acting as a barrier for adhesion prevention. Second look laparoscopy revealed only one patient with significant adhesions. No adverse events were observed; discharge was at Day 6.2 ± 1.4. In this cohort with extended gynecological laparoscopic surgery 4DryField®
Reduced viscosity Barley β-Glucan versus placebo: a randomized controlled trial of the effects on insulin sensitivity for individuals at risk for diabetes mellitus
Harold Bays, Joy L Frestedt, Margie Bell, Carolyn Williams, Lore Kolberg, Wade Schmelzer, James W Anderson
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-8-58
Abstract: This prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, parallel group trial evaluated 50 generally healthy subjects without prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (44 completers), who were administered beverages containing placebo (control), lower dose (3 g/d), or higher dose (6 g/d) reduced viscosity barley β-glucan (BBG) extract. Subjects (68% women) mean age 56 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 32 kg/m2 and baseline fasting plasma glucose 102 mg/dl were instructed to follow a weight-maintaining Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) diet and consumed three 11 oz study beverages daily with meals for 12 weeks. The four primary study endpoint measures were plasma glucose and insulin [each fasting and post-Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing (OGTT)].Compared to placebo, administration of 3 g/d BBG over 12 weeks significantly reduced glucose incremental Area Under the Curve (iAUC) measures during OGTT and 6 g/d BBG over 12 weeks significantly reduced fasting insulin as well as the related homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Beverages were generally well tolerated with no serious adverse experiences and no significant differences between groups for adverse experiences. Per protocol instruction, subjects maintained body weight.These findings suggest 6 g/d BBG consumed in a beverage over 12 weeks may improve insulin sensitivity among hyperglycemic individuals with no prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and who experience no change in body weight.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01375803.Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing as a worldwide, major health epidemic [1,2]. Individuals at increased risk for developing T2DM include those who are 45 years old or greater, have a family history of T2DM, lead a sedentary lifestyle, or have high blood pressure. When combined with other risk factors such as serum triglycerides greater than 150 mg/dl or a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 kg/m2, fasting plasma glucose between 91-99 mg/dl may increase
Biologia de Holhymenia rubiginosa Breddin (Hemiptera: Coreidae) em Passiflora alata (Passifloraceae)
Kolberg, Roberta;Redaelli, Luiza R;Canto-Silva, Celson R;Idalgo, Thiago D N;
Neotropical Entomology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2009000600006
Abstract: the biology of holhymenia rubiginosa breddin is described on sweet-passion-fruit, passiflora alata, and the developmental time, viability and thermal requirements of the egg stage, the developmental time and mortality of the nymphal stage, and adult longevity and reproductive parameters were assessed. insects were reared at laboratory controlled conditions (25 ± 1°c, 65 ± 10% rh, photophase 12h) on branches of p. alata, 20% honey solution and pollen. the lower thermal threshold (10.8°c) and thermal requirements (140.8 dd) for egg development were determined using four temperatures (17, 21, 25 and 30°c). the average egg development time (days) and viability were 25.4 ± 0.45, 88%; 13.2 ± 0.28, 88%; 8.8 ± 0.16, 94%; and 7.7 ± 0.17, 92%, at 17, 21, 25 and 30 ± 1°c, respectively. when reared at 25 ± 1°c, the first instar had the shortest development time (4.0 ± 0.02 days) and the second the longest (15.7 ± 3.50 days), which also had the highest mortality (75%). males and females had similar longevity (185.3 ± 17.52 days for females and 133.6 ± 18.94 days for males). females mated 33.0 ± 7.71 times, with a mean duration of 99.0 ± 9.25 min, laying 11.5 ± 2.55 eggs/female. periods of pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition were respectively 96.4 ± 18.08; 88.5 ± 23.48 and 19.3 ± 12.18 days.
Effects of egg age of Spartocera dentiventris (Berg) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on parasitism by Gryon gallardoi (Brethes) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae)
Rocha, Luciane da;Kolberg, Roberta;Mendon?a Jr., Milton de S.;Redaelli, Luiza R.;
Neotropical Entomology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2006000500013
Abstract: to evaluate the effect of egg age of spartocera dentiventris (berg) on the parasitism by gryon gallardoi (brethes), groups of 12 eggs of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 12 days old were exposed to one female of g. gallardoi on a test tube, with the wasp observed for 2h subsequently. later, the eggs were individualised and incubated (25 ± 1°c; 12h photoperiod) until adult emergence. to identify the preferred age, groups of 12 eggs of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 days of age were simultaneously exposed to a parasitoid female on an arena for 2h. these groups were also individualised and incubated until parasitism was confirmed. on all ages tested parasitism was at about 88.5 ± 2.64%, with a reduction in adult parasitoid emergence with age increasing (p < 0.01). the development time increased with increasing egg age (p < 0.01), with males developing faster. parasitoid sex ratio for all ages tested was female-biased (0.49:1), with the proportion of males invariant with host age (p > 0.05). when the egg groups were exposed simultaneously, the female preferred eggs one and three days old. the results indicate a preference of g. gallardoi for younger eggs of s. dentiventris, with host egg age exerting a negative effect on development time and offspring emergence of the parasitoid.
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